Religion in New Zealand

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Religion in New Zealand (2013)[1]

  Roman Catholic (11.07%)
  Anglican (10.33%)
  Presbyterian (7.44%)
  Other Christianity (14.63%)
  Hinduism (2.02%)
  Buddhism (1.31%)
  Islam (1.04%)
  Other religions (1.34%)
  Undeclared (12.27%)
  No religion (38.55%)
The Holy Trinity Cathedral (Anglican) in Parnell, Auckland.

In New Zealand, just under half of the population at the 2013 New Zealand Census[1] declared an affiliation to Christianity. However, regular church attendance is probably closer to 15%.[2] Before European colonisation the religion of the indigenous Māori population was animistic, but the subsequent efforts of missionaries such as Samuel Marsden resulted in most Māori converting to Christianity.

New Zealand has no established church although Anglicanism is required to be the religion of the Monarch of New Zealand (who is described as "Defender of The Faith") and freedom of religion has been protected since the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi.[3]

More recently the number of adherents of non-Christian religions has increased dramatically, to near 6% in 2013. 41.9 percent of New Zealanders who answered the question on religion in the 2013 Census claimed no religious affiliation.[4]


New Zealand's religious history after the arrival of Europeans saw substantial missionary activity, with Māori generally converting to Christianity voluntarily (compare forced conversions elsewhere in the world). Waves of new immigrants brought their particular (usually Christian) faiths with them.

The religious climate of early New Zealand was influenced by "voluntarism". Though in Britain the Anglican Church was an established state church, by the middle of the 19th century even the Anglicans themselves sometimes doubted this arrangement, while the other major denominations of the new colony (Presbyterians, Methodist and Catholics, for example) obviously preferred that the local set up allowed for all their groups.[5]

Initial denominational distribution very much reflected the fact that local immigrant communities started small and often came from comparatively small regions in the origin countries in Great Britain. As a result, by the time of the 1921 census, no uniform distribution existed amongst non-Māori Christians, with Presbyterians as the dominant group in Otago and Southland, Anglicans in the Far North, the East Cape and various other areas including Banks Peninsula, while Methodists flourished mainly in Taranaki and the Manawatu. Catholicism meanwhile was the dominant religion on the West Coast with its many mining concerns, and in Central Otago.[5] The Catholic Church, while not particularly dominant in terms of pure numbers, became especially known throughout the country in the early and middle 20th century for its strong stance on education, establishing large numbers of schools.[5]


The settlement of English in Nelson and the North Island and Scottish in the south of the South Island is reflected in the dominance of Anglicanism and Presbyterianism in each region
Religious affiliations of New Zealanders in the last five censuses.
Further information: Demographics of New Zealand

Religious affiliation[edit]

Religious affiliation has been collected in the New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings since 1851. Statistics New Zealand state that:

Religious affiliation is a variable of strong interest to religious organisations, social scientists, and can be used as an explanatory variable in studies on topics such as marriage formation and dissolution, fertility and income.[6]

One of the many complications in interpreting religious affiliation data in New Zealand is the large proportion who object to answering the question, roughly 173,000 in 2013. Most reporting of percentages is based on the total number of responses, rather than the total population.[7]

In the early 20th century New Zealand census data indicates that the vast majority of New Zealanders affiliated with Christianity. The total percentages in the 1921 non-Māori census were 45% Anglicans, 19.9% Presbyterians, 13.6% Catholics, 9.5% Methodists and 11.2% Others. Statistics for Māori were only available from 1936, with 35.8% Anglicans, 19.9% Ratana, 13.9% Catholics, 7.2% Ringatu, 7.1% Methodists, 6.5% Latter Day Saints, 1.3% Methodists and 8.3% Others recorded at this census.[5]

The population increased 7.8% between the 2006 and 2001 census. The most notable trend in religion over that time is the 26.2% increase in the number of people indicating no religion.

