Religion in Denmark
Of all the religions in Denmark, the most prominent is Christianity in the form of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark, the state religion. However, pockets of virtually all faiths can be found among the population. The second largest faith is Islam, due to immigration since 1980. In general, however, Danes are secular, and church attendance is generally low.
According to the SKYE most recent Eurobarometer Poll 2010, 28% of Danish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God", 47% responded that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 24% responded that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force". Another poll, carried out in 2008, found that 25% of Danes believe Jesus is the son of God, and 18% believe he is the saviour of the world. While a vast majority of Danes are technically agnostic or atheist, few choose to identify as such. It is speculated that this is because religion is such a non-issue that not believing in it does not require a specific label. "At the same time, they were “often disinclined or hesitant to talk with me about religion,” Mr. Zuckerman reported, “and even once they agreed to do so, they usually had very little to say on the matter.”"
|Statistical data: 1984, 1990–2014 Source: Kirkeministeriet|
Other Protestant groups
Reformed Protestantism is represented by four churches united in the Reformed Synod of Denmark. These are mainly ethnic congregations, including two Huguenot churches and a German Reformed church, founded in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, as well as the Korean Reformed Church founded in 1989. The German Reformed church also includes some Dutch, Swiss, Hungarian and American members, as well as Danes.
After the separation of the Church of Denmark from the Roman Catholic Church in 1536, Roman Catholicism remained illegal in the country for over three centuries. The Church was able to reestablish itself after the Constitution of 1849 granted religious freedom to the Kingdom. Currently the country is covered by the Diocese of Copenhagen with 48 parishes in Denmark proper and two more in the Faeroe Islands and Greenland. There are nearly 40,000 Catholics in Denmark, though nearly a third are foreign born and others are born of foreign parents (for example, Denmark's Polish community). Nevertheless ethnic Danes are still the largest group among the Churches congregants.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) has been sending missionaries to Denmark since 14 June 1850. Most of the early converts emigrated to the United States. There are currently over 4,500 Mormons in Denmark. There is a LDS temple in Copenhagen, known as the Copenhagen Denmark Temple.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (March 2013)|
A Jewish community has been present in Denmark since the seventeenth century, when the monarchs began allowing Jews to enter the country and practice their religion on an individual basis. Emancipation followed gradually and by the end of the nineteenth century most Jews were fully assimilated into Danish society. In the early decades of the twentieth century there was an influx of more secular, Yiddish speaking, Eastern European Jews. Nearly 99% of Danish Jews survived the Holocaust by actions of the Danish resistance.
Today there are approximately nearly 10,000 ethnic Jews in Denmark, and three synagogues located in Copenhagen.
Denmark's Muslims make up approximately 3% of the population and form the country's second largest religious community and largest minority religion. As of 2009 there are nineteen recognised Muslim communities in Denmark. As per an overview of various religions and denominations by the Danish Foreign Ministry, other religious groups comprise less than 1% of the population individually and approximately 2% when taken all together. Ahmadi Muslims constructed the first mosque in the capital, Copenhagen. There are approximately 600 Ahmadis all over Denmark today.
The Baha'i Faith arrived in Denmark in 1925, but it did not make much impact until the arrival of American pioneers in 1946. A National Spiritual Assembly was formed in 1962. In 2005, it was estimated that there were about 1,251 Baha'is in the country.
Buddhism in Denmark was brought back from expeditions that explored the Indian subcontinent. Initial interest was mainly from intellectuals, authors, Buddhologists and Philologists. In 1921, Christian F. Melbye founded the first Buddhist Society in Denmark, but it was later dissolved in 1950 before his death in 1953. In the 1950s, there was a revival in interest towards Buddhism, especially Tibetan Buddhism and Hannah and Ole Nydahl, founded the first Karma Kagyu Buddhist centers in Copenhagen. The third wave of Buddhism came in the 1980s, when refugees from Vietnam, Sri Lanka and China came to Denmark.
