Religion in Turkey
Islam is the largest religion of Turkey with 99.8% of the population being registered as Muslim, while other sources give a little lower estimate of 96.4%. Most Muslims in Turkey are Sunnis forming about 72%, and Alevis belonging to Shia denomination form about 25% of the Muslim population. There is also a Twelver Shia community which forms about 3% of the Muslim population. Among Sunni Muslim presence in Turkey there is a small but considerable minority of Muslims with Sufi heritage and affiliation. Christians (Oriental Orthodoxy, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic) and Jews (Sephardi), who comprise the non-Muslim religious population, make up 0.2% of the total.
Turkey is officially a secular country with no official religion since the constitutional amendment in 1924 and later strengthened by Atatürk's Reforms and the appliance of laïcité by the country's founder and first president Mustafa Kemal Atatürk at the end of 1937. However, currently all public schools from elementary to high school hold mandatory religion classes which only focus on the Sunni sect of Islam. In these classes, children are required to learn prayers and other religious practices which belong specifically to Sunnism. Thus, although Turkey is officially a secular state, the teaching of religious practices in public grade schools has been controversial. Its application to join the European Union divided existing members, some of which questioned whether a Muslim country could fit in. Turkish politicians have accused the country's EU opponents of favouring a "Christian club".
Beginning in the 1980s, the role of religion in the state has been a divisive issue, as influential religious factions challenged the complete secularization called for by Kemalism and the observance of Islamic practices experienced a substantial revival. In the early 2000s (decade), Islamic groups challenged the concept of a secular state with increasing vigor after Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party (AKP) came into power in 2002. Although the Turkish government states that more than 99% of the population is nominally Muslim, academic research and polls give different results of the percentage of Muslims which are usually lower, but most of which are above the 90% range. In the most recent poll conducted by Sabancı University, 98.3% of Turks revealed they were Muslim. Of that, 16% said they were "extremely religious", 39% said they were "somewhat religious", and 32% said they were "not religious". 3% of Turks declare themselves with no religious beliefs.
Islam is the religion with the largest community of followers in the country, where most of the population is nominally Muslim, of whom over 72% belong to the Sunni branch of Islam, predominantly following the Hanafi fiqh. Over 25% of the population belongs to the Alevi faith, thought by most of its adherents to be a form of Shia Islam; a minority consider it to have different origins (see Ishikism, Yazdanism). Closely related to Alevism is the small Bektashi community belonging to a Sufi order of Islam that is indigenous to Turkey, but also has numerous followers in the Balkan peninsula. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has a presence in eight districts of the country.
Islam arrived in the region that comprises present-day Turkey, particularly the eastern provinces of the country, as early as the 7th century. The mainstream Hanafi school of Sunni Islam is largely organized by the state through the Presidency of Religious Affairs (known colloquially as Diyanet), which was established in 1924 following the abolition of the Ottoman Caliphate and controls all mosques and Muslim clerics, and is officially the highest religious authority in the country.
As of today, there are thousands of historical mosques throughout the country which are still active. Notable mosques built in the Seljuk and Ottoman periods include the Sultan Ahmed Mosque and Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, the Selimiye Mosque in Edirne, the Yeşil Mosque in Bursa, the Alaeddin Mosque and Mevlana Mosque in Konya, and the Great Mosque in Divriği, among many others. Large mosques built in the Republic of Turkey period include the Kocatepe Mosque in Ankara and the Sabancı Mosque in Adana.
The remainder of the population belongs to other faiths, particularly Christian denominations (Greek Orthodox, Armenian Apostolic, Syriac Orthodox, Catholic and Protestant), and Judaism (mostly Sephardi Jews, and a smaller Ashkenazi community.)
Turkey has numerous important sites for Judaism and Christianity, being one of the birth places of the latter. Since the 4th century, Istanbul (Constantinople) has been the seat of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople (unofficially Fener Rum Ortodoks Patrikhanesi), which is one of the fourteen autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, and the primus inter pares (first among equals) in the Eastern Orthodox communion. However, the Turkish government does not recognize the ecumenical status of Patriarch Bartholomew I. The Halki seminary remains closed since 1971 due to the Patriarchate's refusal to accept the supervision of the Turkish Ministry of Education on the school's educational curricula; whereas the Turkish government wants the school to operate as a branch of the Faculty of Theology at Istanbul University.
