Religious conversion is the adoption of a set of beliefs identified with one particular religious denomination to the exclusion of others. Thus "religious conversion" would describe the abandoning of adherence to one denomination and affiliating with another. This might be from one to another denomination within the same religion, for example, Christian Baptist to Methodist or Catholic, Muslim Shi'a to Sunni. In some cases, religious conversion "marks a transformation of religious identity and is symbolized by special rituals".
People convert to a different religion for various reasons, including: active conversion by free choice due to a change in beliefs, secondary conversion, deathbed conversion, conversion for convenience and marital conversion, and forced conversion such as conversion by violence or charity.[clarification needed]
Conversion or reaffiliation for convenience is an insincere act, sometimes for relatively trivial reasons such as a parent converting to enable a child to be admitted to a good school associated with a religion, or a person adopting a religion more in keeping with the social class he or she aspires to. When people marry one spouse may convert to the religion of the other.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion under duress. The convert may secretly retain the previous beliefs and continue, covertly, with the practices of the original religion, while outwardly maintaining the forms of the new religion. Over generations a family forced against their will to convert may wholeheartedly adopt the new religion.
Apostate is a term used by members of a religion or denomination to refer to someone who has left that religion or denomination.
- 1 Abrahamic religions
- 2 Indian religions
- 3 Other religions and sects
- 4 International law
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Further reading
- 8 External links
||This section possibly contains original research. (September 2007)|
||This section needs attention from an expert in Judaism. (July 2007)|
Jewish law has a number of requirements of potential converts. They should desire conversion to Judaism for its own sake, and for no other motives. A male convert needs to undergo a ritual circumcision conducted according to Jewish law (if already circumcised, a needle is used to draw a symbolic drop of blood while the appropriate blessings are said), and there has to be a commitment to observe Jewish law. A convert must join the Jewish community, and reject the previous theology he or she had prior to the conversion. Ritual immersion in a small pool of water known as a mikvah is required.
In Hellenistic and Roman times, some Pharisees were eager proselytizers, and had at least some success throughout the empire.
Some Jews are also descended from converts to Judaism outside the Mediterranean world. It is known that some Khazars, Edomites, and Ethiopians, as well as many Arabs, particularly in Yemen. The word "proselyte" originally meant a Greek who had converted to Judaism. As late as the 6th century the Eastern Roman empire and Caliph Umar ibn Khattab were issuing decrees against conversion to Judaism, implying that this was still occurring.
Conversion to Christianity is the religious conversion of a previously non-Christian person to some form of Christianity. The exact requirements vary between different churches and denominations. The process of converting to Catholicism involves religious education followed by initial participation in the sacraments. In general, conversion to Christian Faith primarily involves repentance for sin and a decision to live a life that is holy and acceptable to God through faith in the atoning death and resurrection of Jesus Christ. All of this is essentially done through a voluntary exercise of the will of the individual concerned. True conversion to Christianity is thus a personal, internal matter and can never be forced. Converts are almost always expected to be baptized.
Christians consider that conversion requires internalization of the new belief system. It implies a new reference point for the convert's self-identity, and is a matter of belief and social structure—of both faith and affiliation. This typically entails the sincere avowal of a new belief system, but may also present itself in other ways, such as adoption into an identity group or spiritual lineage.
Catholics, and Orthodox denominations encourage infant baptism before children are aware of their status. In Roman Catholicism and certain high church forms of Protestantism, baptized children are expected to participate in confirmation classes as pre-teens. In Eastern Orthodoxy, the equivalent of confirmation, chrismation, is administered to all converts, adult and infant alike, immediately after baptism.
Methods of baptism include immersion, sprinkling (aspersion) and pouring (affusion). Baptism received by adults or younger people who have reached the age of accountability where they can make a personal religious decision is referred to as believer's baptism among conservative or evangelical Protestant groups. It is intended as a public statement of a person's prior decision to become a Christian. Some Christian groups such as Catholics, Churches of Christ, and Christadelphians believe baptism is essential to salvation.
Accepting Christ and renouncing sin
“Conversion” derives from the Latin conversiōn-em, literally meaning “turning round” and figuratively meaning a “change in character”. “Change of heart”, “metanoia”, and “regeneration” are among the synonyms for conversion. Conversion is, therefore, more than a mere change in religious identity, but a change in nature (regeneration), evidenced by a change in values. Jesus demands "metánoia (conversion)" to become a good tree that bears good fruit (Matthew 7:17–18, [Luke 6:43]).
