Religion in Bhutan

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Approximately 70 percent of the population practice Drukpa Kagyupa or Ningmapa Buddhism, both of which are disciplines of Vajrayana Buddhism. The remaining 30 percent practice Hinduism as well as Buddhism.[1]

Buddhism[edit]

Main article: Buddhism in Bhutan

Ethnic Ngalops, descendants of Tibetan immigrants, comprise the majority of the population in the western and central areas and mostly follow the Drukpa Kargyupa school.[2]

Ethnic Sharchops, descendants of the country's probable original inhabitants, live in the east. Reportedly, some Sarchops practice Buddhism combined with elements of the Bön tradition whereas others follow Animism and Hinduism. Several Sarchops hold high positions in the government, the National Assembly, and the court system.[2]

The government supports both Kagyupa and Nyingmapa Buddhist monasteries. The royal family practices a combination of Nyingmapa and Kagyupa Buddhism, and many citizens believe in the concept of "Kanyin-Zungdrel," meaning "Kagyupa and Ningmapa as one."[2]

Hinduism[edit]

Main article: Hinduism in Bhutan

Hindus, mainly in the South, practice Hinduism. The very first Hindu temple was constructed in Thimphu in 2012 by His Holiness The Je Khenpo, Chief Abbot of Bhutan, and Hindus practice their religion in small to medium-sized groups.[2] Hinduism is more common among the Nepalese ethnic group, although most ethnic Nepalese follow Buddhism as well.

Bön[edit]

Main article: Bön in Bhutan

Bön, the country's animist and shamanistic belief system, revolves around the worship of nature and predates Buddhism. Although Bön priests often officiate and include Bön rituals in Buddhist festivals, very few citizens adhere exclusively to this religious group.[2]

Christianity[edit]

Christians are present in small numbers, especially in the Nepalese ethnic group. According to a 2007 report there were no Christian missionaries in the country, although international Christian relief organizations and Roman Catholic Jesuit priests engaged in education and humanitarian activities.[2] Christianity was first brought to Bhutan in the late 17th century by Portuguese Jesuits, but the teachings failed to gain much traction among the devout Buddhists of the Bhutanese people. More recently (2014) Christian ministers are being arrested for spreading their religion.

Islam[edit]

Main article: Islam in Bhutan

According to adherents.com Muslims constitute over 5% of the population. However the CIA World Factbook claims that Muslims are less than 1% of the population in Bhutan. In 2009, the Pew Research Center estimated that 1% of the population, or 7,000 people, were Muslims.

Freedom and regulation of religion[edit]

The law provides for freedom of religion; the religious institutions and personalities have a duty "to promote the spiritual heritage of the country while also ensuring that religion remains separate from politics" and that religious institutions and personalities remain "above politics."[3] Reflecting the government's stated purpose of preserving individuals' religious and cultural values, the above prohibitive clauses in the Constitution have been interpreted to apply to proselytism and to prohibit religious personalities from voting, respectively.[4][5][6]

The Religious Organizations Act of 2007 aims to protect and preserve the spiritual heritage of Bhutan through providing for the registration and administration of religious organizations. To meet those goals, the Act creates the Chhoedey Lhentshog as the regulatory authority on religious organizations. This body regulates, monitors, and keeps records on all religious organizations in Bhutan, which are in turn required to register and maintain specified corporate formalities.[4]

Through 2007, there were no reports of violence associated with pressure to conform to Vajrayana beliefs. There were no reports of societal abuse or discrimination based on religious belief or practice.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bhutan: International Religious Freedom Report 2007. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g United States Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. Bhutan: International Religious Freedom Report 2007. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
  3. ^ "The Constitution of the Kingdom of Bhutan" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2010-10-08. 
  4. ^ a b "Religious Organizations Act of Bhutan 2007" (PDF). Government of Bhutan. 2007-07-31. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  5. ^ "Pastor sentenced to 3 yrs in prison". Bhutan News Service online. Bhutan News Service. 2010-12-12. Retrieved 2011-01-25. 
  6. ^ "Chhoedey Lhentshog Lists Those Who Can Vote – Religious personalities above politics". Kuensel online. 2010-10-17. Retrieved 2011-01-28.