Religion in Poland
The population of Poland is 87.5% Roman Catholic, according to 2011 Survey in which 91.2% of citizens responded to question about religion. The numerical dominance results from the Nazi German Holocaust of Polish Jews and the World War II casualties among Polish religious minorities, as well as the flight of German Protestants from the Soviet army at the end of World War II.
Catholicism plays an important role in the lives of many Poles and the Roman Catholic Church in Poland enjoys social prestige and political influence. The Church is widely respected by its members, who see it as a symbol of Polish heritage and culture. Poland is the most Catholic country in Europe except for Malta with a higher proportion of Catholics than Italy, Spain and Ireland. The rest of the population consists mainly of Eastern Orthodox (504,150 believers, Polish and Belarussian), various Protestant churches (about 145,600, with the largest being the Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland with 61,738 members) and Jehovah's Witnesses (129,270). Other religions practiced in Poland include Islam and Judaism.
From the beginning of its statehood, different religions coexisted in Poland. With the baptism of Poland in 966, the old pagan religions soon disappeared over the next few centuries; however Christian Poles coexisted with a significant Jewish segment of the population. In the 15th century, the Hussite Wars and the pressure from the Vatican caused tensions to rise between Catholics and emerging Protestants after the Edict of Wieluń (1424). The Protestant movement however gained a significant following in Poland, and while Catholicism retained a dominant position, the liberal Warsaw Confederation (1573) guaranteed wide religious tolerance. Resulting counter-reformation eventually succeeded in reducing the scope of tolerance by late 17th and early 18th century, as evidenced by events such as the Tumult of Torun (1724). When Poland lost the last vestiges of its independence to foreign invaders in 1795, Poles were subjected to religious discrimination for 123 years under German rule and Imperial Russia. According to a 2011 survey by Ipsos MORI 85% of the Poles are Christians, 8% are irreligious, atheist or agnostic, 2% adhere to unspecified other religions, and 5% did not give an answer to the question.
The Polish Constitution and religion
According to Poland's Constitution freedom of religion is ensured to everyone. It also allows for national and ethnic minorities to have the right to establish educational and cultural institutions, institutions designed to protect religious identity, as well as to participate in the resolution of matters connected with their cultural identity.
Religious organizations in the Republic of Poland can register their institution with the Ministry of Interior and Administration creating a record of churches and other religious organizations who operate under separate Polish laws. This registration is not necessary; however, it is beneficial when it comes to serving the freedom of religious practice laws.
The Slavic Rodzimowiercy groups, registered with the Polish authorities in 1995, are the Native Polish Church (Rodzimy Kościół Polski) which represents a pagan tradition that goes back to Władysław Kołodziej’s 1921 Holy Circle of Worshipper of Światowid (Święte Koło Czcicieli Światowida), and the Polish Slavic Church (Polski Kościół Słowiański), There's also the Native Faith Association (Zrzeszenie Rodzimej Wiary, ZRW), and the Association for Tradition and Culture Niklot (founded in 1998).
Major denominations in Poland
|Catholic Church in Poland
• Roman Catholic
|33,399,327|| • Wojciech Polak, Prymas of Poland
• Stanisław Gądecki, Chairman of Polish Episcopate
• Celestino Migliore, Apostolic Nuncio to Poland
• Jan Martyniuk, Archbishop Metropolite of Byzantine-Ukrainian Rite
|Polish Autocephalous Orthodox Church||504,150||Metropolitan of Warsaw Sawa|
|Jehovah's Witnesses in Poland||129,270||Warszawska 14, Nadarzyn Pl-05830|
|Evangelical-Augsburg Church in Poland||61,738||Bishop Fr. Jerzy Samiec|
|Old Catholic Mariavite Church in Poland||23,436||Chief Bishop Fr. Michał Maria Ludwik Jabłoński|
|Pentecostal Church in Poland||22,429||Bishop Fr. Marek Kamiński|
|Polish Catholic Church (Old Catholic)||20,402||Bishop Wiktor Wysoczański|
|Seventh-day Adventist Church in Poland||9,654||Fr. Paweł Lazar, President of the Church|
|Christian Baptist Church in Poland
• Baptist Union of Poland
|5,100||President of the Church : Dr. Mateusz Wichary|
|Evangelical Methodist Church in Poland||4,352||Ruler of the Church, Bishop Edward Puślecki|
|Church of God in Christ||4,140||Bishop Andrzej Nędzusiak|
|Evangelical Reformed Church in Poland||3,488||President consistory Dr. Witold Brodziński|
|Catholic Mariavite Church in Poland||1,980||Bishop Damiana Maria Beatrycze Szulgowicz|
|Christian Community Pentecostal||1,588||Bishop Roman Jawdyk|
|Union of Jewish Religious Communities in Poland||1,222|| • President of the Main Board Piotr Kadlčik
• Chief rabbi of Poland Michael Schudrich
|Islamic Religious Union in Poland||1,132||President of the Supreme Muslim College Stefan Korycki|
- 6% attended Mass or religious services more than once a week.