According to Christianity, a convert renounces sin as worthless and treasures instead the supreme worth of Christ in Jesus' sacrificial death and resurrection. Christian conversion is a “deeply personal” matter. It entails changes in thinking, priorities and commitments: “a whole new direction in one's life”.
Because conversion is a change in values that embraces God and rejects sin, it includes a personal commitment to a life of holiness as described by Paul of Tarsus and exemplified by Jesus. In some Protestant traditions, this is called "accepting Christ as one's Savior and following him as Lord." In another variation, the 1910 Catholic Dictionary defines "conversion" as "One who turns or changes from a state of sin to repentance, from a lax to a more earnest and serious way of life, from unbelief to faith, from heresy to the true faith." The Eastern Orthodox understanding of conversion is illustrated in the rite of baptism, in which the convert faces west while publicly renouncing and symbolically spitting upon Satan, and then turns to the east to worship Christ "as king and God".
In the New Testament, Jesus commanded his disciples in the Great Commission to "go and make disciples of all nations" ([Matthew 28:19], [Mark 16:15]). Evangelization—sharing the Gospel message or "Good News" in deed and word, is an expectation of Christians.
Transferring from one Christian denomination to another may consist of a relatively simple transfer of membership, especially if moving from one Trinitarian denomination to another, and if the person has received water baptism in the name of the Trinity. If not, then the person may be required to be baptized or rebaptized before acceptance by the new church. Some denominations, such as those in the Anabaptist tradition, require previously baptized Christians to be re-baptized. The Eastern Orthodox Church treats a transfer from another denomination of Christianity to Orthodoxy (conceived of as the one true Church) as a category of conversion and repentance, though re-baptism is not always required.
The process of conversion to Christianity varies somewhat among Christian denominations. Most Protestants believe in conversion by faith to attain salvation. According to this understanding, a person professes faith in Jesus Christ as God, their Lord and savior. Repentance for sin and a holy living are expected of those professing faith in Jesus Christ. While an individual may make such a decision privately, usually it entails being baptized and becoming a member of a denomination or church. In these traditions, a person is considered to become a Christian by publicly acknowledging the foundational Christian doctrines that Jesus Christ died, was buried, and was resurrected for the remission of sins.
Comparison between Protestants
This table summarizes three Protestant beliefs.
|Conversion||Monergistic, through the inner calling of the Holy Spirit, irresistible.||Monergistic, through the means of grace, resistible.||Synergistic, resistible due to the common grace of free will.|
Much of the theology of Mormon baptism was established during the early Latter Day Saint movement founded by Joseph Smith, Jr. According to this theology, baptism must be by immersion, for the remission of sins (meaning that through baptism, past sins are forgiven), and occurs after one has shown faith and repentance. Mormon baptism does not purport to remit any sins other than personal ones, as adherents do not believe in original sin. Mormon baptisms also occur only after an "age of accountability" which is defined as the age of eight years. The theology thus rejects infant baptism.
In addition, Mormon theology requires that baptism may only be performed with one who has been called and ordained by God with priesthood authority. Because the churches of the Latter Day Saint movement operate under a lay priesthood, children raised in a Mormon family are usually baptized by a father or close male friend or family member who has achieved the office of priest, which in Mormonism is conferred upon worthy male members at least 16 years old.
Baptism is seen as symbolic both of Jesus' death, burial and resurrection and is also symbolic of the baptized individual putting off of the natural or sinful man and becoming spiritually reborn as a disciple of Jesus.
Membership into a Latter Day Saint church is granted only by baptism whether or not a person has been raised in the church. Latter Day Saint churches do not recognize baptisms of other faiths as valid because they believe baptisms must be performed under the church's unique authority. Thus, all who come into one of the Latter Day Saint faiths as converts are baptized, even if they have previously received baptism in another faith.
When performing a Baptism, Latter Day Saints say the following prayer before performing the ordinance:
Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen
Baptisms inside and outside the temples are usually done in a baptistry, although they can be performed in any body of water in which the person may be completely immersed. The person administering the baptism must recite the prayer exactly, and immerse every part, limb, hair and clothing of the person being baptized. If there are any mistakes, or if any part of the person being baptized is not fully immersed, the baptism must be redone. In addition to the baptizer, two priesthood holders witness the baptism to ensure that it is performed properly.
||This section needs attention from an expert in Islam. (September 2013)|
There are five pillars, or foundations, of Islam but the primary, and most important is to believe that there is only one God and creator, referred to as Allah (the word for the name of God in Arabic) and that the Islamic prophet, Muhammad, is His final messenger. A person is considered to have converted to Islam from the moment he or she sincerely makes this declaration of faith, called the shahadah.
