Reichstag (Nazi Germany)
The Reichstag (English: Diet of the Realm), officially the Großdeutsche Reichstag after 1938, was ostensibly the Parliament of Third Reich from 1933 to 1945. Following the Nazi Seizure of Power and the passing of the Enabling Act of 1933, it met only as a ratifying body for the actions of Adolf Hitler's dictatorship, always by unanimous consent. In this purely ceremonial role, the Reichstag convened only 20 times, the last on April 26, 1942. The President of the Parliament (German: Reichstagspräsident) throughout was Hermann Göring.
During this period, the Reichstag was sometimes derisively referred to by the German public as the "teuerste Gesangsverein Deutschlands" (the most expensive singing club in Germany) due to frequent singing of the national anthem during sessions. To avoid holding scheduled elections during World War II, in 1943 Hitler extended the term of office of the current Reichstag (elected in late 1938 to serve in 1939-1943) to serve a special eight-year term ending on 30 January 1947.
In 1920–1923 and from 1930 on, the Weimar Republic's democratically elected Reichstag could be circumvented by two legal instruments not provided (as such) by the constitution:
- The use of special powers granted to the President of Germany under an Emergency Decree in Article 48 of the constitution
- The use of Enabling acts, especially during 1919-1923 and then finally in 1933
Following the Reichstag fire on February 27, 1933 and the issuing of the Decree of the Reich President for the Protection of People and State the day after, Hitler used these legislative loopholes to force passage of the Enabling Act of 1933 on March 23. In ratifying the act, the Reichstag voted by a two-thirds majority to formally dispense from itself all responsibility for the exercise of legislative power. This allowed Hitler's government to pass laws without parliamentary debate for a four-year period, even those deviating from articles in the constitution. From then on, though officially only the Reich Government could enact laws, the de facto power always lay with the Führer.
By now the elected MPs of the Communist Party (KPD) and several from the Social Democratic Party (SPD) went into hiding or were arrested. With their seats empty, the Nazis went from being a plurality party to the majority. After the parliamentary elections of 12 November 1933 the Nazis occupied all seats in the Reichstag. The Enabling act, which formed the legal basis for Hitler's regime, was subsequently renewed and rubber-stamped by the Reichstag in 1937 and 1941.
The actual Reichstag building (German: Reichstagsgebäude) was unusable after the Reichstag fire, so the Kroll Opera House was modified into a legislative chamber and served as the location of all parliamentary sessions during the Third Reich. It was chosen both for its convenient location facing the Reichstag building and for its seating capacity. The Kroll Opera was devastated by Allied bombing on November 12, 1943 and was then essentially destroyed in the Battle of Berlin in 1945.
The March, 1933 federal election was the last free and fair parliamentary ballot in Germany until after the war. From then on, general and parliamentary elections were still held although only candidates in the Nazi party were permitted. In special referendums it was theoretically possible to vote against, however few voters did. The most famous of these was the plebiscite on the Anschluss with Austria in 1938. That vote officially recorded a 99.7% "yes". Following the Anschluss, the Reichstag became the Großdeutsche Reichstag (roughly translated the Greater German Imperial Diet).
In accordance with the provisions of the Weimar Republic electoral law of 1933, one seat was granted for each block of 60,000 votes. Because voter turnout was very high, and also because of new territories added to the Reich, the Reichstag grew to significantly greater and greater proportions. Finally, there were 855 deputies; Adolf Hitler was No. 433, elected to the Reichstag constituency 24 Upper Bavaria - Swabia.
- 1933 5 March General and Parliamentary elections immediately following the Seizure of Power. Six days before the scheduled election date, the German parliament building burns in the Reichstag fire. The Nazi Party wins 33 of the 35 Parliamentary districts and 43,9 % of the vote, giving the Nazis and the DNVP (with 8.0 % of the votes) a slight majority of seats.
- 1933 12 November Parliamentary elections and referendum on the withdrawal of Germany from the League of Nations. All Reichstag delegates are now Nazi Party members. According to formal results, 92 % of the voters "approve" the proposal.
- 1934 19 August: Special Plebiscite to retrospectively approve Adolf Hitler's succession to the office of President, following the death of Paul von Hindenburg.
- 1936 29 March: Parliamentary elections and referendum retrospectively approving the Occupation of the Rhineland.
- 1938 10 April: General and parliamentary elections and referendum retrospectively approving the Annexation of Austria Anschluss. Elected to serve for a four-year term beginning in 1939, it convened for the last time in early 1942.
- 1938 4 December: Parliamentary by-election for newly acquired territory of Sudetenland. The Nazis won all seats in this last election under their rule.
The Großdeutsche Reichstag convened for the last time in the Kroll Opera House on April 26, 1942. It unanimously passed a decree proclaiming Hitler "Supreme Judge of the German People," officially allowing him to override the judiciary and administration in all matters. Any last remnants of the privileges of the members were removed and the Führer became de jure the only and final decision-maker with the power of life and death over every German citizen. On January 25, 1943, five days before the expiration of the current Reichstag's term of office, the inauguration of a new body was postponed for another electoral term until January 30, 1947. This was to avoid holding elections during World War II. Because of the outcome the 1938 elections were the last for the German Reichstag ever.
- Peter Hubert The Uniformed Reichstag. The history of the Pseudo-Parliament from 1933 to 1945. (Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag, 1992) ISBN 3-7700-5167-X
- Joachim Lilla: Extras in Uniform. Members of the Reichstag from 1933 to 1945. (Düsseldorf: Droste Verlag, 2004), ISBN 3-7700-5254-4
- Moonis Raza. Geographical Dictionary Of The World In The Early 20th Century With Pronouncing Gazetteer (in 2 Vos.). New Delhi, India: Concept Publishing Company, 1990. Pp. 712.
- "Die propagandistische Vorbereitung der Volksabstimmung". Austrian Resistance Archive. 1988. Retrieved 2007-03-11.