- 48% attended Mass or religious services once a week.
- 18% attended Mass or religious services around once or twice a month.
- 20% attended Mass or religious services a few times a year.
- 8% did not attend Mass or religious services at all.
A 2004 Gallup report found that 63% of Poles attend Mass or religious services at least once a week.
A 2012 opinion poll conducted by CBOS found the following:
- 9% of Poles were deep believers in God.
- 85% of Poles were believers in God.
- 3% of Poles rather did not believe in God.
- 3% of Poles definitely did not believe in God.
- 79% of Polish citizens responded that "they believe there is a God".
- 14% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
- 5% answered that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, God or life force".
- 3% answered that "don't know".
- 94% of Poles claim "they believe in God",
- 6% claim they "do not believe in God or do not know",
- 52% of believers claim "they attend to mass, religious meetings etc. at least once a week",
- while 17% do so "once or twice a month",
- 18% do so "a few times a year",
- and 13% "never do so".
St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral in Legnica
Oliwa Cathedral, Gdańsk
St. Peter and St. Paul Cathedral in Poznań
Church of Our Lady Queen of the Polish Crown, Warsaw
Cathedral in Radom
Cathedral in Lublin
Saint Roch and John Church in Brochów
Catholic St. Anne's Church in Warsaw
St. Catherine church in Gdańsk
Frombork Cathedral in Frombork
St. Nicolaus Church in Elbląg
Eastern Orthodox Metropolitan Cathedral in Warsaw
Nożyk Synagogue in Warsaw
Mosque in Kruszyniany
Mosque in Gdańsk
- Roman Catholicism in Poland
- Eastern Orthodoxy in Poland
- Protestantism in Poland
- Islam in Poland
- Buddhism in Poland
- Hinduism in Poland
- History of the Jews in Poland
- Bahá'í Faith in Poland
- Slavic Neopaganism
- Polish anti-religious campaign (1945–1990)
- Irreligion in Poland
- GUS, Narodowy Spis Powszechny Ludnosci 2011: 4.4. Przynależność wyznaniowa (National Survey 2011: 4.4 Membership in faith communities) p. 99/337 (PDF file, direct download 3.3 MB). ISBN 978-83-7027-521-1 Retrieved 27 December 2014.
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2012). Rocznik statystyczny Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej 2012. Warszawa: Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych. (Polish)/(English)
- Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2013-03-28). "Wyznania religijne stowarzyszenia narodowościowe i etniczne w Polsce 2009–2011". Retrieved 2013-04-19. (Polish)/(English)
- Project in Posterum, Poland World War II casualties. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Holocaust: Five Million Forgotten: Non-Jewish Victims of the Shoah. Remember.org.
- AFP/Expatica, Polish experts lower nation's WWII death toll, Expatica.com, 30 August 2009
- Tomasz Szarota & Wojciech Materski, Polska 1939–1945. Straty osobowe i ofiary represji pod dwiema okupacjami, Warsaw, IPN 2009, ISBN 978-83-7629-067-6 (Introduction online.)
- "Encyclopædia Britannica - Religion in Poland".
- Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2007. "Poland".
- Piotr Stefan Wandycz (1980). The United States and Poland. Harvard University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-674-92685-1.
- Jerzy Lukowski; W. H. Zawadzki (6 July 2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge University Press. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-0-521-85332-3. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- Hillar, Marian (1992). "The Polish Constitution of May 3, 1791: Myth and Reality". The Polish Review 37 (2): 185–207. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Jerzy Jan Lerski (1996). Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966-1945. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-313-26007-0.
- Beata Cieszynska (2 May 2008). "Polish Religious Persecution as a Topic in British Writing in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Century". In Richard Unger; Jakub Basista. Britain and Poland-Lithuania: Contact and Comparison from the Middle Ages to 1795. BRILL. p. 243. ISBN 90-04-16623-8.
- Anna M. Cienciala, The Rebirth of Poland, at http://web.ku.edu academic lectures.
- Views on globalisation and faith. Ipsos MORI, 5 July 2011.
- Simpson, Scott (2000). Native Faith: Polish Neo-Paganism At the Brink of the 21st Century
- "Society". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2002. Retrieved 2008-12-03.
- Boguszewski, Rafał (April 2012). "ZMIANY W ZAKRESIE WIARY I RELIGIJNOŚCI POLAKÓW PO ŚMIERCI JANA PAWŁA II". CBOS. p. 5. Retrieved 31 July 2014.
- Religion in Europe: Trust Not Filling the Pews, Gallup, September 21, 2004.
- Biotechnology report 2010 p.383
- (Polish) 94% Polaków wierzy w Boga
- (Polish)/(English) Religious denominations in Poland, official statistics from 2008 (published in 2010)
- List of churches and religious unions registered according to special legislation
- List of churches and religious unions from the Register of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Administration