Elton John

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Sir Elton John
CBE, Hon DMus, Hon RAM
Elton John 2011 Shankbone 2.JPG
Elton John attending the premiere of The Union at the 2011 Tribeca Film Festival
Background information
Birth name Reginald Kenneth Dwight
Born (1947-03-25) 25 March 1947 (age 67)
Pinner, Middlesex, England
Genres Rock, pop rock, glam rock, soft rock, R&B
Occupations Musician, singer, songwriter, record producer, composer, pianist, actor
Instruments Vocals, piano, keyboards, organ, guitar
Years active 1964–present
Labels Philips, Congress, DJM, Uni, Paramount, MCA, Geffen, The Rocket Record Company/Island, Universal, Interscope, Mercury, UMG, Virgin EMI
Associated acts Bernie Taupin, Tim Rice, John Lennon, Yoko Ono, Kiki Dee, Billy Joel, George Michael, Eminem, Gladys Knight, Stevie Wonder, Anastacia, Dionne Warwick,
Neil Sedaka, Gary Barlow Fall Out Boy
Website eltonjohn.com

Sir Elton Hercules John CBE (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947)[1] is an English singer, songwriter, composer, pianist, record producer, and occasional actor. He has worked with lyricist Bernie Taupin as his songwriter partner since 1967; they have collaborated on more than 30 albums to date.

In his five-decade career Elton John has sold more than 300 million records, making him one of the best-selling music artists in the world.[2][3] He has more than fifty Top 40 hits, including seven consecutive No. 1 US albums, fifty-eight Billboard Top 40 singles, twenty-seven Top 10, four No. 2 and nine No. 1. For 31 consecutive years (1970–2000) he had at least one song in the Billboard Hot 100. He has the most No. 1 hits on US Adult Contemporary Chart (16 No. 1's).[4] His single "Something About the Way You Look Tonight"/"Candle in the Wind 1997" sold over 33 million copies worldwide and is "the best-selling single of all time".[5][6][7][8] He has received six Grammy Awards, five Brit Awards – winning two awards for Outstanding Contribution to Music and the first Brits Icon in 2013, an Academy Award, a Golden Globe Award, a Tony Award, a Disney Legend award, and the Kennedy Center Honors in 2004. In 2004, Rolling Stone ranked him Number 49 on its list of 100 influential musicians of the rock and roll era.[9] In 2008, Billboard ranked him the most successful male solo artist on "The Billboard Hot 100 Top All-Time Artists" (third overall).[10]

Elton John was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994, is an inductee into the Songwriter's Hall of Fame, and is a fellow of the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors.[11][12] Having been named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire in 1996, John received a knighthood from Queen Elizabeth II for "services to music and charitable services" in 1998.[13] John has performed at a number of royal events, such as the funeral of Princess Diana at Westminster Abbey in 1997, the Party at the Palace in 2002 and the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Concert outside Buckingham Palace in 2012.[14]

He has been heavily involved in the fight against AIDS since the late 1980s.[15] In 1992, he established the Elton John AIDS Foundation and a year later began hosting the annual Academy Award Party, which has since become one of the highest-profile Oscar parties in the Hollywood film industry. Since its inception, the foundation has raised over $200 million.[16] John, who announced he was bisexual in 1976 and has been openly gay since 1988, entered into a civil partnership with David Furnish on 21 December 2005 and continues to be a champion for LGBT social movements worldwide and same-sex marriage.

Life and career

Early life

Elton John was born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947, the eldest child of Stanley and only child of Sheila Eileen Dwight (née Harris)[17][18][19] and was raised in Pinner, Middlesex in a council house of his maternal grandparents. His parents did not marry until he was 6 years old, when the family moved to a nearby semi-detached house.[20][21][22] He was educated at Pinner Wood Junior School, Reddiford School and Pinner County Grammar School, until age 17, when he left just prior to his A Level examinations to pursue a career in the music industry.[23][24][25]

When he began to seriously consider a career in music, Elton John's father, who served as a Flight Lieutenant in the Royal Air Force, tried to steer him toward a more conventional career, such as banking.[23] John has stated that his wild stage costumes and performances were his way of letting go after such a restrictive childhood.[25] Both of John's parents were musically inclined, his father having been a trumpet player with the Bob Millar Band, a semi-professional big band that played at military dances.[25] The Dwights were keen record buyers, exposing John to the popular singers and musicians of the day, and John remembers being immediately hooked on rock and roll when his mother brought home records by Elvis Presley and Bill Haley & His Comets in 1956.[23][24]

