Relics associated with Jesus

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Secondo Pia's 1898 photographic negative of the Shroud of Turin, associated with Holy Face of Jesus devotions.

A number of relics associated with Jesus have been claimed and displayed throughout the history of Christianity. Some people believe in the authenticity of some relics; others doubt the authenticity of various items. For instance, the sixteenth-century Catholic theologian Erasmus wrote sarcastically about the proliferation of relics, and the number of buildings that could have been constructed from the wood claimed to be from the cross used in the Crucifixion of Christ.[1] Similarly, while experts debate whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails, at least thirty Holy Nails continue to be venerated as relics across Europe.[2]

Some relics, such as purported remnants of the Crown of Thorns, receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while others, such as the Shroud of Turin (which is associated with an approved Catholic devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus), receive millions of pilgrims, which in recent years have included Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI.[3]

As Christian teaching generally states that Christ was assumed into heaven corporeally, there are few bodily relics, unlike relics of saints.

Shrouds and faces[edit]

A number of acheiropoieta (i.e. not made by hand) images reported to be of the face of Jesus, or have impressions of his face or body on a piece of cloth have been written about or displayed over the centuries. In most cases these images are subject to intense debate and speculation.

Although various devotions to the face of Jesus have been practiced, the term "Holy Face of Jesus" as used today only relates to the specific devotions approved by Pope Leo XIII in 1895 and Pope Pius XII in 1958 in regards to the image from the Shroud of Turin.[4]

Shroud of Turin[edit]

Main article: Shroud of Turin
A recent photo of the Shroud of Turin face, positive left, negative on the right having been contrast enhanced.

The Shroud of Turin is the best-known relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.[5]

Various tests have been performed on the shroud, yet both believers and skeptics continue to present arguments for and against the validity of the tests. One of the contentious issues is the radiocarbon dating in 1988 which yielded results indicating that the shroud was made during the Middle Ages.[6] Believers have since presented arguments against the 1988 carbon dating results, ranging from conflicts in the interpretation of the evidence, to samples being taken from a non representative corner, to additional carbon content via fire damage. Heated debate has ensued ever since.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Believers claim that pollen residues on the Shroud of Turin shows strong evidence that it originated in the Jerusalem area before the 8th century.[13]

Both skeptics and proponents tend to have very entrenched positions on the cause of formation of the shroud image, (at times pitting science versus divine formation) which has made dialogue very difficult. This may prevent the issue from being fully settled to the satisfaction of all sides in the near future.[14][15]

Sudarium of Oviedo[edit]

The ark containing the Sudarium of Oviedo.

The Sudarium of Oviedo is a bloodstained cloth, measuring c. 84 × 53 cm, kept in the Cámara Santa of the Cathedral of San Salvador, Oviedo, Spain.[16] The Sudarium (Latin for sweat cloth) is claimed to be the cloth wrapped around the head of Jesus Christ after he died, as mentioned in the Gospel of John (20:6–7).[17]

The Sudarium is severely soiled and crumpled, with dark flecks that are symmetrically arranged but form no image, unlike the markings on the Shroud of Turin. However, some of those who accept the Shroud as authentic claim that many of the stains on the Sudarium match those on the head portion of the Shroud, but skeptics dispute this.[who?] Believers (such as Vatican archivist Msgr Giulio Ricci, who studied them in 1995)[18] contend that both cloths covered the same man.

Image of Edessa[edit]

The Holy Face of Genoa.

The Image of Edessa is also known as the Mandylion. Two images claim to be the Mandylion. One is the Holy Face of Genoa at the Church of St. Bartholomew of The Armenians in Genoa, the other is the Holy Face of San Silvestro, kept in the Church of San Silvestro in Capite in Rome up to 1870, and now in the Matilda Chapel of the Vatican Palace.[19] The theory that the object venerated as the Mandylion from the sixth to the thirteenth centuries was in fact the Shroud of Turin has been the subject of debate.[20]

Crown of Thorns[edit]

Main article: Crown of Thorns

The relics of the Passion presented at Notre-Dame de Paris include a piece of the Cross, which had been kept in Rome and delivered by Saint Helen, the mother of Emperor Constantine, a nail of the Passion and the Holy Crown of Thorns.

Despite numerous studies and historical and scientific research efforts, its authenticity cannot be certified. It has been the object of more than sixteen centuries of fervent Christian prayer.

Saint John tells that, in the night between Maundy Thursday and Good Friday, Roman soldiers mocked Christ and his Sovereignty by placing a thorny crown on his head (John 19:12).

