Religion in Scouting

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Scouting and Guiding flags in St Marys Church, Brownsea Island

Religion in Scouting and Guiding is an aspect of the Scout method that has been practiced differently and given different interpretations over the years.

In contrast to the Christian-only Boys' Brigade, which started two decades earlier, Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scout movement as a youth organisation (with boys as 'Scouts' and girls as 'Guides'), which was independent of any single faith or religion, yet still held that spirituality and a belief in a higher power were key to the development of young people.

Scouting organisations are free to interpret the method as laid down by the founder. As the modern world has become more secular and as many societies have become more religiously diverse, this has caused misunderstandings and controversies in some of the national member organisations.

Views of religion's place in Scouting[edit]

Founder's views[edit]

When creating the Scouting method, Baden-Powell was adamant that there was a place for God within it.

In Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell wrote specifically about Christianity, since he was writing for youth groups in the United Kingdom:

We aim for the practice of Christianity in their everyday life and dealings, and not merely the profession of theology on Sundays…[1]

Indeed, the Scout Promise requires an incoming member to fulfil their "duty to God".

However, the founder's position moved shortly after the Scout movement began to grow rapidly around the world, and his writings and speeches allowed for all religions. He did continue to emphasise that God was a part of a Scout's life:

When asked where religion came into Scouting and Guiding, Baden-Powell replied, It does not come in at all. It is already there. It is a fundamental factor underlying Scouting and Guiding.[2]

Though we hold no brief for any one form of belief over another, we see a way to helping all by carrying the same principle into practice as is now being employed in other branches of education…[3]

Baden-Powell's gravestone bears no cross or other religious symbol. Rather, in addition to the Boy Scout and Girl Guide Badges, it bears a circle with a dot in the centre, the trail sign for "Going home" / "I have gone home":   I have gone home.[4]

Current interpretations[edit]

Religion and spirituality is still a key part of the Scouting method. The two major world organizations have slightly different interpretations.

The World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM) states the following in its Fundamental Principles:

Under the title "Duty to God", the first of the above-mentioned principles of the Scout Movement is defined as "adherence to spiritual principles, loyalty to the religion that expresses them and acceptance of the duties resulting therefrom". Note that, by contrast to the title, the body of the text omits the word "God" to make clear that the clause also covers non-monotheistic religions, such as Hinduism, and those that do not recognize a personal God, such as Buddhism.[5]

The World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts (WAGGGS) stated the following in the 21st World Conference in 1972:

The essence of Duty to God is the acknowledgement of the necessity for a search for a faith in God, in a Supreme Being, and the acknowledgment of a force higher than man of the highest Spiritual Principles.[6]

National organizations may further define it. For instance, the current Religious Policy of The Scout Association of the United Kingdom states that:

"All Members of the Movement are encouraged to:
  • make every effort to progress in the understanding and observance of the Promise to do their best to do their duty to God;
  • belong to some religious body;
  • carry into daily practice what they profess."[7]

Many Scout/Guide groups are supported by local religious bodies, including Christian, Islamic, Jewish and Sikh communities. These local groups often have a more strict interpretation on the original writings of Baden-Powell concerning religion. However, since they often belong to national organisations that are not of a specific religion, there are usually groups in the neighbourhood that have a less strict interpretation.

Additionally, some national organisations are aimed at the adherents of a specific religion, but there usually are other Scouting/Guiding organisations within that country that are more open or have a more neutral point of view concerning religion.

The Scout Promise is easily adapted to accommodate these, and other, faiths.[8] For example, in its section on the Girl Scout Promise and Law, the website of the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) includes a note that:

The word "God" [in the Promise] can be interpreted in a number of ways, depending on one's spiritual beliefs. When reciting the Girl Scout Promise, it is okay to replace the word "God" with whatever word your spiritual beliefs dictate.[9]

One of the Belgium organisations, FOS Open Scouting, replaced "duty to God" with "loyal to a higher ideal" in their promise[10]

Membership requirements[edit]

"Duty to God" is a principle of worldwide Scouting and WOSM requires its member National Scout Organizations to reference "duty to God" in their Scout Promises (see WOSM Scout Promise requirements). Scouting associations apply this principle to their membership policies in different ways. There are Scouting associations in some countries, such as France and Denmark, that are segregated on the basis of religious belief.