Istanbul, since 1461, is the seat of the Armenian Patriarchate of Constantinople. There have been 84 individual Patriarchs since establishment of the Patriarchate. The first Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople was Hovakim I who ruled from 1461 to 1478. Sultan Mehmed II allowed the establishment of the Patriarchate in 1461, just eight years after the Fall of Constantinople in 1453. The Patriarch was recognized as the religious and secular leader of all Armenians in the Ottoman Empire, and carried the title of milletbaşı or ethnarch as well as patriarch. 75 patriarchs have ruled during the Ottoman period (1461-1908), 4 patriarchs in the Young Turks period (1908–1922) and 5 patriarchs in the current secular Republic of Turkey (1923–present). The current Armenian Patriarch is Mesrob II (Mutafyan) (Մեսրոպ Բ. Մութաֆեան), who has been in office since 1998.
There are many churches and synagogues throughout the country, such as the Church of St. George, the St. Anthony of Padua Church, the Cathedral of the Holy Spirit, the Neve Shalom Synagogue, the Italian Synagogue and the Ashkenazi Synagogue in Istanbul. There are also many historical churches which have been transformed into mosques or museums, such as the Hagia Sophia and Chora Church in Istanbul, the Church of St. Peter in Antakya, and the Church of St. Nicholas in Myra, among many others. There are probably 10 to 20 thousand Bahá'ís, and around a hundred Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey. There is an a small ethnic Turkish Protestant Christian community include about 4,000-5,000 adherents, most of them came from Muslim Turkish background.
The Bahá'í Faith in Turkey has roots in Bahá'u'lláh's, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, being exiled to Constantinople, current-day Istanbul, by the Ottoman authorities. Bahá'ís cannot register with the government officially, but there are probably 10 to 20 thousand Bahá'ís, and around a hundred Bahá'í Local Spiritual Assemblies in Turkey.
Turkey has a secular constitution, with no official state religion. The strong tradition of secularism in Turkey is essentially similar to the French model of laïcité, with the main distinction being that the Turkish state "openly and publicly controls Islam through its State Directorate of Religious Affairs". The constitution recognizes the freedom of religion for individuals, whereas the religious communities are placed under the protection and jurisdiction of the state and cannot become involved in the political process (e.g. by forming a religious party) or establish faith-based schools. No political party can claim that it represents a form of religious belief; nevertheless, religious sensibilities are generally represented through conservative parties. Turkey prohibits by law the wearing of religious headcover and other theopolitical symbolic garments (such as cross necklaces) for both genders in government buildings, schools, and public universities; the law was upheld by the Grand Chamber of the European Court of Human Rights as "legitimate" in the Leyla Şahin v. Turkey case on November 10, 2005.
Separation between mosque and state was established in Turkey soon after its founding in 1923, with an amendment to the Turkish constitution that mandated that Turkey had no official state religion and that the government and the state were to be free of religious influence. The modernizing reforms undertaken by President Mustafa Kemal Atatürk in the 1920s and 1930s further established secularism in Turkey.
Despite its official secularism, the Turkish government includes the state agency of the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı), whose purpose is stated by law "to execute the works concerning the beliefs, worship, and ethics of Islam, enlighten the public about their religion, and administer the sacred worshiping places". The institution, commonly known simply as Diyanet, operates 77,500 mosques, builds new ones, pays the salaries of imams, and approves all sermons given in mosques in Turkey. The Presidency of Religious Affairs finances only Sunni Muslim worship in Turkey. For example, Alevi, Câferî (mostly Azeris), and Bektashi Muslims (mostly Turkmen) participate in the financing of the mosques and the salaries of Sunni imams by paying taxes to the state, while their places of worship, which are not officially recognized, do not receive any state funding. The Presidency of Religious Affairs' budget rose from USD $0.9 billion for the year 2006 to $2.5 billion in 2012.
Beginning in the 1980s, the role of religion in the state has been a divisive issue, as influential religious factions challenged the complete secularization called for by Kemalism and the observance of Islamic practices experienced a substantial revival. In the early 2000s (decade), Islamic groups challenged the concept of a secular state with increasing vigor after Recep Tayyip Erdoğan's Islamist-rooted Justice and Development Party (AKP) came into power in 2002.