The crown housed in the Paris cathedral is a circle of canes bundled together and held by gold threads. The thorns were attached to this braided circle, which measures 21 centimetres in diameter. The thorns were divided up over the centuries by the Byzantine emperors and the Kings of France. There are seventy, all of the same type.

The accounts of 4th century pilgrims to Jerusalem allude to the Crown of Thorns and the instruments of the Passion of Christ. In 409, Saint Paulinus of Nola mentions it as being one of the relics kept in the basilica on Mount Zion in Jerusalem. In 570, Anthony the Martyr found it exhibited for veneration in the Basilica of Zion. Around 575, Cassiodorus, in his Exposition on the 75th Psalm, exclaimed, "Jerusalem has the Column, here, there is the Crown of Thorns!" In 870, once again in Jerusalem, Bernard the Monk noted it as well.

Between the 7th and the 10th centuries, the relics were moved progressively to the Byzantine emperors’ chapel in Constantinople, mainly to keep them safe from pillaging, like that suffered by the Holy Sepulchre during the Persian invasions. In 1238, Byzantium was governed by the Latin Emperor Baldwin II of Constantinople. As he was in great financial difficulty, he decided to pawn the relics in a Venetian bank to get credit.

Saint Louis, the king of France, took over and paid back the Venetians. On 10 August 1239, the king, followed by a brilliant procession, welcomed twenty-nine relics in Villeneuve-l'Archevêque. On 19 August 1239, the procession arrived in Paris; the king took off his royal garments. Wearing only a simple tunic and with bare feet, assisted by his brother, took the Crown of Thorns to Notre-Dame de Paris before placing the relics in the palace chapel. He built a reliquary worthy of housing these relics, the Sainte-Chapelle.

During the French revolution, the relics were stored in the National Library. After the Concordat in 1801, they were given back to the archbishop of Paris who placed them in the Cathedral treasury on 10 August 1806. They are still housed there today.

Since then, these relics have been conserved by the canons of the Metropolitan Basilica Chapter, who are in charge of venerations, and guarded by the Knights of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem.

Napoleon I and Napoleon III each offered reliquaries for the crown of thorns. They are on display at Notre-Dame Cathedral during scheduled religious ceremonies.[21]

Veil of Veronica[edit]

Veronica holding her veil, Hans Memling, c. 1470

The Veil of Veronica, which according to legend was used to wipe the sweat from Jesus' brow as he carried the cross is also said to bear the likeness of the face of Christ. Today, several images claim to be the Veil of Veronica.

There is an image kept in Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome which is purported to be the same Veronica as was revered in the Middle Ages. Very few inspections are recorded in modern times and there are no detailed photographs. The most detailed recorded inspection in the 20th century occurred in 1907 when Jesuit art historian Joseph Wilpert was allowed to remove two plates of glass to inspect the image.[citation needed]

The Hofburg Palace in Vienna has a copy of the Veronica, identified by the signature of the secretary of Pope Paul V, during whose reign a series of six meticulous copies of the veil were made in 1617.[22]

The image at the Monastery of the Holy Face in Alicante, Spain was acquired by Pope Nicholas V from relatives of the Byzantine Emperor in 1453 and was given by a Vatican cardinal to a Spanish priest who took it to Alicante, in 1489.[citation needed]

The Jaén Cathedral in Spain has a copy of the Veronica which probably dates from the 14th century and originates in Siena. It is known as the Santo Rostro and was acquired by Bishop Nicholas de Biedma in the 14th century.[23]

The Manoppello Image.

In 1999, Father Heinnrich Pfeiffer announced at a press conference in Rome that he had found the Veil in a church of the Capuchin monastery, in the small village of Manoppello, Italy, where it had been since 1660. Professor Pfeiffer had in fact been promoting this image for many years before.[24] This theory has since been promoted by the author Paul Badde in his 2010 book The Face of God.[25]

Advocates of the Shroud's authenticity claim that recent research demonstrates that the face of the Manoppello Image corresponds exactly with the face presented on the Shroud of Turin and the blood stains on the Sudarium of Oviedo,[26][unreliable source?] although skeptics dispute this. Also, 3D properties of the Manoppello Image (similar to that claimed for the Shroud, but weaker) have been discovered.[27]

Holy Chalice[edit]

The Holy Chalice is the chalice or vessel which Jesus used at the Last Supper to serve the wine, as in the Gospel of Matthew (26:27-28) which states: "Drink from it, all of you. This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins."[28]

A number of Holy Chalices have been reported and also given rise to the legend of Holy Grail, which is not part of Catholic tradition, but of mythology.[29] Of the existing chalices, only the Santo Càliz de Valencia (English: Holy Chalice of the Cathedral of Valencia) is recognized as a "historical relic" by the Vatican,[30] although not as the actual chalice used at the Last Supper.[31] Although both Pope John Paul II and Pope Benedict XVI have venerated this chalice at the Cathedral of Valencia, neither has formally pronounced it as authentic.[32]

The True Cross[edit]

Discovery of the True Cross, by Tiepolo, 1745.