Islam teaches that everyone is Muslim at birth because every child that is born has a natural inclination to goodness and to worship the one true God alone, but his or her parents or society can cause him or her to deviate from the straight path. When someone accepts Islam he/she is considered to revert to his/her original condition. While conversion to Islam is among its most supported tenets, conversion from Islam to another religion is considered to be the sin of apostasy. In several Muslim majority countries it is subject to the death penalty or heavy punishments. In Islam, circumcision is a Sunnah custom not mentioned in the Quran. The primary opinion is that it is not obligatory and is not a condition for entering into Islam. The Shafi`i and Hanbali schools regard it as obligatory, while the Maliki and Hanafi schools regard it as only recommended. However, it is not a precondition for the acceptance of a person's Islamic practices, nor does one sin if choosing to forgo circumcision. It is not one of the Five Pillars of Islam or the Six Fundamentals of Belief.
In sharing their faith with others, Bahá'ís are cautioned to "obtain a hearing" – meaning to make sure the person they are proposing to teach is open to hearing what they have to say. "Bahá'í pioneers", rather than attempting to supplant the cultural underpinnings of the people in their adopted communities, are encouraged to integrate into the society and apply Bahá'í principles in living and working with their neighbors.
Bahá'ís recognize the divine origins of all revealed religion, and believe that these religions occurred sequentially as part of a Divine plan (see Progressive revelation), with each new revelation superseding and fulfilling that of its predecessors. Bahá'ís regard their own faith as the most recent (but not the last), and believe its teachings – which are centered around the principle of the oneness of humanity – are most suited to meeting the needs of a global community.
In most countries conversion is a simple matter of filling out a card stating a declaration of belief. This includes acknowledgement of Bahá'u'llah – the Founder of the Faith – as the Messenger of God for this age, awareness and acceptance of His teachings, and intention to be obedient to the institutions and laws He established.
Conversion to the Bahá'í Faith carries with it an explicit belief in the common foundation of all revealed religion, a commitment to the unity of mankind, and active service to the community at large, especially in areas that will foster unity and concord. Since the Bahá'í Faith has no clergy, converts to this Faith are encouraged to be active in all aspects of community life. Even a recent convert may be elected to serve on a Local Spiritual Assembly – the guiding Bahá'í institution at the community level.
Clear concepts of proselytization and conversion play a marginal role in practice. Early in their history, in the absence of other competing religions, Hindus considered everyone they came across as Hindu and expected everyone they met to be Hindu. Another opinion holds that early in their history, there was no single strain of belief system that could be called Hinduism, and this diversity created a natural inclination for tolerance in Hinduism.
Hindus today continue to be influenced by historical ideas of acceptability of conversion. Hence, many Hindus continue to believe that Hinduism is an identity obtained by birth, while many others continue to believe that anyone who follows Hindu beliefs and practices is a Hindu, and many believe in some form of both theories. However, as a reaction to perceived and actual threat proselytization activities of other major religions many modern Hindus are opposed to the idea of conversion from (any) one religion to (any) other per se. However, Hindus in western countries generally accept and welcome willing converts, whereas in India acceptance of willing converts is becoming more common.
There is no formal process for converting to Hinduism, although in many traditions a ritual called dīkshā ("initiation") marks the beginning of spiritual life. A ritual called shuddhi ("purification") sometimes marks the return to spiritual life after reconversion. Most Hindu sects do not seek converts, as they believe that the goals of spiritual life can be attained through any religion, as long as it is practiced sincerely. However, the persons converting to Hinduism normally perform "Yagna" or "Homa" (i.e., fire rituals) under guidance of local Hindu priests and after which the said person is considered to be Hindu and there are some Hindu sects and affiliates such as Arya Samaj, Saiva Siddhanta Church, BAPS, and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness accept those who have a desire to follow Hinduism.
Jainism accepts anyone who wants to embrace the religion. There is no specific ritual for becoming a Jain. One does not need to ask any authorities for admission. One becomes a Jain on their own by adopting the five vows. Following the five vows is the basic requirement in following Jainism. All other aspects, such as visiting temples, becoming a monk, etc. are secondary.