Religious affiliation statistics[edit]

From census data released by Statistics New Zealand.[n 1]

2013[1] 2006[8] 2001 1996 1991
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Roman Catholic 492,384 11.07 508,437 11.87 485,637 12.40 473,112 13.08 498,612 14.78
Anglican 459,771 10.33 554,925 12.95 584,793 14.93 631,764 17.46 732,048 21.70
Presbyterian, Congregational and Reformed 330,903 7.44 400,839 9.36 431,139 11.01 470,442 13.00 553,386 16.40
Christian (not further defined) 216,177 4.86 186,234 4.35 192,165 4.91 186,891 5.17 79,317 2.35
Methodist 103,047 2.32 121,806 2.84 120,546 3.08 121,650 3.36 139,494 4.13
Pentecostal 74,433 1.67 79,155 1.85 67,182 1.72 69,333 1.92 49,596 1.47
Baptist 54,345 1.22 56,913 1.33 51,423 1.31 53,613 1.48 70,155 2.08
Latter-day Saints 40,728 0.92 43,539 1.02 39,915 1.02 41,166 1.14 48,009 1.42
Brethren 18,642 0.42 19,617 0.46 20,397 0.52 21,933 0.61 21,915 0.65
Jehovah's Witness 17,931 0.40 17,910 0.42 17,829 0.46 19,527 0.54 19,182 0.57
Adventist 17,085 0.38 16,191 0.38 14,868 0.38 14,691 0.41 15,675 0.46
Evangelical 15,402 0.35 13,836 0.32 11,016 0.28 1,584 0.04 5,169 0.15
Orthodox Christianity 13,833 0.31 13,194 0.31 9,576 0.24 6,933 0.19 4,263 0.13
Salvation Army 9,162 0.21 11,493 0.27 12,618 0.32 14,625 0.40 19,992 0.59
Other Christian 15,828 0.36 16,830 0.39 15,513 0.40 16,734 0.46 15,894 0.47
Rātana (Māori Christian) 40,353 0.91 50,565 1.18 48,975 1.25 36,450 1.01 47,595 1.41
Ringatū (Māori Christian) 13,272 0.30 16,419 0.38 15,291 0.39 8,271 0.23 8,049 0.24
Other Māori Christian 555 0.01 579 0.01 663 0.02 729 0.02 408 0.01
Christian total 1,933,851 43.47 2,130,315 49.72 2,140,560 54.66 2,189,445 60.51 2,328,759 69.02
Hindu 90,018 2.02 64,560 1.51 39,864 1.02 25,551 0.71 18,036 0.53
Buddhist 58,440 1.31 52,392 1.22 41,661 1.06 28,131 0.78 12,762 0.38
Muslim 46,194 1.04 36,153 0.84 23,637 0.60 13,545 0.37 6,096 0.18
Sikh 19,191 0.43 9,507 0.22 5,199 0.13 2,817 0.08 2,061 0.06
Spiritualism and New Age religions 18,423 0.41 20,184 0.47 16,101 0.41 9,789 0.27 5,199 0.15
Jewish 6,867 0.15 6,858 0.16 6,636 0.17 4,809 0.13 3,126 0.09
Other religions 15,075 0.34 14,970 0.35 13,581 0.35 7,359 0.20 17,808 0.53
Non-Christian religions total 254,208 5.71 204,624 4.78 146,682 3.75 92,001 2.54 65,088 1.93
No religion 1,635,348 38.55 1,297,104 32.20 1,028,049 27.51 867,264 23.97 670,455 19.87
Not stated/inadequately described 347,340 8.19 293,052 7.28 268,464 7.18 212,997 5.89 57,915 1.72
Object to answering 173,034 4.08 242,610 6.02 239,244 6.40 256,593 7.09 251,709 7.46
No religion/Object/Not stated total 2,155,722 50.82 1,832,688 45.50 1,554,669 41.60 1,336,854 36.95 980,079 29.05
Total population 4,242,048 4,027,947 3,737,277 3,618,303 3,373,926
  1. ^ Note: All figures are for the census usually resident population. Percentages are based on number of responses and total population, where these differ. In the 1991 and 1996 Censuses only one response to religious affiliation was collected. In the 2001, 2006, and 2013 Censuses up to four responses were collected, which has created an "overcount" of religious affiliation of between 4.8% to 6.4% in the last three censuses. Affiliation percentages have been scaled to eliminate this overcount.

Significant trends[edit]

Canterbury Mosque, New Zealand; June 2006. Built over 1984–85 it was the world's southern-most mosque until 1999.

Mirroring the recent immigration trends to New Zealand, immigrant religions increased fastest between the census, Sikh by 83% to 9,507, Hindu by 61.9% to 64,392, Islam by 53% to 36,072 and Buddhist by 25.8% to 52,392. Others that increased faster than the general population include Pentecostal Christianity (Assemblies of God, Elim), Baptist, Evangelical Christianity, Latter-day Saints and New Age.