Turkey, through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923), recognizes the civil, political, and cultural rights of non-Muslim minorities. In practice, Turkey only recognizes Greek, Armenian, and Jewish religious minorities. Alevi, Bektashi, and Câferî Muslims among other Muslim sects, as well as Latin Catholics and Protestants, are not recognized officially. In 2013, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that Turkey had discriminated against the religious freedom of Alevis.
|Official recognition through the Constitution or international treaties||Government Financing of places of worship and religious staff|
|Sunni Islam - Hanafi||70 to 75% (52 to 64 millions)||No||Yes through the Diyanet mentioned in the Constitution (art.136) ||Yes through the Diyanet |
|Sunni Islam - Shafi'i||Yes through the Diyanet mentioned in the Constitution (art.136) |
|Shia Islam - Alevi||25 to 30% (11 to 19 millions)||Yes ||No. In 1826 with the abolition of the Janissary corps, the Bektashi tekke (dervish convent) were closed ||No |
|Shia Islam - Ja'fari||4% (3 millions) ||No ||No |
|Shia Islam - Alawite||300,000 to 350,000 ||No ||No |
|Christianity - Greek Orthodox||4,000||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Christianity – Greek Catholics||50||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Christianity - Arab Orthodox||18,000||No||No |
|Christianity - Armenian Orthodox||65,000||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Christianity - Armenian Catholics||3,500||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Christianity - Armenian Protestants||1,500||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Christianity - Syriac Orthodox||15,000||Yes ||No ||No |
|Christianity - Syriac Catholics||2,000||Yes ||No ||No |
|Christianity - Chaldean Catholics||8,000||Yes ||No ||No |
|Christianity - Protestant||5,000||No ||No |
|Christianity – Latin Catholics||20,000
||No ||No |
|Judaism||20,000||Yes ||Yes through the Treaty of Lausanne (1923)||No |
|Yazidis||500||No ||No |
With more than 100,000 employees, the Presidency of Religious Affairs has been described as state within the state. Its budget is compared with the budgets of other state departments as such:
- 1.6 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of the Interior
- 1.8 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Health
- 1.9 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Industry, Science and Technology
- 2.4 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Environment and Urban Planning
- 2.5 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Culture and Tourism
- 2.9 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- 3.4 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Economy
- 3.8 times larger than the budget of the Ministry of Development
- 4.6 times larger than the budget allocated to MIT – Secret Services 
- 5,0 times larger than the budget allocated to the Department of Emergency and Disaster Management
- 7.7 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources
- 9.1 times larger than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Customs and Trade
- 10.7 times greater than the budget allocated to Coast Guard
- 21.6 times greater than the budget allocated to the Ministry of the European Union
- 242 times larger than the budget for the National Security Council
- 268 times more important than the budget allocated to the Ministry of Public Employee
Diyanet's budget represents:
- 79% of the budget of the police
- 67% of the budget of the Ministry of Justice
- 57% of the budget of public hospitals
- 31% of the budget of the National Police
The mainstream Hanafite school of Sunni Islam is largely organised by the state, through the Presidency of Religious Affairs (Turkish: Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı), which controls all mosques and pays the salaries of all Muslim clerics. The directorate is criticized by some Alevi Muslims for not supporting their beliefs and instead favoring only the Sunni faith.
The Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople (Patrik) is the head of the Greek Orthodox Church in Turkey, and also serves as the spiritual leader of all Orthodox churches throughout the world. The Armenian Patriarch is the head of the Armenian Church in Turkey, while the Jewish community is led by the Hahambasi, Turkey's Chief Rabbi, based in Istanbul. These groups have also criticized the Presidency of Religious Affairs for only financially supporting Islam in Turkey.
Historical Christian sites
Antioch (modern Antakya), the city where "the disciples were first called Christians" according to the biblical Book of Acts, is located in modern Turkey, as are most of the areas visited by St. Paul during his missions. The Epistle to the Galatians, Epistle to the Ephesians, Epistle to the Colossians, First Epistle of Peter, and Book of Revelation are addressed to recipients in the territory of modern Turkey. Additionally, all of the first Seven Ecumenical Councils that define Christianity for Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic Christians took place in the territory that is now Turkey. Many titular sees exist in Turkey, as Anatolia was historically home to a large Christian population for centuries.