Elton John started playing the piano at the age of 3, and within a year, his mother heard him picking out Winifred Atwell's "The Skater's Waltz" by ear.[23][24] After performing at parties and family gatherings, at the age of 7 he took up formal piano lessons. He showed musical aptitude at school, including the ability to compose melodies, and gained some notoriety by playing like Jerry Lee Lewis at school functions. At the age of 11, he won a junior scholarship to the Royal Academy of Music. According to one of his instructors, John promptly played back, like a "gramophone record", a four-page piece by Handel that he heard for the first time.[24]

For the next five years he attended Saturday classes at the Academy in central London, and has stated that he enjoyed playing Chopin and Bach and singing in the choir during Saturday classes, but that he was not otherwise a diligent classical student.[24] "I kind of resented going to the Academy", he says. "I was one of those children who could just about get away without practising and still pass, scrape through the grades."[24] He even claims that he would sometimes skip classes and just ride around on the Tube.[24] However, several instructors have testified that he was a "model student", and during the last few years he was taking lessons from a private tutor in addition to his classes at the Academy.[24]

Elton John's mother, though also strict with her son, was more vivacious than her husband, and something of a free spirit. With Stanley Dwight uninterested in his son and often physically absent, John was raised primarily by his mother and maternal grandmother. When his father was home, the Dwights would have terrible arguments that greatly distressed their son.[24] When John was 14, they divorced. His mother then married a local painter, Fred Farebrother, a caring and supportive stepfather whom John affectionately referred to as "Derf", his first name in reverse.[24] They moved into flat No. 1A in an eight-unit apartment building called Frome Court, not far from both previous homes. It was there that John would write the songs that would launch his career as a rock star; he would live there until he had four albums simultaneously in the American Top 40.[26]

Pub pianist to staff songwriter (1962–1969)

See also: Bluesology

At the age of 15, with the help of his mother and stepfather, Reginald Dwight became a weekend pianist at a nearby pub, the Northwood Hills Hotel, playing Thursday to Sunday nights for £35 a week and tips.[27][28] Known simply as "Reggie", he played a range of popular standards, including songs by Jim Reeves and Ray Charles, as well as songs he had written himself.[29][30] A stint with a short-lived group called the Corvettes rounded out his time.[24]

In 1964, Dwight and his friends formed a band called Bluesology. By day, he ran errands for a music publishing company; he divided his nights between solo gigs at a London hotel bar and working with Bluesology. By the mid-1960s, Bluesology was backing touring American soul and R&B musicians like The Isley Brothers, Major Lance, Billy Stewart, Doris Troy and Patti LaBelle and The Bluebelles. In 1966, the band became musician Long John Baldry's supporting band, and played 16 times at The Marquee Club.[31]

After failing lead vocalist auditions for King Crimson and Gentle Giant,[when?] Dwight answered an advertisement in the New Musical Express placed by Ray Williams, then the A&R manager for Liberty Records.[32][33] At their first meeting, Williams gave Dwight a stack of lyrics written by Bernie Taupin, who had answered the same ad. Dwight wrote music for the lyrics, and then mailed it to Taupin, beginning a partnership that still continues. When the two first met in 1967 they recorded what would become the first Elton John/Bernie Taupin song: "Scarecrow". Six months later Dwight was going by the name "Elton John" in homage to Bluesology saxophonist Elton Dean and Long John Baldry.[29]

The team of Elton John and Bernie Taupin joined Dick James's DJM Records as staff songwriters in 1968, and over the next two years wrote material for various artists, like Roger Cook and Lulu.[34] Taupin would write a batch of lyrics in under an hour and give it to John, who would write music for them in half an hour, disposing of the lyrics if he couldn't come up with anything quickly.[34] For two years, they wrote easy-listening tunes for James to peddle to singers. Their early output included a contender for the British entry for the Eurovision Song Contest in 1969, for Lulu, called "I Can't Go On (Living Without You)". It came sixth of six songs. In 1969, John provided piano for Roger Hodgson on his first released recording, the single "Mr. Boyd" by Argosy, a quartet that was completed by Caleb Quaye and Nigel Olsson.[35][36]

