Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher
Reginald Baliol Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher GCVO, KCB, PC, DL (30 June 1852 – 22 January 1930) was a historian and Liberal politician in the United Kingdom, although his period of greatest influence over military and foreign affairs was as a courtier, member of public committees and behind-the-scenes "fixer".
Background and education
Brett was the son of William Baliol Brett, 1st Viscount Esher and Eugénie Mayer (1814–1904). Esher was part French and remembered sitting on the lap of an old man who had played violin for Marie Antoinette. Born in London, he was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge. He held a militia commission after Cambridge.
Having been a Conservative supporter as a young man, Brett began his political career in 1880, as Liberal Member of Parliament for Penryn and Falmouth. He was Parliamentary Private Secretary to Lord Hartington (Secretary of State for War 1882-5) and once drove him to a Cabinet meeting on a sleigh through the snow. However he elected to withdraw from public politics in 1885, after losing an election at Plymouth, in favour of a behind the scenes role. In 1895, he became Permanent Secretary to the Office of Works, where the future Edward VII was impressed by his dedication to the elderly Queen Victoria. Upon his father's death on 24 May 1899, he succeeded him as Viscount Esher.
In 1901, Lord Esher was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of Berkshire and became Deputy Governor and Constable of Windsor Castle, and remained close to the royal family until his death. By the end of 1903 Esher was meeting or corresponding with King Edward VII every day. He lived at 'Orchard Lea' at Winkfield on the edge of the Great Park. During this period, he helped edit Queen Victoria's papers, publishing a work called Correspondence of Queen Victoria (1907).
Esher was a member of Lord Elgin's South African War Commission, which investigated Britain's near-failure in the Boer War. At this time he was writing to the King daily (and having three or four meetings a day with the King’s adviser Knollys), informing him of the views of the Commission, of party leaders, and war office civil servants with whom he was still in touch from his days working for Hartington. St John Brodrick, Secretary of State for War, was resentful of Esher’s influence.
Behind the scenes, he influenced many pre-World War I military reforms and was a supporter of the British–French Entente Cordiale. He chaired the War Office Reconstitution Committee. This recommended radical reform of the British Army, including the setting up of the Army Council, and made the Committee of Imperial Defence permanent (Esher joined that body in 1905). From 1904 all War Office appointments were approved and often suggested by Esher. He approved the setting up of the Territorial Army, although he saw it as a step towards conscription; a step not taken as the Conscription acts became mandatory. Many of Esher’s recommendations were nonetheless, implemented under the new Liberal governments of Henry Campbell-Bannerman and Herbert Henry Asquith by Haldane, Secretary of State for War, assisted by Esher's protege the young Major-General Douglas Haig.
Esher was appointed a Deputy Lieutenant of the County of London in 1909. and the King's Aide-de-Camp. Esher was an able administrator, and a silky, smooth influence as a courtier, and supporter for the monarch. Moreover the King liked Esher, as his influence over the Army grew, leading to a more liberal far-sighted attitude towards the possibility of conflict in Europe. Esher's invaluable contribution prevented further promotion in a political career, in which he had been destined for high cabinet office. Esher's close political friends in the Liberal party included Edward Marjoribanks, Viscount Tweedsmuir and Earl Rosebery. Huis aristocratic connections and military experience made him an ideal grandee, but such was the importance of his ties to the monarch, that his career was somewhat restrictive of ambition. He was by nature ambitious, 'clubbable' sociable, and frequently seen at High Society parties in the fashionable houses of the Edwardian era.
In 1911 Esher helped ease out Knollys, who was then 75 having been in the Royal Household since 1862, but who had lost some Royal confidence over the negotiation of the Parliament Act, and arrange his replacement as King George V's principal adviser with Arthur Bigge, Lord Stamfordham.
During the First World War Esher was, in one writer’s description, de facto head of British Intelligence in France, reporting on the French domestic and political situation, although told his son he preferred not to have a formal position where he would have to take orders.
Lord Esher was also a historian; besides the aforementioned work, he also published works on King Edward VII and Lord Kitchener. Together with Liberal MP Lewis ("Loulou") Harcourt he established the London Museum, which opened its doors on 5 March 1912.
- Their elder son, Oliver Sylvain Baliol Brett became 3rd Viscount Esher and was a Fellow of the Royal Institute of British Architects. He married Antoinette Heckscher, daughter of August Heckscher.
- Their second son, Maurice Vyner Baliol Brett, married the famous musical theatre actress Zena Dare.
- Their older daughter, Dorothy, was a painter and member of the Bloomsbury Group. She studied at the Slade School of Fine Arts and spent years in New Mexico.
- Their younger daughter, Sylvia, became the last Ranee of Sarawak on 24 May 1917, following the proclamation of her husband Charles Vyner Brooke as Rajah.
Although married with children, Esher had homosexual inclinations, but his flirtations with young men were regarded with tolerant amusement in polite society. He was evidently sufficiently discreet to avoid becoming entangled in the Cleveland Street Scandal, unlike his friend Lord Arthur Somerset.
- Hedley (2004)
- Reid 2006, pp127-31
- "Brett, Reginald Baliol (BRT870RB)". A Cambridge Alumni Database. University of Cambridge.
- The London Gazette: . 5 February 1901.
- The London Gazette: . 23 July 1901.
- "The Papers of Viscount Esher (Reginald Brett)". Janus. Cambridge University.
- The London Gazette: . 28 May 1909.
- Bailkin, Jordanna "Radical Conservations: The Problem with the London Museum" Radical History Review - Issue 84, Fall 2002, pp. 43–7
- Lees-Milne, James (1986). The Enigmatic Edwardian: The Life of Reginald, 2nd Viscount Esher. London: Sidgwick & Jackson.
- Reid, Walter. Architect of Victory: Douglas Haig (Birlinn Ltd, Edinburgh, 2006.) ISBN 1-84158-517-3
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Viscount Esher
- The Papers of Viscount Esher (Reginald Brett) at Churchill College
- Works by Reginald Brett, 2nd Viscount Esher at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Viscount Esher at Internet Archive
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
Henry Thomas Cole
David James Jenkins
|Member of Parliament for Penryn and Falmouth
With: David James Jenkins
David James Jenkins
The Marquess of Cambridge
|Constable and Governor of Windsor Castle
The Earl of Athlone
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|