Boy Scouts of America[edit]

Scout Sunday service Philadelphia 1949.png

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) in the United States takes a hard-line position, excluding atheists and agnostics.[11] The BSA has come under strong criticism over the past years due to their religious policy and stance against agnostics and atheists:

"Declaration of Religious Principle. The Boy Scouts of America maintains that no member can grow into the best kind of citizen without recognizing an obligation to God. In the first part of the Scout Oath or Promise the member declares, ‘On my honour I will do my best to do my duty to God and my country and to obey the Scout Law.’ The recognition of God as the ruling and leading power in the universe and the grateful acknowledgment of his favours and blessings are necessary to the best type of citizenship and are wholesome precepts in the education of the growing members."[11]

The Boy Scouts of America has accepted Buddhist members and units since 1920, and also accepts members of various pantheistic faiths. Many Buddhists do not believe in a supreme being or creator deity, but because these beliefs are still religious and spiritual in nature, they are deemed acceptable by the BSA since their leaders subscribe to the BSA Declaration of Religious Principle.

Scouts Canada[edit]

Scouts Canada states that all scouts have what's called a "Duty to God", defined as "The responsibility to adhere to spiritual principles, and thus to the religion that expresses them, and to accept the duties therefrom".[12] Additionally, the scout promises for each age group include references to God such as the Beaver promise: "I promise to love God and help take care of the world." and the Scout/Venturer promise "... To do my duty to God and the Queen ...".[13] Scouts Canada maintains that a spiritual element is required for membership.[14]

Scouts Canada has a "Religion in Life" emblem that is awarded upon completion of a particular denomination's program by a scout.[15] In 2009, a "Spirituality Award" for scouts and guides who did not belong to any denomination was established.[16][17]

Girl Guides of Canada[edit]

Girl Guides of Canada suggested a new version of their Promise that uses "my beliefs" instead of a direct references to God in 2009.[18] The new Promise was approved in 2010.[19]

Scouts Australia[edit]

In Australia, Scouting makes no effort to find out if potential child members are atheists or agnostics. The Australian Scout promise contains "duty to my god" as opposed to "duty to god" used by many other countries, allowing each member to make an individual personal interpretation.

Girl Guides Australia[edit]

In 2012, the promise was reworded to have to "develop my beliefs" instead of a direct reference to God.[20]

The Scout Association in the United Kingdom[edit]

The Scout Association of the United Kingdom is flexible in their interpretation of the writings of Baden-Powell and has so far avoided the controversies facing the Boy Scouts of America. While its leaders are expected to subscribe to a recognised faith and "by their personal example to implement the Association's religious policy"[21] and "the avowed absence of religious belief is a bar to appointment to a Leadership position",[22] the final decision on whether a particular adult is accepted as a leader is left with the District Commissioner (or the County or National Commissioner, as appropriate).[23] There are anecdotal reports of District Commissioners using this discretionary authority to allow prospective leaders (including atheists, agnostics, or pagans) into the organisation if they are satisfied that a leader's personal beliefs do not interfere with spiritual development of young people in their charge. However, since such decisions are confidential, these reports are difficult to verify.

In addition to this flexibility with the leadership, the Scout Association allows its younger members to be "searching" for a faith, allowing them to question the meaning of the promise under the direction of their section leader:

"To enable young people to grow into independent adults the Scout Method encourages young people to question what they have been taught. Scouts and Venture Scouts who question God's existence, their own spirituality or the structures and beliefs of any or all religions are simply searching for spiritual understanding. This notion of a search for enlightenment is compatible with belief in most of the world's faiths. It is unacceptable to refuse Membership, or question a young person's suitability to continue to participate fully in a Section, if they express doubts about the meaning of the Promise."[24]

In 2012, The Scout Association launched a consultation to gauge support among members for an alternate atheist Scout promise, removing the invocation of a deity. At the same time, the Guide Association, the parallel movement which began two years later, is to launch a consultation about its very similar promise, with views sought on all parts of the wording from early January. TSA UK chief commissioner Wayne Bulpitt said religion would remain "a key element" even if a new variant of the promise was approved. Julie Bentley, chief executive of the Guide Association, said its consultation would begin on 3 January.[25]

From 1 September 2013 Girl Guding UK introduced a new promise, in which members promise ‘to be true to myself and develop my beliefs’ replacing ‘to love my God’ [26]

In September 2013 the UK Scout Association announced that from 1 January 2014, there would be an alternative promise available for both Youth members and Adults where they could choose to promise "to their best to uphold our Scout Values", rather than "to do their duty to God". The original promise remains for those Youth members and Adults who have a faith. [27]

Non-aligned Scouting organizations[edit]

Approaches toward religion vary considerably in Scouting organizations not aligned with WOSM and WAGGGS. For example, the website of Camp Fire states "We are inclusive, welcoming children, youth and adults regardless of race, religion, socioeconomic status, disability, sexual orientation or other aspect of diversity".[28] On the other hand, the American Heritage Girls are explicitly Christian and require all adult leaders to adhere to a specific Statement of Faith.[29] Indeed, the AHG was founded by parents who did not agree with the Girl Scouts' decision to allow other words to be substituted for "God" in the Promise (see above) and the GSUSA's official lack of membership policies based on sexual preference.[30]

Current practices[edit]

Jacques Gagey, Chaplain General of Scouts et Guides de France with an altar built with pioneering techniques
Boy Scout camp during the pilgrimage season in Mina, Saudi Arabia

Scout groups handle religious practices in different ways.