During this period, he was also a session musician for other artists including playing piano on The Hollies' "He Ain't Heavy, He's My Brother" and singing backing vocals for The Scaffold.[37]

Debut album to Goodbye Yellow Brick Road (1969–1973)

When John transitioned to solo performance, he started wearing increasingly flamboyant clothing onstage, including this hat and domino mask

On the advice of music publisher Steve Brown, John and Taupin started writing more complex songs for John to record for DJM. The first was the single "I've Been Loving You" (1968), produced by Caleb Quaye, former Bluesology guitarist. In 1969, with Quaye, drummer Roger Pope, and bassist Tony Murray, John recorded another single, "Lady Samantha", and an album, Empty Sky.

For their follow-up album, Elton John, Elton John and Bernie Taupin enlisted Gus Dudgeon as producer and Paul Buckmaster as musical arranger. Elton John was released in April 1970 on DJM Records/Pye Records in the UK and Uni Records in the USA, and established the formula for subsequent albums; gospel-chorded rockers and poignant ballads. The first single from the album, "Border Song", made into the US Top 100, peaking at Number 92. The second single "Your Song" made the US Top Ten, peaking at number eight and becoming John's first hit single as a singer. The album soon became his first hit album, reaching number four on the Billboard 200 album chart.[38]

Backed by ex-Spencer Davis Group drummer Nigel Olsson and bassist Dee Murray, Elton John's first American concert took place at The Troubadour in Los Angeles in August 1970, and was a success.[39]

The concept album Tumbleweed Connection was released in October 1970, and reached the Top Ten on the Billboard 200. The live album 17-11-70 (11–17–70 in the US) was recorded at a live show aired from A&R Studios on WABC-FM in New York City. Sales of the live album were heavily hit in the US when an east coast bootlegger released the performance several weeks before the official album, including all 60 minutes of the aircast, not just the 40 minutes selected by Dick James Music.[40]

Elton John at the Musikhalle, Hamburg, in March 1972

John and Taupin then wrote the soundtrack to the obscure film Friends and then the album Madman Across the Water, the latter reaching the Top Ten and producing the hit "Levon", while the soundtrack album produced the hit "Friends". In 1972, Davey Johnstone joined the Elton John Band on guitar and backing vocals. The band released Honky Chateau, which became John's first American number 1 album, spending five weeks at the top of the charts and spawning the hit singles "Rocket Man (I Think It's Going To Be A Long, Long Time)" (which is often compared to David Bowie's "Space Oddity") and "Honky Cat".[41] both of which were recorded at Trident Studios.

The pop album Don't Shoot Me I'm Only the Piano Player came out at the start of 1973, and produced the hits "Crocodile Rock" and "Daniel"; the former became his first US Billboard Hot 100 number one hit.[42] Both the album and "Crocodile Rock" were the first album and single, respectively on the consolidated MCA Records label in the USA, replacing MCA's other labels including Uni.

Goodbye Yellow Brick Road, released in October 1973, gained instant critical acclaim and topped the chart on both sides of the Atlantic, remaining at Number 1 for two months.[43] It also temporarily established John as a glam rock star. It contained the number 1 hit "Bennie and the Jets", along with the popular and praised "Goodbye Yellow Brick Road", "Candle in the Wind", "Saturday Night's Alright for Fighting", "Funeral for a Friend/Love Lies Bleeding" and "Grey Seal" (originally recorded and released in 1970 as the B-side to the UK-only single "Rock and Roll Madonna"). There is also a VHS and DVD as part of the Classic Albums series, discussing the making, recording, and popularity of Goodbye Yellow Brick Road through concert and home video footage including interviews.

The Rocket Record Company to 21 at 33 (1974–1979)

Elton John performing live in 1975

John formed his own MCA-distributed label named The Rocket Record Company and signed acts to it – notably Neil Sedaka ("Bad Blood", on which he sang background vocals) and Kiki Dee – in which he took a personal interest. Instead of releasing his own records on Rocket, he opted for $8 million offered by MCA. When the contract was signed in 1974, MCA reportedly took out a $25 million insurance policy on John's life.[44] In 1974 MCA released Greatest Hits, his ninth album.