Persons newly adhering to Buddhism traditionally "take Refuge" (express faith in the Three Jewels—Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha) before a monk, nun, or similar representative. But cultural or secular Buddhists often hold multiple religious identities, combining the religion with some East Asian religions in different countries and ethnics, such as:
|Ethnic||Buddhism with local traditional religions|
|Chinese||Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism, and Chinese folk religion|
|Japanese||Mahayana Buddhism with Shinto|
|Korean||Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, and Korean shamanism|
|Vietnamese||Mahayana Buddhism with Confucianism, Taoism, and Dao Mau|
|Mongolian||Vajrayana Buddhism with Tengrism, and Mongolian shamanism|
|Nepali||Vajrayana Buddhism with Hinduism|
|Jewish Buddhist||Buddhism with Judaism|
Throughout the timeline of Buddhism, conversions of entire countries and regions to Buddhism were frequent, as Buddhism spread throughout Asia. For example, in the 11th century in Burma, king Anoratha converted his entire country to Theravada Buddhism. At the end of the 12th century, Jayavarman VII set the stage for conversion of the Khmer people to Theravada Buddhism. Mass conversions of areas and communities to Buddhism occur up to the present day, for example, in the Dalit Buddhist movement in India there have been organized mass conversions.
Other religions and sects
In the second half of the 20th century, the rapid growth of new religious movements (NRMs) led some psychologists and other scholars to propose that these groups were using "brainwashing" or "mind control" techniques to gain converts. This theory was publicized by the popular news media but disputed by other scholars, including some sociologists of religion.
In the 1960s sociologist John Lofland lived with Unification Church missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American church members in California and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win converts to their church. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith. It is considered to be one of the most important and widely cited studies of the process of religious conversion, and one of the first modern sociological studies of a new religious movement.
The Church of Scientology attempts to gain converts by offering "free stress tests". It has also used the celebrity status of some of its members (most famously the American actor Tom Cruise) to attract converts. The Church of Scientology requires that all converts sign a legal waiver which covers their relationship with the Church of Scientology before engaging in Scientology services.
Research in the United States and the Netherlands has shown a positive correlation between areas lacking mainstream churches and the percentage of people who are a member of a new religious movement. This applies also for the presence of New Age centres.
On the other end of the scale are religions that do not accept any converts, or do so very rarely. Often these are relatively small, close-knit minority religions that are ethnically based such as the Yazidis, Druze, and Mandaeans. Zoroastrianism classically does not accept converts, but this issue has become controversial in the 20th century due to the rapid decline in membership. Chinese traditional religion lacks clear criteria for membership, and hence for conversion. The Shakers and some Indian eunuch brotherhoods do not allow procreation, so that every member is a convert.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights defines religious conversion as a human right: "Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief" (Article 18). Despite this UN-declared human right, some groups forbid or restrict religious conversion (see below).
Based on the declaration the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) drafted the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, a legally binding treaty. It states that "Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice" (Article 18.1). "No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice" (Article 18.2).
The UNCHR issued a General Comment on this Article in 1993: "The Committee observes that the freedom to 'have or to adopt' a religion or belief necessarily entails the freedom to choose a religion or belief, including the right to replace one's current religion or belief with another or to adopt atheistic views [...] Article 18.2 bars coercion that would impair the right to have or adopt a religion or belief, including the use of threat of physical force or penal sanctions to compel believers or non-believers to adhere to their religious beliefs and congregations, to recant their religion or belief or to convert." (CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4, General Comment No. 22.; emphasis added)
Some countries distinguish voluntary, motivated conversion from organized proselytism, attempting to restrict the latter. The boundary between them is not easily defined: what one person considers legitimate evangelizing, or witness-bearing, another may consider intrusive and improper. Illustrating the problems that can arise from such subjective viewpoints is this extract from an article by Dr. C. Davis, published in Cleveland State University's Journal of Law and Health: "According to the Union of American Hebrew Congregations, Jews for Jesus and Hebrew Christians constitute two of the most dangerous cults, and its members are appropriate candidates for deprogramming. Anti-cult evangelicals ... protest that 'aggressiveness and proselytizing ... are basic to authentic Christianity,' and that Jews for Jesus and Campus Crusade for Christ are not to be labeled as cults. Furthermore, certain Hassidic groups who physically attacked a meeting of the Hebrew Christian 'cult' have themselves been labeled a 'cult' and equated with the followers of Reverend Moon, by none other than the President of the Central Conference of American Rabbis."