Some Scouting organisations have many obligatorily religious merit badges[31] as a way of fulfilling a requirement for a rank and others have a single voluntary religious merit badge or none at all.[32] Scouting organisations may recognise religious programs run by other organisations, like the religious emblems programs in the United States and Canada.

Austria[edit]

In Austria, Pfadfinder und Pfadfinderinnen Österreichs is a member of both WOSM and WAGGGS. The association is open to members without prejudice to birth, nationality, religion or belief. Both Promise and Law contain references to god.

There are chaplains on national level for Lutheran and for Roman Catholic groups and members, as well as a commissioner for spirituality on national level. There can be chaplains on council- and group-level. Some groups are attached to religious communities or parishes; but even these are open to members of all denominations or religions.

There are religious merit badges. Requirements for awards include religion and spirituality.

Ireland[edit]

Scouting Ireland is a member of WOSM. The association is open to members without prejudice to birth, nationality, religion or belief. The Law contains no reference to God and members are offered two alternative variants of the promise, one which refers to God and a second requiring that the member do their best to further their understanding and acceptance of a Spiritual Reality.

Jordan[edit]

In Jordan the units are affiliated with the International Union of Muslim Scouts.

Malaysia[edit]

In Malaysia Girl Guides working on their Bintang Anugerah Ketua Pesuruhjaya (Head Commissioner Award) must complete a requirement about their faith.

Slovenia[edit]

In Slovenia, Zveza tabornikov Slovenije is a member of WOSM. The guiding principles include plurality, openness to members without prejudice to birth, nationality, religion or belief; provided the member abides by the principles of pacifism, personal freedom, high moral and ethical principles and principles of the international scouting movement. In the promise the reference to God is replaced with "acceptance and development of Spiritual reality". No religious merit badges are in use.

A separate organization, Združenje slovenskih katoliških skavtinj in skavtov actively practices the Roman Catholic religion in its ranks. This organization is a member of WAGGGS. By agreement, the two organizations have a common highest level body and reciprocally provide to their members the benefits of membership in the two international organizations.

United Kingdom[edit]

The Scout Association[edit]

All members of The Scout Association are encouraged to:[7]

  • make every effort to progress in the understanding and observance of the Promise to do their best to do their duty to God;
  • belong to some religious body;
  • carry into daily practice what they profess.

If a Scout Group, Explorer Scout Unit or Scout Network is composed of members of several denominations or religions, the young people should be encouraged to attend services of their own form of religion.

In October 2012 an eleven-year-old atheist boy was denied entry to the Scouts in Somerset, England.[33]

As of 1 January 2014, an alternative promise is available for those of no faith.[27]

United States of America[edit]

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) celebrates Scout Sunday and Scout Sabbath in February,[34] while the Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) celebrates similar holidays, known as Girl Scout Sabbath, Girl Scout Shabbat, and Girl Scout Sunday, in March.[35]

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) includes Scouting as an official part of its religious program for boys and young men. The LDS Church was the first institutional sponsor of the BSA in the USA, and currently sponsors more BSA units than any other organization.[36]

The Boy Scouts of America requires all scouts to believe in a God or comparable higher power, but currently admits Scouts who are non-theistic Buddhists, Jains, and Hindus from non-theistic sectarian groups. The religious awards of all three faiths are recognized by The Boy Scouts of America. The Girl Scouts of the USA does not have any requirement of faith or belief, and admits girls of any or no religious belief or doctrine, regardless of the presence or absence of belief in a God or comparable higher power.

Both organizations require their members to recite a pledge that includes a reference to God; the BSA pledge requires a commitment to do their "duty to God", while the GSUSA pledge asks girls "to serve God". However, while GSUSA allows the elimination or substitution of "God" with an alternate word that represents a scout's beliefs, BSA does not.

Boy Scouts of America[edit]

In Cub Scouting, Cub Scouts working on their Bear rank must complete a requirement about their faith. Members of the BSA's Scouting programs are eligible to work on their faith's religious emblem.

Unitarian Universalist Association controversy[edit]

Currently, the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA) has been the only religious emblems program, Religion in Life, to lose its BSA recognition. In 1992, the UUA stated its opposition to the BSA's policies on homosexuals, atheists, and agnostics; and in 1993, the UUA updated the Religion in Life program to include criticism of the BSA policies.[37] In 1998, the BSA withdrew recognition of the Religion in Life program, stating that such information was incompatible with BSA programs. The UUA removed the material from their curriculum and the BSA renewed their recognition of the program. When the BSA found that the UUA was issuing supplemental material with the Religion in Life workbooks that included statements critical of discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or personal religious viewpoint, the BSA's recognition was again withdrawn.[38]

International religious bodies in Scouting and Guiding[edit]

A number of religions and denominations have formed international organizations within Scouting and Guiding that should further the spiritual development of their adherents. Most of these organizations employ two types of membership: individual and organizational.