In 1974 a collaboration with John Lennon took place, resulting in Lennon appearing on Elton John's single cover of The Beatles' "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds", the b-side of which was Lennon's "One Day at a Time." In return, John was featured on "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" on Lennon's "Walls and Bridges" album. Later that year, on Thanksgiving Day, in what would be Lennon's last major live performance, the pair performed these two number 1 hits along with the Beatles classic "I Saw Her Standing There" at Madison Square Garden in New York. Lennon made the rare stage appearance with John and his band to keep the promise he made that he would appear on stage with Elton John if "Whatever Gets You Thru The Night" became a number 1 single.[45]

Caribou was released in 1974 and, although it reached number 1, it was widely considered[46] a lesser quality album. Reportedly recorded in a scant two weeks between live appearances, it featured "The Bitch Is Back"[46] and the lushly orchestrated "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me".[46]

John performing, 1975

Pete Townshend of The Who asked John to play a character called the "Local Lad" in the film of the rock opera Tommy, and to perform the song "Pinball Wizard". Drawing on power chords, John's version was recorded and used for the movie release in 1975 and the single came out in 1976 (1975 in the US). The song charted at number 7 in England. Bally subsequently released a "Captain Fantastic" pinball machine featuring an illustration of John in his movie guise.

On the 1975 autobiographical album Captain Fantastic and the Brown Dirt Cowboy, Elton John revealed his previously ambiguous personality, with Taupin's lyrics describing their early days as struggling songwriters and musicians in London. The lyrics and accompanying photo booklet are infused with a specific sense of place and time that is otherwise rare in his music. "Someone Saved My Life Tonight" was the hit single from this album and captured an early turning point in Elton John's life. The album's release signalled the end of the Elton John Band, as an unhappy and overworked John dismissed Olsson and Murray, two people who had contributed much of the band's signature sound and who had helped build his live following since the beginning.

According to Circus Magazine,[47] a spokesman for John Reid said the decision was reached mutually via phone while John was in Australia promoting Tommy. She said there was no way Reid could have fired them "because the band are not employed by John Reid, they're employed by Elton John."[47] She went on to say Nigel would be going back to his solo work and Dee would do session work "and possibly cut a solo album".[47]

Davey Johnstone and Ray Cooper were retained, Quaye and Roger Pope returned, and the new bassist was Kenny Passarelli; this rhythm section provided a heavier-sounding backbeat. James Newton-Howard joined to arrange in the studio and to play keyboards. John introduced the line-up before a crowd of 75,000 in London's Wembley Stadium.

John in 1975

The rock-oriented Rock of the Westies entered the US albums chart at number 1 like Captain Fantastic, a previously unattained feat. Elton John's stage wardrobe now included ostrich feathers, $5,000 spectacles that spelled his name in lights, and dressing up like the Statue of Liberty, Donald Duck, or Mozart, among others, at his concerts.[48][49] In 1975, John received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.

To celebrate five years since he first appeared at the venue, in 1975 Elton John played a two-night, four-show stand at The Troubadour. With seating limited to under 500 per show, the chance to purchase tickets was determined by a postcard lottery, with each winner allowed two tickets. Everyone who attended the performances received a hardbound "yearbook" of the band's history. That year he also played piano on Kevin Ayers' Sweet Deceiver, and was among the first and few white artists to appear on the black music series Soul Train on American television.[43] On 9 August 1975, John was named the outstanding rock personality of the year at the first annual Rock Music Awards at ceremonies held in Santa Monica, California.[50]

In 1976, the live album Here and There was released in May, followed by the Blue Moves album in October, which contained the single "Sorry Seems to Be the Hardest Word". His biggest success in 1976 was "Don't Go Breaking My Heart", a duet with Kiki Dee that topped both the American and British charts. Finally, in an interview with Rolling Stone that year entitled "Elton's Frank Talk", John stated that he was bisexual.[51]

John playing in Mannheim, Germany in 1979

Besides being the most commercially successful period, 1970–1976 is also held in the most regard critically. Within only a three-year span, between 1972 and 1975 John saw seven consecutive albums reach number one in the US, which had not been accomplished before.[43] Of the six Elton John albums to make Rolling Stone's list of "The 500 Greatest Albums of All Time" in 2003, all are from this period, with Goodbye Yellow Brick Road ranked highest at number 91; similarly, the three Elton John albums given five stars by Allmusic (Tumbleweed Connection, Honky Château, and Captain Fantastic) are all from this period.

