Religion in Guatemala
The Article 36 of the Political Constitution of Guatemala states that everyone has the right to practice their religion or belief, in public and in private. Since 1882 the country has no official religion, this was approved in the government of Justo Rufino Barrios. Catholicism was the official religion during the colonial era. However, Protestantism has been increased in recent decades. More than one third of Guatemalans are Protestant, chiefly Evangelicals and Pentecostals. Eastern and Oriental Orthodoxy claim rapid growth, especially among indigenous Mayans.
Catholicism was the main religion during the colonial era.[when?] It is common for relevant Mayan practices to be incorporated into Catholic ceremonies and worship when they are sympathetic to the meaning of Catholic belief a phenomenon known as inculturation. The practice traditional Mayan religion is increasing as a result of the cultural protections established under the peace accords. The government has instituted a policy of providing altars at every Mayan ruin found in the country so that it is easier for traditional Mayans to worship.
Current estimates of the Protestant population of Guatemala range from 25 to 40 percent, making it the most Protestant country in Latin America. Most of these Protestants are Pentecostals. The first Protestant missionary, Frederick Crowe, arrived in Guatemala in 1843, but Conservative President Rafael Carrera expelled him in 1845. Protestant missionaries re-entered the country in 1882 under the patronage of Liberal President Justo Rufino Barrios. These Northern Presbyterian missionaries opened the first permanent Protestant church in the country in Guatemala City, which still exists one block behind the presidential palace in zone 1 of Guatemala City.
Protestants remained a small portion of the population until the late-twentieth century, when various Protestant groups experienced a demographic boom that coincided with the increasing violence of the Guatemalan Civil War. Two Guatemalan heads of state, General Efraín Ríos Montt, who in 2013 was found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity, and Jorge Serrano Elías, have been practicing Protestants. They are the only two Protestant heads of state in the history of Latin America. Large portions of the nations Mayan population are practitioners, especially in the northern highlands.
Main article: Orthodox Christianity in Guatemala
According to an Guatemalan Orthodox monastery, Orthodox Christianity arrived in Guatemala at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century with immigrants from Lebanon, Russia, and Greece.
In the 1980s two Catholic women, Mother Ines and Mother Maria, moved towards Orthodox Christianity and established a monastery. In 1992 they were received into the Antiochian Patriarchate and in 1995 the Catholic Apostolic Orthodox Antiochian Church in Guatemala was formally established. The state orphanage of Hogar Rafael Ayau, established in 1857, was privatized and transferred to their care in 1996.
In 2010, a religious group which had begun as a Catholic movement under a priest, Andrés de Jesús Girón (died 2014, also known as Andrew Giron), was received into the Orthodox Church by the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople and placed under the Greek Orthodox Metropolis of Mexico.
The Non-Chalcedonian Syriac Orthodox Church of Antioch, which is part of the Oriental Orthodox communion, received as many as 500,000 converts from a schismatic Catholic denomination in 2013. The Syriac Orthodox Patriarchal Vicariate of Guatemala is led by Archbishop Mor Yacoub Edward.
Both Eastern and Oriental Orthodox converts are largely made up of indigenous Mayans, a persecuted ethnic minority in Guatemala.
Latter Day Saints
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claims over 215,000 members in Guatemala which, if accurate, accounts for approximately 1.65% of the country's estimated population in 2008. The first member of the LDS Church in Guatemala was baptized in 1948. Membership grew to 10,000 by 1966, and 18 years later, when the Guatemala City Temple was dedicated in 1984, membership had risen to 40,000. By 1998 membership had quadrupled again to 164,000. The LDS Church continues to grow in Guatemala; it has announced and begun the construction of the Quetzaltenango Guatemala Temple, the LDS Church's second temple in the country.
In the census of 2010, there was a significant increase in percentage of atheists or people with no religion.
Irreligion in Guatemala can refer to atheism, not religion, agnosticism. However there are high percentages of confidence in the church and religious practice, the country has had no official religion since 1882, Guatemala is the second irreligion country in Central America with Nicaragua, after El Salvador.
- Anglican Church in Central America
- History of the Jews in Guatemala
- Irreligion in Guatemala
- Islam in Guatemala
- Maya religion, the indigenous religion of Guatemala
- Mesoamerican religion
- Mormonism in Guatemala
- Orthodox Christianity in Guatemala
- Roman Catholicism in Guatemala
- "Las religiones en tiempos del Papa Francisco" (PDF) (in Spanish). Latinobarómetro. April 2014. p. 6. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- From Guatemala: the focolare, a school of inculturation. Focolare. July 28, 2011. Retrieved on 2012-01-02.
- Duffey, Michael K Guatemalan Catholics and Mayas: The Future of Dialogue
- "Los evangélicos son mayoría en Guatemala, según datos católicos". Diario Evangélico Digital Berea. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Clifton, Holland. "ESTIMATED PROTESTANT POPULATION IN CENTRAL AMERICA BY COUNTRIES: 1935-2012". PROLADES. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Garrard-Burnett, Virginia (1998). Protestantism in Guatemala: Living in the New Jerusalem. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. p. 8. ISBN 0-292-72817-4.
- Garrard-Burnett. Protestantism in Guatemala. p. 14.
- Garrard-Burnett. Protestantism in Guatemala. pp. 138–161.
- Garrard-Burnett, Virginia (2011). Terror in the Land of the Holy Spirit: Guatemala under General Efrain Rios Montt 1982-1983. New York: Oxford University Press.
- "History of The Orthodox Church and Monastery in Guatemala". Hogar Rafael Ayau. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- Brandow, Jesse. "F.A.Q.". Mayan Orthodoxy of Guatemala and southern Mexico. Retrieved 11 April 2015.. This reference states that though the estimated numbers range up to 500,000 that "As of 2015, Fr. John Chakos still is unsure about the specific number of people, saying simply that "there are thousands of people, but not hundreds of thousands"". It also states "For roughly 40,000 people and 100 parishes, there are only six priests available".
- Brandow, Jesse. "The Leaders". Mayan Orthodoxy in Guatemala and southern Mexico. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- Antolinez, Nicholas. "Guatemala: Preaching Christ in the Maya land". Orthodox Missionary Fraternity. Retrieved 11 April 2015.. This article claims "more than 350,000 people, with 338 churches and chapels".
- "Mor Yacoub Edward Consecrated Archbishop of Guatemala to foster 800000 Roman Catholic converts to Syriac Orthodox Church". Orthodoxy Cognate PAGE® Media Network. Retrieved 11 April 2015.
- [dead link]
- "Guatemala City Guatemala Temple Main". Lds.org. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- "Temples – LDS Newsroom". Newsroom.lds.org. December 22, 2010. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- "Templo Quetzaltenango". Mormones.org.gt. Retrieved June 1, 2010.
- "Guatemala". State.gov. April 3, 2007. Retrieved June 1, 2010.