The religious organizations include:

ICCS, DESMOS, IUMS, WBSB, IFJS, CPGS and Won-Buddhism Scouts enjoy consultative status with the World Scout Committee, ICCG and CPGS with WAGGGS.

A number of non-religious associations, mainly from French speaking countries, formed in 1996 the Union Internationale des Associations Scoutes-Guides Pluralistes/Laïques (UIPL; International Union of pluralist/secular Scout and Guide associations).

The Friends Committee on Scouting is a religious body of the Religious Society of Friends and serves Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts of the USA, Scouts Canada, Girl Guides of Canada and Camp Fire.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Scouting for Boys, Baden-Powell, Oxford University Press.
  2. ^ Baden-Powell's position on God and Religion, FAQs.org.
  3. ^ Baden-Powell on Religion, Inquiry.net.
  4. ^ B-P's Grave in Kenya
  5. ^ [1]
  6. ^ "Exploring Spirituality - Resource Material for Girl Guides and Girl Scouts" (PDF). World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. 2000. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  7. ^ a b "The Religious Policy". Policy, Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-20. 
  8. ^ "The Promise" (PDF). The Scout Association. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-02. 
  9. ^ "Girl Scout Promise and Law". Girl Scouts of the USA. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  10. ^ "Wet en Belofte" (PDF). FOS Open Scouting. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-06. [dead link]
  11. ^ a b "Duty to God". BSA Legal Issues. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved 2006-12-03. 
  12. ^ "Scouts Canada Mission Statement". Scouts Canada. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  13. ^ "Scouts Canada Promise, Law, and Motto". Scouts Canada. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  14. ^ "Scouts Canada on God". bsa-discrimination.org. Retrieved 2010-01-04. 
  15. ^ http://www2.scouts.ca/dnn/ProgramResources/ReligioninLife/tabid/755/Default.aspx
  16. ^ http://www2.scouts.ca/dnn/ProgramResources/ReligioninLife/SpiritualityAwards/tabid/2339/Default.aspx
  17. ^ http://wellingtonac.wordpress.com/2009/04/28/announcement-of-spirituality-award/
  18. ^ "Girl guides make progress". Terahertz. 
  19. ^ "Australian Girl Guides drop Queen and God from pledge". Toronto Star. 
  20. ^ "Girl Guides drop Queen, God from promise". ABC News. 
  21. ^ "Rule 2.1: Responsibilities within the Religious Policy". Policy Organisation and Rules The Scout Association. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  22. ^ "Chapter 2: Key Policies (footnote)". Policy Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  23. ^ "The Procedure For Appointing Adults in the District (rules j, q, t)". Policy, Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-04. 
  24. ^ "Equal Opportunities Policy: Guidelines with reference to Young People: Religious belief". Policy Organisation and Rules. The Scout Association. Archived from the original on 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2007-04-02. 
  25. ^ Scouts and guides consider adopting atheist oaths
  26. ^ "Welcoming more members with our new Promise". Girl Guide UK Press release. Girl Guides UK. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  27. ^ a b "The additional alternative Scout Promise FAQs". The Scout Association FAQs. The Scout Association. Retrieved 2 November 2013. 
  28. ^ "Core Values". All About Us. Camp Fire USA. 2005. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  29. ^ "Statement of Faith". About Us. American Heritage Girls. 2004. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  30. ^ "Some Unhappy with Girl Scouts Form New Group". Associated Press. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  31. ^ "badges vie chretienne". Guides et Scouts d’Europe. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  32. ^ "insignes voor de Scouts". Scouting Nederland. Retrieved 2006-12-08. 
  33. ^ "Schoolboy 'banned from Scouts for being an atheist'". The Telegraph Newspaper. 2012. Retrieved 2012-10-19. 
  34. ^ "A Scout is Reverent". BSA. Retrieved 2006-12-06. [dead link]
  35. ^ "Girl Scout Days". GSUSA. Retrieved 2006-12-06. 
  36. ^ "History of Scouting in the Church". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2009-12-02. 
  37. ^ Gustav Niebuhr (1999-05-22). "The Boy Scouts, a Battle and the Meaning of Faith". New York Times. Retrieved 2007-05-09. 
  38. ^ Isaacson, Eric Alan (2007). "Traditional Values, or a New Tradition of Prejudice? The Boy Scouts of America vs. the Unitarian Universalist Association of Congregations". George Mason University Civil Rights Law Journal 17 (1). Retrieved 2007-06-24. 

External links[edit]