Freedom of religion
Turkey has a democratic government and a strong tradition of secularism. Nevertheless, the Turkish state's interpretation of secularism has reportedly resulted in religious freedom violations for some of its non-Muslim citizens. The 2009 U.S. Commission on International Religious Freedom report placed Turkey on its watchlist with countries such as Afghanistan, Cuba, the Russian Federation, and Venezuela. Nevertheless, according to this report, the situation for Jews in Turkey is better than in other majority Muslim countries. Jews report being able to worship freely and their places of worship having the protection of the government when required. Jews also operate their own schools, hospitals, two elderly homes, welfare institutions, as well as a newspaper. Despite this, concerns have arisen in recent years because of attacks by extremists on synagogues in 2003, as well as growing anti-Semitism in some sectors of the Turkish media and society.
Roman Catholics have also occasionally been subjected to violent societal attacks. In February 2006, an Italian Catholic priest was shot to death in his church in Trabzon, reportedly by a youth angered over the caricatures of Muhammad in Danish newspapers. The government strongly condemned the killing. A 16-year-old boy was subsequently charged with the murder and sentenced to 19 years in prison. In December 2007, a 19-year-old stabbed a Catholic priest outside a church in Izmir; the priest was treated and released the following day. According to newspaper reports, the assailant, who was arrested soon afterwards, admitted that he had been influenced by a recent television program that depicted Christian missionaries as "infiltrators" who took advantage of poor people.
The Armenian Patriarch, head of the Armenian Orthodox Church, also lacks the status of legal personality (unlike the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople, who has a government-recognized role), and there is no seminary in Turkey to educate its clerics since the closure of the last remaining seminar by the state, as only 65,000 Armenian Orthodox people live in Turkey. In 2006, the Armenian Patriarch submitted a proposal to the Minister of Education to enable his community to establish a faculty in the Armenian language at a state university with instruction by the Patriarch. Under current restrictions, only the Sunni Muslim community can legally operate institutions to train new clergy in Turkey for future leadership.
Patriarch Bartholomew I, most senior bishop among equals in the traditional hierarchy of Orthodox Christianity, said that he felt "crucified" living in Turkey under a government that did not recognize the ecumenical status of Patriarch and which would like to see his Patriarchate die out. The AKP government under Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdoğan criticized Bartholomew I, with deputy prime minister Arınç saying that the Orthodox Church enjoyed their religious rights during the AKP's rule, and foreign minister Davutoğlu saying that he hoped that the Patriarch's remarks had been a "slip of the tongue". In response to the government's criticism, Bartholomew's lawyer said when the patriarchate was criticizing government, he was referring to the state, not the AKP government in particular. Prime Minister Erdoğan said that “When it comes to the question, 'Are you recognizing [him] as ecumenical?', I wouldn’t be annoyed by it [this title]. Since it didn't annoy my ancestors, it will not annoy me, either. But it may annoy some [people] in my country". The Greek Orthodox orphanage in Büyükada was closed by the government; however, following a ruling by the European Court of Human Rights, the deed to the orphanage was returned to the Ecumenical Patriarchate on November 29, 2010.
In the most recent poll conducted by Sabancı University,[when?] 98.3% of Turks revealed they were Muslim. Of that, 16% said they were "extremely religious", 39% said they were "somewhat religious", and 32% said they were "not religious". 3% of Turks declare themselves with no religious beliefs.
- 94% of Turkish citizens responded: "I believe there is a God".
- 1% responded: "I believe there is some sort of spirit or life force".
- 1% responded: "I don't believe there is any sort of spirit, God, or life force".
Increased Islamic religiosity
The rise of Islamic religiosity in Turkey in the last two decades has been discussed for the past several years. Many see Turkish society moving towards a more hardline Islamic identity and country, citing increasing religious criticisms against "immoral" behavior and government policies seen as enforcing conservative Islamic morality, including mandates of wearing modest clothing and banning of lipstick and nail polish for airline hostesses, as well as the controversial blasphemy conviction of the pianist Fazıl Say for "insulting Islam" by retweeting a joke about the Islamic Friday prayer. The New York Times published a report about Turkey in 2012, noting an increased polarization between secular and religious groups in Turkish society and politics. Critics argue that Turkish public institutions, once staunchly secular, are shifting in favor of Islamists.