Mainstream Christian denominations, while still representing the largest categories of census religious affiliation, are not keeping pace with population increase. Anglicans fell by 29,868 to 554,925 and Presbyterians decreased by 30,102 to 401,445. While Roman Catholic numbers increased by 22,797 to 508,437 (4.7%), this was less than the total population increase. The only other religious group above 100,000 members is Methodist. Compare this with numbers in 1901, where 42% of people identified with the Anglican denomination, 23% with Presbyterian, and only 14% with Catholic[citation needed]. At this time 1 in 30 people did not identify with any religion compared with 1 in 3 today. If the current trends continue, Christianity will no longer be the majority religion at the 2011 census.[9]

The International Social Survey Programme was conducted in New Zealand by Massey University in 2008. It received mail-responses from around one thousand New Zealanders above the age of 18, surveying issues of religious belief and practice. The results of this survey indicated that 72% of the population believe in God or a higher power, 15% are agnostic, and 13% are atheist (with a 3% margin of error).[10]

Jedi census phenomenon[edit]

Encouraged by an informal email campaign, over 53,000 people listed themselves as Jedi in New Zealand's 2001 census (over 1.5% of responses). If the Jedi response had been accepted as valid it would have been the largest non-Christian religion in New Zealand, and second-largest religion overall. However, Statistics New Zealand treated Jedi responses as "Answer understood, but will not be counted".[11] The city of Dunedin (a university town) had the highest population of reported Jedi per capita[citation needed]. In the 2006 census only 20,000 people gave Jedi as their religion.[12]


After the arrival of large numbers of European immigrants (most of whom were British) Māori enthusiastically adopted Christianity in the early 19th century, and to this day, Christian prayer (karakia) is the expected way to begin and end Māori public gatherings of many kinds. Christianity became the major religion of the country, with the Anglican, Catholic and Presbyterian churches all establishing themselves strongly. The arrival of other groups of immigrants did little to change this, as Pacific Islanders and other primarily Christian ethnic groups dominated immigration until the 1970s.

In the following decades, Christianity declined somewhat in percentage terms, mostly due to people declaring themselves as having no religion as well as by the growth of non-Christian religions. The five largest Christian denominations in 2001 remained the largest in 2006. The Catholic and Methodist denominations increased, but the Anglican denomination, the Presbyterian, Congregation and Reformed denomination, and undefined Christian denominations decreased. While smaller groups, there were larger percentage increases in affiliations with other Christian denominations between 2001 and 2006: Orthodox Christian religions increased by 37.8 percent, affiliation with Evangelical, Born Again and Fundamentalist religions increased by 25.6 percent, and affiliation with Pentecostal religions increased by 17.8 percent.[7]

Despite strong affiliation to Christianity throughout its history, church attendance in New Zealand has never been high compared to other Western nations.[13] Estimates of church attendance today range from 10–20%, while research by the Bible Society of New Zealand in 2008 indicated that 15% of New Zealanders attend church at least once a week, and 20% attend at least once a month.[2]

Other religions[edit]

At the 2006 census around 5% of the New Zealand population affiliated to a non-Christian religion.[8] Statistics New Zealand report that about 80% of the largest non-Christian religious groups are composed of immigrants, almost half of whom have arrived in New Zealand since 2000.[7] The exceptions to this are traditional Maori religion, Judaism (24% immigrant) and Bahá'í (20% immigrant).[14]

Māori religion[edit]

Main article: Māori religion

Traditional Māori religion, that is, the pre-European belief system of the Māori, was little modified in its essentials from that of their tropical Eastern Polynesian homeland, conceiving of everything, including natural elements and all living things as connected by common descent through whakapapa or genealogy. Accordingly, all things were thought of as possessing a life force or "mauri". Very few Māori still identify themselves as adhering to traditional Māori beliefs (2,412 people at the 2006 Census).[8]

Two specific Māori branches of Christianity, Rātana and Ringatū are widely followed by many in the Māori community.


The 1st New Zealand Hindu Youth Conference was organised on 2 May 2009. More than 130 delegates participated in the conference. Several parliamentarians including Pansy Wong, Minister for Ethnic Affairs and the Minister of Women’s Affairs addressed the delegates.[15] At the last census in 2013, Hindus made up 2.0 percent of the population, up from 1.5% in 2006.