In the Christian tradition, the True Cross refers to the actual cross used in the Crucifixion of Jesus. Today, many fragments of wood are claimed as True Cross relics, but it is hard to establish their authenticity. The spread of the story of the fourth century discovery of the True Cross was partly due to its inclusion in 1260 in Jacopo de Voragine's very popular book The Golden Legend, which also included other tales such as Saint George and the Dragon.[citation needed]

Tradition and legend attribute the discovery of the True Cross to Saint Helena, mother of Constantine the Great who went to Palestine during the fourth century in search of relics. Eusebius of Caesarea was the only contemporary author to write about Helena's journey in his Life of Constantine. But Eusebius did not mention the finding of the True Cross, although he dwelt heavily on the piety of Helena and the finding of the site of the Holy Sepulchre.[33] Texts that tell (and gradually elaborate) the story of the finding of the True Cross and its identification through a miracle date to the fifth century, and include writings by Socrates Scholasticus, Sozomen and Saint Theodoret.[citation needed]

Pieces of the purported True Cross, including the half of the INRI inscription tablet, are preserved at the ancient basilica Santa Croce in Gerusalemme in Rome. Very small pieces or particles of the True Cross are reportedly preserved in hundreds of other churches in Europe and inside crucifixes. Their authenticity is not accepted universally by those of the Christian faith and the accuracy of the reports surrounding the discovery of the True Cross is questioned by many Christians. The acceptance and belief of that part of the tradition that pertains to the Early Christian Church is generally restricted to the Catholic and Orthodox Churches. The Medieval legends of its provenance differ between Catholic and Orthodox tradition. These churches honour Helena as a saint, as does also the Anglican Communion.[citation needed]

Other relics[edit]

Crucifixion[edit]

Relic with a holy nail at the Bamberg Cathedral

A large number of other claimed relics of Jesus continue to be displayed throughout the world. A good number of these relics involve the journey of Saint Helena of Constantinople, the mother of Constantine the Great to Palestine in the fourth century to gather relics.[citation needed]

The authenticity of many of these relics is in question. For instance, regarding the Holy Nails brought back by Saint Helena, the Catholic Encyclopedia states that given that the question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails:[2]

Very little reliance can be placed upon the authenticity of the thirty or more holy nails which are still venerated, or which have been venerated until recent times, in such treasuries as that of Santa Croce in Rome, or those of Venice, Aachen, Escurial, Nuremberg, Prague, etc. Probably the majority began by professing to be facsimiles which had touched or contained filings from some other nail whose claim was more ancient.

Similarly, a large number of churches claim to have relics of the Crown of Thorns which was placed upon the head of Jesus by the soldiers prior to his crucifixion.[citation needed]

The Scala Sancta, the stairs from Pontius Pilate's praetorium, ascended by Jesus during his trial were also reportedly brought to Rome by Saint Helena of Constantinople in the 4th century.[citation needed]

The Basilica of the Holy Blood in Bruges, Belgium, claims a specimen of Christ's blood in a phial said to contain a cloth with blood of Jesus Christ, brought to the city by Thierry of Alsace after the 12th century.[citation needed]

Other claimed relics, based on the Crucifixion of Christ include:

Bodily relics[edit]

Christian teaching generally states that Christ was assumed into heaven corporeally. Therefore the only parts of his body available for veneration are parts he had lost prior to the Ascension. At various points in history, a number of churches in Europe have claimed to possess the Holy Prepuce, Jesus' foreskin from the Circumcision, sometimes at the same time.[34] A section of the Holy Umbilical Cord believed to remain from the birth of Christ, is currently in the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran.[35]

Miscellaneous[edit]

A number of miscellaneous relics are claimed to exist; there is no proof that any of them are genuine. In many cases, there are contradictory claims of a unique relic existing simultaneously at different locations.