Current Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan, whose Justice and Development Party (AKP) traces its roots to a series of banned Islamist parties (specifically Virtue Party, Welfare Party, and National Salvation Party), campaigned in his victorious 2007 campaign with a promise of lifting the longstanding ban on headscarves in public governmental institutions.
On February 7, 2008, the Turkish Parliament passed an amendment to the constitution, allowing women to wear the headscarf in Turkish universities, arguing that many women would not seek an education if they could not wear the headscarf. The ruling AKP and a key opposition party, the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), claimed that it was an issue of human rights and freedoms.
Restriction of alcohol sales and advertising
In 2013, the parliament of Turkey passed legislation that bans all forms of advertising for alcoholic beverages and tightened restriction of alcohol sales.This also includes the blurring of images on television. The law was sponsored by the ruling AKP.
Books in school
In 2013, several books that were previously recommend for classroom use were found to be rewritten to include more Islamic themes, without the Ministry of Education's consent. Traditional stories of Pinocchio, Heidi, and Tom Sawyer were rewritten to include characters that wished each other a "God-blessed morning" and statements that included "in Allah's name"; in one rewrite, one of the Three Musketeers converted to Islam.
- Islam in Turkey
- Christianity in Turkey
- Judaism in Turkey
- Hinduism in Turkey
- Cultural Muslim
- List of mosques in Turkey
- List of synagogues in Turkey
- Headscarf controversy in Turkey
- Religion by country
- Mersin Interfaith Cemetery
- "Turkey". World Factbook. CIA. 2007.
- "Country - Turkey". Joshua Project. Retrieved 27 April 2014.
- Country Profile - Turkey, January 2006, United States Library of Congress, 2008-01
- Shankland, David (2003). The Alevis in Turkey: The Emergence of a Secular Islamic Tradition. Routledge (UK). p. 20. ISBN 0-7007-1606-8.
Some [researchers] claim that the number of Alevis is as high as 30 per cent of Turkey's population. Others state that there are as few as 10 per cent. My own feeling ... offered purely tentatively, is that the proportion of Turkeys' population that today holds itself to be Alevis is ... perhaps nearer to 15 per cent.
- "Turkey - A Brief Profile". United Nations Population Fund. 2006. Retrieved 2006-12-27.
- BBC - Muslims in Europe: Country profile
- Ankette Mezhep Soruları
- Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs - Background Note: Turkey...
- "MEMBERS OF THE AHMADIYYA MUSLIM COMMUNITY DR MUHAMMED JALAL SHAMS, OSMAN SEKER, KUBILAY ÇIL: PRISONERS OF CONSCIENCE FOR THEIR RELIGIOUS BELIEFS". Amnesty International. June 5, 2002. Retrieved June 10, 2014.
- Basic Principles, Aims And Objectives, Presidency of Religious Affairs
- United Nations Population Fund (2006). "Turkey - A Brief Profile". United Nations Population Fund. Retrieved 2006-12-27.[dead link]
- The Patriarchate of Constantinople (The Ecumenical Patriarchate) by Ronald Roberson
- "The Patriarch Bartholomew". 60 Minutes. CBS. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "For the first time, Turkish Baha'i appointed as dean". The Muslim Network for Baha’i Rights. 2008-12-13. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- "Turkey /Religions & Peoples". LookLex Encyclopedia. LookLex Ltd. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- Walbridge, John (March 2002). "Chapter Four - The Baha'i Faith in Turkey". Occasional Papers in Shaykhi, Babi and Baha'i Studies 06 (1).
- Interview with Zekai Tanyar, the Chair of the Association of Protestant Churches in Turkey
- Turkish Protestants still face "long path" to religious freedom
- Christians in eastern Turkey worried despite church opening
- Muslim Nationalism and the New Turks
- TURKEY: Protestant church closed down
- U.S. State Department (19 September 2008). "International Religious Freedom Report 2008: Turkey". The Office of Electronic Information, Bureau of Public Affairs. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
- Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots. BBC News. 2003-10-29.