A neopagan religious group, Forn Siðr — Ásatrú and Vanatrú Association in Denmark, describes itself as a revival of the Norse paganism prevalent in Denmark before Christianization. It gained state recognition in November 2003. Also, there are about 500 registered heathens (0.01% of the population) belonging to the old Norse beliefs.
Politics and government
With the exception of the Minister for Ecclesiastical Affairs (and only some of them), politicians will not generally be found using religious rhetoric and arguments, especially not government ministers. The Christian Democrats is the only major political party which regularly uses religious rhetoric and arguments, and they have not been represented in the Folketing since 2001, as they have not been able to acquire the necessary 2% of the votes. Denmark has had 4 different prime ministers, who identified as atheist.
The Constitution of Denmark contains a number of sections related to religion.
- §4 establishes the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Denmark as the state church of Denmark.
- §6 requires the Danish monarch (currently Margrethe II of Denmark) to be a member of the state church.
- §67 grants freedom of worship.
- §68 states that no one is required to personally contribute to any form of religion other than his own. As state subsidies are not considered personal contributions the Church of Denmark receives subsidies - according to §4 - beyond the church tax paid by the members of the church. The Church of Denmark is the only religious group to receive direct financial support from the state. Other religious groups can receive indirect support through tax deductions on contributions.
- §70 grants freedom of religion by ensuring civil and political rights can not be revoked due to race or religious beliefs. It further states race and religious beliefs can not be used to be exempt from civil duties.
- §71 ensures no one can be imprisoned due to religious beliefs.
- Christianization of Scandinavia
- Buddhism in Denmark
- Bahá'í Faith in Denmark
- Islam in Denmark
- History of the Jews in Denmark
- Irreligion in Denmark
- "Denmark – Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor". International Religious Freedom Report 2009. U.S. Department of State. 2009. Retrieved 23 August 2012.
- "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010. Check date values in:
- Poll performed in December 2009 among 1114 Danes between ages 18 and 74, Hver fjerde dansker tror på Jesus (One in four Danes believe in Jesus), Kristeligt Dagblad, 23 December 2009 (Danish)
- Church membership 1984 Danmarks statistik (Danish)
- Church membership 1990–2014 Kirkeministeriet (Danish)
- Den reformerte Meighed i Fredericia
- Deutsch-Reformierte Kirche zu Kopenhagen
- Eglise réformée française
- Korean-Reformed Church in Denmark
- The Catholic Church in Denmark
- "Denmark", Country Profile, Newsroom (LDS Church), 2 April 2011
- Kirkens begyndelse i Danmark (Church beginnings in Denmark), mormon.dk (in Danish) (LDS Church)
- "Copenhagen Denmark Temple", Temples, LDS.org (LDS Church)
- Ahmadiyya Muslim Mosques Around the World, pg. 184
- Denmark country profile- [Euro-Islam.info] and Muslimpopulation.com – Retrieved 8 June 2012.
- Facts about Islam in Denmark[dead link] – Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. Published/Last edited 10 May 2009. Retrieved 24 March 2012. www.ambdhaka.um.dk
- Religion in Denmark – From the Danish Foreign Ministry. Archive retrieved on 3 January 2012.
- Mikkel Rytter. Family Upheaval: Generation, Mobility and Relatedness among Pakistani. Berghahn Books. p. 14. Retrieved February 23, 2014.
- Most Baha'i Nations (2005)
- "Article on Avisen.dk (''in Danish'')". Avisen.dk. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "DR (Danish state news-agency), article about the History of Buddhism (''In Danish'')". Dr.dk. 10 August 2006. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
- "Danske børn vil være buddhister". Avisen.dk. Retrieved 2013-03-26.
- Journal of Global Buddhism, Article by Jørn Borup, Department of Study of Religion at University of Aarhus, Denmark. 2008, based on research from 2005
- Torben Sørensen (19 April 2007). "Forn Siðr – the Asa and Vane faith religious community in Denmark – Forn Siðr". Fornsidr.dk. Archived from the original on 24 August 2012. Retrieved 24 August 2012.
- List of atheists in politics and law#Denmark
- Grundloven på let dansk, Folketinget, 2001