St. Paul's Monastery on Mount Athos claims to have relics of Gifts of the Magi, while Dubrovnik's Cathedral, Croatia, lays claim to the swaddling clothes the baby Jesus wore during the presentation at the Temple.[36] The knife that was claimed to have been used by Jesus during the Last Supper was also a matter of veneration in the Middle Ages, according to the 12th century Guide for Pilgrims to Santiago de Compostela.[37] According to French traveler Jules-Léonard Belin the knife used by Jesus to slice bread was permanently exhibited in the Logetta (decorated entrance hall) of St Mark's Campanile in Venice.[38]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dillenberger 1999, p. 5
  2. ^ a b Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Holy Nails". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  3. ^ Pope John Paul II (1998-05-24), Pope John Paul II's address in Turin Cathedral, Holy See 
  4. ^ Cruz 2003, p. 200
  5. ^ « The Shroud of Turin is the single, most studied artifact in human history » statement considered as « widely accepted » in Lloyd A Currie, « The Remarkable Metrological History of Radiocarbon Dating [II] », J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109, 2004, p. 200 Article.
  6. ^ Damon, P. E.; D. J. Donahue, B. H. Gore, A. L. Hatheway, A. J. T. Jull, T. W. Linick, P. J. Sercel, L. J. Toolin, C. R. Bronk, E. T. Hall, R. E. M. Hedges, R. Housley, I. A. Law, C. Perry, G. Bonani, S. Trumbore, W. Woelfli, J. C. Ambers, S. G. E. Bowman, M. N. Leese, M. S. Tite (February 1989), "Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin", Nature 337 (6208): 611–615, doi:10.1038/337611a0, retrieved 2007-11-18. 
  7. ^ Brendan Whiting, 2006, The Shroud Story, Harbour Publishing, ISBN 0-646-45725-X
  8. ^ Gove, H E (1990), "Dating the Turin Shroud-An Assessment" (PDF), Radiocarbon (32:1, 87–92), retrieved 2009-06-27. 
  9. ^ Joe Nickell. "Claims of Invalid "Shroud" Radiocarbon Date Cut from Whole Cloth". Skeptical Inquirer. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry. Retrieved 2009-10-06. 
  10. ^ Daily Telegraph article on Carbon dating http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/02/25/nshroud125.xml
  11. ^ Lorenzi, Rossella. "Shroud of Turin's Authenticity Probed Anew". Discovery Channel. Discovery Communications. Retrieved 2008-03-30. 
  12. ^ Shroud mystery refuses to go away: BBC News 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7307646.stm
  13. ^ XVI International Botanical Congress. "Botanical Evidence Indicates 'Shroud Of Turin' Originated In Jerusalem Area Before 8th Century". ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 3 August 1999. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/1999/08/990803073154.htm>.
  14. ^ Colin Evans, 2002 A question of evidence ISBN 0-471-44014-0 page 10
  15. ^ Paul Vignon, 2002 The Shroud of Christ ISBN 1-885395-96-5 page 3
  16. ^ Michael McDonnell (2007). Lost Treasures of the Bible. ISBN 1-84753-316-7. page 31.
  17. ^ John 20:6
  18. ^ Ruffin 1999, p. 47
  19. ^ Houlden 2003, vol. 2, p. 66
  20. ^ Wilson 1991
  21. ^ Notre Dame de Paris - Veneration of the Crown
  22. ^ Wilson 1991, p. 157
  23. ^ Wilson 1991, p. 94
  24. ^ Ian Wilson, Holy Faces, Secret Places, page 161
  25. ^ The Face of God: The Rediscovery of the True Face of Jesus, Igantius Press, Paul badde, 2010.
  26. ^ http://www.sudariumchristi.com/uk/tomb/compare.htm
  27. ^ [1] J. Jaworski , G. Fanti 3-D PROCESSING TO EVIDENCE CHARACTERISTICS REPRESENTED IN MANOPPELLO VEIL (article)
  28. ^ Matthew 26:27-28
  29. ^ Wikisource-logo.svg Thurston, Herbert (1913). "Chalice". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  30. ^ "The History of the Holy Chalice", Official website of the Valencia cathedral - The Holy Chalice of the Lord Supper 
  31. ^ Griffin 2001, p. 103
  32. ^ Pope to Venerate Holy Grail, Zenit News, 2006-07-07 
  33. ^ Life of Constantine book 3, chapter 25 - 41
  34. ^ "Who stole Jesus' foreskin?" by David Farley. Slate magazine
  35. ^ http://goitaly.about.com/od/romeattractions/tp/rome-relics.htm
  36. ^ Janekovic-Romer, Zdenka (1996), Javni rituali u politickom diskursu humanistickog Dubrovnika (in Croatian), Zavod za hrvatsku povijest Filozofskog fakulteta Zagreb - Institute of Croatian history, Faculty of Philosophy Zagreb, p. 78 
  37. ^ Snoek, Godefridus (1995), Medieval Piety from Relics to the Eucharist, Leiden: E.J. Brill, p. 248, ISBN 90-04-10263-9 
  38. ^ Belin, Julien-Léonard (1843), Le Simplon et l'Italie septentrionale: promenades et pèlerinages (in French), Belin-Leprieur, p. 218 

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