- Barras, Amélie (2008), http://cadmus.eui.eu/bitstream/handle/1814/8870/?sequence=1, EUI-RSCAS Working Papers, European University Institute, Robert Schuman Centre of Advanced Studies, p. 3
- "Headscarf row goes to Turkey's roots". BBC News. 2003-10-29. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- Çarkoglu, Ali; Rubin, Barry (2004). Religion and Politics in Turkey. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-34831-5.
- "The Islamic veil across Europe". British Broadcasting Corporation. 2006-11-17. Retrieved 2006-12-13.
- European Court of Human Rights (2005-11-10). "Leyla Şahin v. Turkey". ECHR. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
- Presidency of Religious Affairs, official website.
- Presidency of Religious Affairs. Establishment and a brief history.
- Samim Akgönül - Religions de Turquie, religions des Turcs: nouveaux acteurs dans l'Europe élargie - L'Harmattan - 2005 - 196 pages
- The World of the Alevis: Issues of Culture and Identity, Gloria L. Clarke
- Rapport Minority Rights Group Bir eşitlik arayışı: Türkiye’de azınlıklar Uluslararası Azınlık Hakları Grubu 2007 Dilek Kurban
- "Foreign Ministry: 89,000 minorities live in Turkey". Today's Zaman. 2008-12-15. Retrieved 2008-12-15.
- The Greeks of Turkey, 1992-1995 Fact-sheet by Marios D. Dikaiakos
- Christen in der islamischen Welt – Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte (APuZ 26/2008)
- Turay, Anna. "Tarihte Ermeniler". Bolsohays: Istanbul Armenians. Archived from the original on 6 December 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-04.
- Hür, Ayşe (2008-08-31). "Türk Ermenisiz, Ermeni Türksüz olmaz!". Taraf (in Turkish). Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-02.
Sonunda nüfuslarını 70 bine indirmeyi başardık.
- Andrea Riccardi, Il secolo del martirio, Mondadori, 2009, pag. 281.
- "Turkey". International Religious Freedom Report 2007. U.S. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2007-09-14. Retrieved 2008-08-19.
- "The Patriarch Bartholomew". 60 Minutes. CBS News. 20 December 2009. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Government Spokesman Criticizes Greek Patriarch Over Crucifixion Remarks". Turkishpress.com. 21 December 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Gül backs minister's criticism of Patriarch Bartholomew". Today's Zaman. 22 December 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Bartholomew crucified, Erdoğan suffers from Hellish torture!(1)". Today's Zaman. 25 December 2009. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "Greece, Turkey mark a fresh start aimed at eventual partnership". Today's Zaman. 17 May 2010. Retrieved 17 August 2010.
- "The Greek Orthodox Church In Turkey: A Victim Of Systematic Expropriation". United States Commission On Security And Cooperation In Europe. 16 March 2005. Retrieved 10 May 2010.
- Selcan Hacaoğlu (November 29, 2010). "Turkey gives orphanage to Ecumenical Patriarchate". The Washington Post.
- "Religion is very important". Global Attitudes Project. Pew Research Center. 2002-12-19. Retrieved 2002-12-19.
- "Special Eurobarometer, biotechnology, page 204" (PDF). Fieldwork: Jan-Feb 2010. Check date values in:
- Turkey becoming more religious. NYT
- Turkey become more islamic Jp
- banned lipstick
- turkey islam
- Ayman, Zehra; Knickmeyer, Ellen. Ban on Head Scarves Voted Out in Turkey: Parliament Lifts 80-Year-Old Restriction on University Attire. The Washington Post. 2008-02-10. Page A17.
- Derakhshandeh, Mehran. Just a headscarf? Tehran Times. Mehr News Agency. 2008-02-16.
- Jenkins, Gareth. Turkey's Constitutional Changes: Much Ado About Nothing? Eurasia Daily Monitor. The Jamestown Foundation. 2008-02-11.
- Turkish president approves amendment lifting headscarf ban. The Times of India. 2008-02-23.
- -Turkey bans alcohol advertising. toi
- Turkey more Islamic