Buddhism is the third largest religion in New Zealand, at 1.3% of the population.[8] In 2007 the NZ$20 million Fo Guang Shan Temple was opened in Auckland for the promotion of Humanistic Buddhism. It is the largest Buddhist temple in New Zealand.


Main article: Islam in New Zealand

Islam in New Zealand began with the arrival of Muslim Chinese gold prospectors in the 1870s.[16] The first Islamic organisation in New Zealand, the New Zealand Muslim Association, was established in Auckland in 1950.[citation needed] 1960 saw the arrival of the first imam, Maulana Said Musa Patel, from Gujarat, India.[17] Large-scale Muslim immigration began in the 1970s with the arrival of Fiji Indians, followed in the 1990s by refugees from various war-torn countries.[16] In April 1979 the three regional Muslim organisations of Canterbury, Wellington and Auckland, to create the only national Islamic body – the Federation of Islamic Associations of New Zealand.[17] Early in the 1990s many migrants were admitted under New Zealand's refugee quota, from war zones in Somalia, Bosnia, Afghanistan, Kosovo and Iraq.[citation needed] Since the 11 September attacks there was a spike in conversions to Islam among Maori prisoners in jail.[18][19] At the 2006 census 0.9% of the population, or 36,072 people, identified themselves as Muslim.[8]


Image of a Gurudwara, the Sikh place of worship, South Auckland.

Sikhs have been in New Zealand for more than a century, with the first arriving in Hamilton in the 1880s. The Sikhs grew almost four-fold between 2001 and 2013 and comprised 0.43% of the population as of 2013. Today they have a strong presence in Auckland, and especially in South Auckland and Manukau with the current National Party's Member of Parliament for Manukau Kanwal Singh Bakshi being a Sikh.[7] There are thirteen gurdwaras (the Sikh place of worship) in New Zealand. The largest Sikh Gurdwara, the NZ$10million Kalgidhar Sahib, is situated in Auckland at Takanini.[20]


The history of the Jews here begins in the 1830s including noted early settler Joel Samuel Polack and continued to grow from immigration.[21] Prominent New Zealand Jews in history include 19th-century Premier Julius Vogel and at least five Auckland mayors, including Dove-Myer Robinson. The current Prime Minister, John Key of the National Party is of part Ashkenazi Jewish descent, although he does not practice Judaism.

The 2013 New Zealand census found there was a Jewish population of 6,867, an increase from the 2001 census figure of 6,636.[22][23]

The majority of New Zealand Jews reside in Auckland and Wellington,[22] though there is also a significant Jewish community in Dunedin which is believed to have the world's southernmost permanent synagogue.[24] In 2006, 0.2% of the population identified as Jewish/Judaism.[8]

Spiritualism and New Age religions[edit]

This collection of religious beliefs is represented by around 0.5% of the New Zealand population.[8]

Bahá'í Faith[edit]

The first Bahá'í in the Antipodes was Englander Dorothea Spinney who had just arrived from New York in Auckland in 1912.[25] About 1913 there were two converts – Robert Felkin who had met `Abdu'l-Bahá in London in 1911 and moved to New Zealand in 1912 and is considered a Bahá'í by 1914[26] and Margaret Stevenson who first heard of the religion in 1911 and by her own testimony was a Bahá'í in 1913.[27] The first Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assembly was elected in 1926[28] and their first independent National Spiritual Assembly in 1957.[29] By 1963 there were four Assemblies.[30] At the 2006 census 0.07% of the population, or 2,772 people, identified themselves as Bahá'í.[8] There are some 45 local assemblies and smaller registered groups.[31]

Religion in culture and the arts[edit]

Although New Zealand is a largely secular country, religion finds a place in many cultural traditions. Major Christian events like Christmas and Easter are official public holidays and are celebrated by religious and non-religious alike, as in many countries around the world. The country's national anthem, God Defend New Zealand, mentions God in both its name and its lyrics. There has been occasional controversy over the degree of separation of church and state, for example the practice of prayer and religious instruction at school assemblies.[32]

The architectural landscape of New Zealand has been affected by religion and the prominence of churches in cities, towns and the countryside attests to its historical importance of Christianity in New Zealand.[33] Notable Cathedrals include the Anglican Holy Trinity Cathedral, Auckland, Christchurch Cathedral, Christchurch and Saint Paul's Cathedral, Wellington and the Catholic St Patrick's Cathedral, Auckland, Cathedral of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Hamilton, Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, Palmerston North, Sacred Heart Cathedral, Wellington, Cathedral of the Blessed Sacrament, Christchurch, St. Joseph's Cathedral, Dunedin. The iconic Futuna Chapel was built as a Wellington retreat center for the Catholic Marist order in 1961. The design by Maori architect John Scott, fuses Modernist and indigenous design principles.