Since the collapse of the former Soviet Union the Russian Orthodox Church has enjoyed a revival. However, it takes exception to what it considers illegitimate proselytizing by the Roman Catholic Church, the Salvation Army, Jehovah's Witnesses, and other religious movements in what it refers to as its canonical territory.
Greece has a long history of conflict, mostly with Jehovah's Witnesses, but also with some Pentecostals, over its laws on proselytism. This situation stems from a law passed in the 1930s by the dictator Ioannis Metaxas. A Jehovah's Witness, Minos Kokkinakis, won the equivalent of $14,400 in damages from the Greek state after being arrested for trying to preach his faith from door to door. In another case, Larissis v. Greece, a member of the Pentecostal church also won a case in the European Court of Human Rights.
Some Islamic countries with Islamic law outlaw and carry strict sentences for proselytizing. Several Islamic countries under Islamic law—Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Egypt, Iran, and Maldives—outlaw apostasy and carry imprisonment or the death penalty for those leaving Islam and those enticing Muslims to leave Islam. Also, induced religious conversions in the Indian states Orissa has resulted in communal riots.
- Apostasy, or renunciation of religion
- Deathbed conversion, adoption of faith before dying
- Forced conversion against the will of the subject
- Secondary conversion that results from a relationship
- Moral conversion based on the internalist view of morality
- List of converts to Christianity
- List of converts to Hinduism
- List of converts to Islam
- List of converts to Judaism
- List of converts to Buddhism
- Love Jihad conversion to Islam by feigning love
- Missionary sent abroad
- Islamic Missionary Activity
- Missionary (LDS Church)
- Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults
- Safavid conversion of Iran from Sunnism to Shiism
- The Rage Against God, 2010 book by Peter Hitchens
- Conversion to Islam in U.S. prisons
- More conservative Protestants, especially Fundamentalists, would view a "reaffiliation" to Catholicism as a conversion to a new religion.
- Stark, Rodney and Roger Finke. "Acts of Faith: Explaining the Human Side of Religion." University of California Press, 2000. ISBN 978-0-520-22202-1
- Meintel, Deirdre. "When There Is No Conversion: Spiritualists and Personal Religious Change". Anthropologica 49 (1): 149–162.
- Falkenberg, Steve. "Psychological Explanations of Religious Socialization." Religious Conversion. Eastern Kentucky University. August 31, 2009.
- The Independent newspaper: "... finding religion – is there anything middle-class parents won't try to get their children into the 'right' schools?"
- Hefner, Robert W. Conversion to Christianity. University of California Press, 1993. ISBN 0-520-07836-5
- Bromiley, Geoffrey W. "Baptism." The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: A-D (p. 419). Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1995. ISBN 0-8028-3781-6
- "The Purpose of Baptism." http://gospelway.com/salvation/baptism_purpose.php
- Augsburg Confession, Article XII: Of Repentance
- "conversion, n.". OED Online. September 2013. Oxford University Press.
- Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich, eds, Theological Dictionary of the New Testament: Abridged in One Volume by Geoffrey W. Bromily (Eerdmans, 1985) 101, 403.
- Conversion to Christ: The Making of a Christian Hedonist
- “St. Paul on Conversion” at http://jesuschristsavior.net/Conversion.html. Accessed November 5, 2013
- BibleGateway.com- Commentaries » Matthew 16 » The Cost of the Kingdom
- New Catholic Dictionary: conversion
- † Saints Constantine & Elena: Reception into the Catechumenate
- Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 70, note 171. Calvin generally defends Augustine’s “monergistic view.”
- http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Monergism and Paul ChulHong Kang, Justification: The Imputation of Christ's Righteousness from Reformation Theology to the American Great Awakening and the Korean Revivals (Peter Lang, 2006), 65.
- Roger E. Olson, Arminian Theology: Myths and Realities (InterVarsity Press, 2009), 18. “Arminian synergism” refers to “evangelical synergism, which affirms the prevenience of grace.”
- See, e.g., "Guide to the Scriptures: Baptism, Baptize: Proper authority", LDS.org (LDS Church)
- See, e.g., "Gospel Topics: Priest", LDS.org (LDS Church)
- See, e.g., "Baptism", KJV (LDS): LDS Bible Dictionary, LDS Church
- "Performing Priesthood Ordinances", Duties and Blessings of the Priesthood: Basic Manual for Priesthood Holders, Part B, LDS Church, 2000, pp. 41–48
- Converts to Islam
- How to Become a Muslim - Meeting Place for Reverts/Converts To Islam
- Every Child is Born Muslim
- Conversion to Islam
- Is Circumcision obligatory after conversion?
