Religious Kibbutz Movement

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The Religious Kibbutz Movement (Hebrew: הקיבוץ הדתי‎, HaKibbutz HaDati) is an organizational framework for Orthodox kibbutzim in Israel. Its membership includes 19 communities, 16 of them traditional kibbutzim, and three others in the category of moshav shitufi (communal settlements), meaning that they have no communal dining hall or children's house but maintain a shared economy. The Religious Kibbutz Movement has about 10,000 members.

History[edit]

The Religious Kibbutz Movement was founded in 1935 by groups of Jewish pioneers who immigrated to Palestine from Europe.[1] It was the fourth kibbutz movement established in Palestine, after Hever Hakvutzot, HaKibbutz HaMeuhad and Hashomer Hatzair. From the outset, the policy of this movement was settlement in clusters, due to the need for religious schooling. [2] Another consideration was the desire to counteract the influences of a secular environment: A single religious kibbutz in a non-religious environment would find it difficult to defend its religious and social principles. Bloc settlement also created the possibility for mutual assistance, with veteran settlements sharing their experience with those that came later.[3]

Settlement blocs[edit]

In 1937-1948, the Religious Kibbutz Movement established three settlement blocs of three kibbutzim each. The first was in the Beit Shean Valley, the second was in the Hebron mountains south of Bethlehem (known as Gush Etzion), and the third was in the western Negev. Another kibbutz, Yavne, was founded in the center of the country as the core of a fourth bloc which only came into being after the establishment of the state.[4]

Current trends[edit]

Many kibbutzim of the Religious Kibbutz Movement are in the midst of privatization, similar to the trend in non-religious kibbutzim. The movement operates a number of educational institutions, including Yeshivat Ein Tzurim, Yeshivat Ma'ale Gilboa, Ein HaNatziv Women's Seminary, the Yaacov Herzog Institute for Jewish Studies, a school for post-military Jewish studies for women on Massuot Yitzhak, and a Field School at Kfar Etzion. Three kibbutzim, Beerot Yitzhak, Sde Eliyahu and Yavneh, also offer 5-month ulpan (Hebrew language study) programs for participants from abroad.

List of member kibbutzim[edit]

Lower Galilee

Mount Gilboa

Beit She'an Valley

Center

Gush Etzion

Shafir Region

Western Negev

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Settlement clustering on a socio-cultural basis: The bloc settlement policy of the Religious Kibbutz Movement in Palestine," Yossi Katz, Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.161-171, 1995
  2. ^ "Settlement clustering on a socio-cultural basis: The bloc settlement policy of the Religious Kibbutz Movement in Palestine," Yossi Katz, Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.161-171, 1995
  3. ^ "Settlement clustering on a socio-cultural basis: The bloc settlement policy of the Religious Kibbutz Movement in Palestine," Yossi Katz, Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.161-171, 1995
  4. ^ "Settlement clustering on a socio-cultural basis: The bloc settlement policy of the Religious Kibbutz Movement in Palestine," Yossi Katz, Journal of Rural Studies, vol. 11, no. 2, pp.161-171, 1995

External links[edit]