Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is the formation of a clot or thrombus which obstructs the renal vein, leading to reduction in drainage of the kidney.
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This type of thrombosis can lead to imbalances in blood clotting factor. Its symptoms may include blood in urine or diminished urine volume. Primary causes of RVT include dehydration and nephrotic syndrome. Secondary causes of RVT include trauma, extrinsic compression (lymph node, tumor, aortic aneurysm), invasive renal cell carcinoma, pregnancy and oral contraceptive usage. Membranous glomerulonephritis is most commonly associated with RVT, followed by membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis.
CT showing dilatation and thrombosis of the left renal vein in a patient with nutcracker syndrome
CT angiography can be used to diagnose RVT.
Surgery to remove the clot is possible, but rarely performed. Anticoagulation therapy can have some benefits.
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