- Considering Converting: Is it necessary to be circumcised?
- Circumcision for Converts
- Smith, P. (1999). A Concise Encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Momen, M. (1997). A Short Introduction to the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford, UK: One World Publications. ISBN 1-85168-209-0.
- Geoffray, Davis; Peter Marsden; Benedicte Ledent; Marc Delrez (2005). Towards a Transcultural Future: Literature and society in a post-colonial world. Rodopi. p. 106. ISBN 90-420-1736-8.
- Ketkar, Shridhar (1909). The History of Caste in India. Taylor & Carpenter. pp. 87–89.
- Growse 1996:191
- Italy's Hindu Controversy Hinduism Today - September 1997
- Vasu 1
- Omar, Rashid (August 2006). The Right to Religious Conversion: Between Apostasy and Proselytization (PDF). Kroc Institute, University of Notre Dame. p. 3.
- Hoiberg 2001:61
- Kuruvachira 2006:283
- Catharine Cookson (2003), Encyclopedia of religious freedom, Taylor & Francis, p. 180, ISBN 978-0-415-94181-5
- J. N. Nanda (1991), Conflicts and co-existence, India, Concept Publishing Company, p. 93, ISBN 978-81-7022-302-3
- William Stoddart (1993), Outline of Hinduism, Foundation for Traditional Studies, p. 13, ISBN 978-0-9629984-1-6
- Jeffery D. Long (2007), A vision for Hinduism: beyond Hindu nationalism, I.B.Tauris, p. 188, ISBN 978-1-84511-273-8
- See Swami Bhaskarananda, Essentials of Hinduism pp. 189-92 (Viveka Press 1994) ISBN 1-884852-02-5
- ThinkQuest - Sikhism
- About.com - Sikhism
- "Think Quest - Map of religions". Think Quest. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Travel China Guide – Han Chinese, Windows on Asia – Chinese Religions, Justchina.org - China Beliefs, Foreignercn.com - Buddhism in China
- Asia Society - Chinese Belief Systems
- Asia Society - Buddhism in China
- "World Factbook: Japan". CIA. Retrieved 15 January 2011.
- Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor (15 September 2006). "International Religious Freedom Report 2006". US Department of State. Retrieved 4 December 2007.
- Asia Society - Shinto
- Buddhism in Korea, Korean Buddhism Magazine, Seoul 1997
- Asia Society - Historical and Modern Religions of Korea
- "Culture of North Korea – Alternative name, History and ethnic relations". Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg Inc. Retrieved 4 July 2009.
- "CIA The World Factbook – North Korea". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 November 2011.
- "Vietnam". Encyclopedia of the Nations. 14 August 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2010.
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- Asia Society - Religions in Vietnam
- Asian History - Mongolia | Facts and History, Windows on Asia - Mongolia, Mongolia Tourism - Religion
- Nepal Embassy in Japan, Globerove - Religion in Nepal, Mongolia Asian History - Nepal, Windows on Asia - Nepal
- Dalai Lama opposed to practice of conversion[dead link]
- Dawei, Bei (2012). Conversion to Tibetan Buddhism: Some Reflections, in: Ura, Dasho, Karma: Chophel, Dendup, Buddhism Without Borders, Proceedings of the International Conference of Global Buddhism, Bhumtang, Bhutan, May 211-23, 2012, The Center for Buthane Studies, pp, 53-75
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In the United States at the end of the 1970s, brainwashing emerged as a popular theoretical construct around which to understand what appeared to be a sudden rise of new and unfamiliar religious movements during the previous decade, especially those associated with the hippie street-people phenomenon.
- Bromley, David G. (1998). "Brainwashing". In William H. Swatos Jr. (Ed.). Encyclopedia of Religion and Society. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1.
- Barker, Eileen: New Religious Movements: A Practical Introduction. London: Her Majesty's Stationery office, 1989.
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- Barker, Eileen (1986). "Religious Movements: Cult and Anti-Cult Since Jonestown". Annual Review of Sociology 12: 329–346. doi:10.1146/annurev.so.12.080186.001553.
- Conversion, Unification Church, Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
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- Stark, R & W.S. Bainbridge The future of religion: secularization, revival and cult formation (1985) Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California press
- Joining a Cult: Religious Choice or Psychological Aberration?
- Barker, Eileen The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? (1984)
- Barrett, D. V. The New Believers: A survey of sects, cults and alternative religions (2001) UK, Cassell & Co ISBN 0-304-35592-5
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