Christian and Maori choral traditions have been blended in New Zealand to produce a distinct contribution to Christian music, including the popular hymns Whakaria Mai and Tama Ngakau Marie[34][35] New Zealand hosts one of the largest Christian music festivals in the Southern Hemisphere, the Parachute Music Festival.

Religion in politics[edit]

Brian Tamaki of the Destiny Movement has spoken out against secularist changes.

Christian Individuals in Politics[edit]

Religion has played and continues to play a 'significant and sometimes controversial role' in the politics of New Zealand.[36] Although most New Zealanders today consider politicians' religious beliefs to be a private matter,[37] a large number of New Zealand Prime Ministers have been professing Christians, including Jenny Shipley, Jim Bolger, Geoffrey Palmer, David Lange, Robert Muldoon, Walter Nash, Keith Holyoake, and Michael Joseph Savage. However both the current Prime Minister John Key and his predecessor Helen Clark are agnostic.[38][39] The current Deputy Prime Minister Bill English is Roman Catholic and has acknowledged that religious groups should contribute to political discourse.[40] Sir Paul Reeves, Anglican Archbishop and Primate of New Zealand from 1980–85, was appointed Governor General from 1985–1990.

Murray Smith was a member of the New Zealand Parliament from 1972 to 1975. His interest in governance continued when he later enrolled in the Bahá’í Faith and contributed in national and international roles within the Bahá'í Community.[41][42][43]

Christian Political Parties[edit]

Christian political parties have usually not gained significant support, a notable exception being the Christian Coalition (New Zealand) polling 4.4% in the 1996 general election. Christian parties have often been characterised by controversy and public disgrace. Many of these are now defunct, such as the Christian Democrat Party, the Christian Heritage Party which discontinued in 2006 after former leader Graham Capill was convicted as a child sex offender,[44] Destiny New Zealand, The Family Party and the New Zealand Pacific Party whose leader, former New Zealand Labour Party MP Taito Phillip Field was convicted on bribery and corruption charges.[45] United Future has been more successful, which although not a Christian party has had significant Christian backing. The two main political parties, Labour and National, are not religious, although religious groups have at times played a significant role (e.g. the Ratana Movement). Politicians are often involved in public dialogue with religious groups.[46][47] The Exclusive Brethren gained public notoriety during the 2005 election for distributing anti-Labour pamphlets, which former National Party leader Don Brash later admitted to knowledge of.[48]

Church and State Relationship[edit]

New Zealand has no established church.[3] However the following anomalies exist:

  • New Zealand’s head of state or monarch must declare that they are a Protestant Christian and will uphold the Protestant succession according to the declaration required by the Accession Declaration Act 1910.[49]
  • Section 3 of the Act of Settlement 1700 requires that the King or Queen of New Zealand must be an Anglican.[50]
  • The Title of the Queen of New Zealand includes the statement "by the grace of God" and the title Defender of the Faith.[51]

At the discussions leading to the Treaty of Waitangi Governor Hobson made a statement (which had no particular legal or constitutional significance) concerning freedom of religion (sometimes called the 'fourth' article).[52] In 2007, the government issued a National Statement on Religious Diversity containing in its first clause "New Zealand has no official or established religion." The statement caused controversy in some quarters, opponents arguing that New Zealand's head of state Queen Elizabeth II is the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.[53] However, the Queen does not act in that capacity as the Queen of New Zealand; although she retains the styling of Defender of the Faith within her official title in that role. A poll of 501 New Zealanders in June 2007 found that 58% of respondents did not think Christianity should be New Zealand's official religion.[54]

New Zealand's parliament opens its proceedings with a specifically Christian prayer. In 2007 parliament voted to retain the Christian prayer.[55]

However, there has been increasing recognition of Māori spirituality in political discourse and even in certain government legislation. In July 2001 MP Rodney Hide alerted parliament to a state funded hikitapu (tapu-lifting) ceremony at the opening of the foreign embassy in Bangkok. It was revealed that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade had a standard policy of employing Māori ritual experts for the opening of official offices around the world.[56] The Resource Management Act 1991 recognises the role of Māori spiritual beliefs in planning and environmental management.[56] In 2002 local Māori expressed concerns that the development of the Auckland-Waikato expressway would disturb the taniwha, or guardian spirit, of the Waikato River, leading to delays and alterations to the project.[57]

In New Zealand blasphemous libel is a crime,[58] but cases can only be prosecuted with the approval of the Attorney-General and the defence of opinion is allowed: "It is not an offence against this section to express in good faith and in decent language, or to attempt to establish by arguments used in good faith and conveyed in decent language, any opinion whatever on any religious subject." The only prosecution, in 1922, was unsuccessful.[59]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Table 28, 2013 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables.
  2. ^ a b Opie, Stephen (June 2008). Bible Engagement in New Zealand: Survey of Attitudes and Behaviour. Bible Society of New Zealand. p. 4. Retrieved 29 May 2010. 
  3. ^ a b "Religious Diversity in New Zealand - Statement on Religious Diversity". New Zealand Human Rights Commission and Victoria University. 2007. 
  4. ^ "2013 Census QuickStats about culture and identity". Statistics New Zealand. Statistics New Zealand. 15 April 2014. 
  5. ^ a b c d New Zealand Historical Atlas (1997) McKinnon, Malcolm (Editor); David Bateman, Plate 70
  6. ^ "Religious Affiliation". Statistics NZ Home > Methods and services > Surveys and methods > Classifications and standards > Classifications and related statistical standards >. Statistics New Zealand ( Retrieved 29 May 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d "QuickStats About Culture and Identity". Statistics NZ Home > Census > 2006 Census Data > About a Subject. Statistics New Zealand ( Retrieved 29 May 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h Table 28, 2006 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables.
  9. ^ "Census shows Christianity in decline". TVNZ. Retrieved 13 July 2010. 
  10. ^ "Religion In New Zealand: International Social Survey Programme". Massey University. Retrieved 10 June 2010. 
  11. ^ Perrott, Alan (31 August 2002). "Jedi Order lures 53,000 disciples". The New Zealand Herald. Retrieved 5 April 2006. 
  12. ^ "Jedi knights wane, migrant religions grow". Dominion Post. 8 December 2006. Retrieved 29 May 2010. '... census general manager Nancy McBeth told The Dominion Post there were more than 20,200 followers of the force – down from 54,000 in 2001.' 
  13. ^ Ward, Kevin (1 April 2006). "Towards 2015: the future of mainline Protestantism in New Zealand". Journal of Beliefs & Values (Research Unit, Department of Internal Affairs) 27 (1): 13–23. 
  14. ^ Thomson, Barbara. "Ethnic Diversity in New Zealand: a Statistical Profile". Ethnic Affairs Service Information Series (Research Unit, Department of Internal Affairs) 03: 178, 183. ISBN 0-478-09244-X. ISSN 1173-7166. Retrieved 19 September 2009. 
  15. ^ "First New Zealand Hindu Youth Conference". NEWS LETTER (Hindu Council of Australia Ltd). June 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2009. [dead link]
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  18. ^ Hume, Tim. "Disenchanted Maori find spiritual crutch in Islam". Sunday Star-Times. Retrieved 10 October 2009. 
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  26. ^ There isn't a definite date Felkin is considered a Baha'i except before 1914 -Arohanui, Introduction by Collis Featherstone.
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  30. ^ Compiled by Hands of the Cause Residing in the Holy Land. "The Bahá'í Faith: 1844–1963: Information Statistical and Comparative, Including the Achievements of the Ten Year International Bahá'í Teaching & Consolidation Plan 1953–1963". pp. 11, 104–5. 
  31. ^ "About Us". The Bahá'í Community of the Kapiti Coast District of New Zealand. Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Kapiti. Retrieved 31 September 2009.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
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  57. ^ "Taniwha road gets all clear". The New Zealand Herald. 2 January 2003. 8 January 2003. 
  58. ^ "Crimes Act 1961 No 43". New Zealand Government. p. Section 123. Retrieved 27 July 2009. 
  59. ^ The King v. Glover (1922) GLR 185

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