During the same period, he made a guest appearance on the popular Morecambe and Wise Show on the BBC. The two comics spent the episode pointing him in the direction of everywhere except the stage in order to prevent him singing.[52]

In November 1977 Elton John announced he was retiring from performing; Taupin began collaborating with others. Now only producing one album a year, John issued A Single Man in 1978, employing a new lyricist, Gary Osborne; the album produced no singles that made the Top 20 in the US but the two singles from the album released in the UK, Part-Time Love and Song for Guy, both made the Top 20 in the UK with the latter reaching the Top 5. In 1979, accompanied by Ray Cooper, John became one of the first Western solo artists to tour the Soviet Union (as well as one of the first in Israel), then mounted a two-man comeback tour of the US in small halls. John returned to the singles chart with "Mama Can't Buy You Love" (number 9, 1979), a song originally rejected in 1977 by MCA before being released, recorded in 1977 with Philadelphia soul producer Thom Bell.[53] John reported that Thom Bell was the first person to give him voice lessons; Bell encouraged John to sing in a lower register. A disco-influenced album, Victim of Love, was poorly received. In 1979, John and Taupin reunited, though they did not collaborate on a full album until 1983's Too Low For Zero. 21 at 33, released the following year, was a significant career boost, aided by his biggest hit in four years, "Little Jeannie" (number 3 US), although the lyrics were written by Gary Osborne.

1980s: The Fox to Sleeping with the Past (1980–1989)

Elton John performing in the 1980s

His 1981 album, The Fox, was recorded in part during the same sessions as 21 at 33, and also included collaborations with Tom Robinson and Judie Tzuke. On 13 September 1980, John, with Olsson and Murray back in the Elton John Band, performed a free concert to an estimated 400,000 fans on The Great Lawn in Central Park in New York City. His 1982 hit "Empty Garden (Hey Hey Johnny)", came from his Jump Up! album, his second under a new US recording contract with Geffen Records.

With original band members Johnstone, Murray and Olsson together again, he was able to return to the charts with the 1983 hit album Too Low for Zero, which included "I'm Still Standing" and "I Guess That's Why They Call It the Blues", the latter of which featured Stevie Wonder on harmonica and reached number 4 in the US, giving John his biggest hit there since "Little Jeannie". In October 1983, John caused controversy when he broke the United Nations' cultural boycott on apartheid South Africa by performing at the Sun City venue.[54]

He married his close friend and sound engineer, Renate Blauel, on Valentine's Day 1984[55] – the marriage lasted three years.

In 1985, he was one of the many performers at Live Aid held at Wembley Stadium.[56] John played "Bennie and the Jets" and "Rocket Man"; then "Don't Go Breaking My Heart" with Kiki Dee for the first time since the Hammersmith Odeon on 24 December 1982; and introduced his friend George Michael, still then of Wham!, to sing "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me".[56] He enlisted Michael to sing backing vocals on his single "Wrap Her Up", and also recruited teen idol Nik Kershaw as an instrumentalist on "Nikita". John also recorded material with Millie Jackson in 1985. In 1986, he played the piano on two tracks on the heavy metal band Saxon's album Rock the Nations.

The Biography Channel Special detailed the loss of his voice in 1986 while on tour in Australia. Shortly thereafter he underwent throat surgery, which permanently altered his voice. Several non-cancerous polyps were removed from his vocal cords, resulting in a change in his singing voice.[57] In 1987 he won a libel case against The Sun which published allegations of sex with rent boys.[58]

In 1988, he performed five sold-out shows at New York's Madison Square Garden,[59] giving him 26 for his career. Netting over $20 million, 2,000 items of John's memorabilia were auctioned off at Sotheby's in London.[60]

He placed hits in the US Top Ten throughout the 1980s – "Little Jeannie" (number 3, 1980), "Sad Songs (Say So Much)" (number 5, 1984), "Nikita" boosted by a mini-movie pop video directed by Ken Russell (number 7, 1986), a live orchestral version of "Candle in the Wind" (number 6, 1987), and "I Don't Wanna Go on With You Like That" (number 2, 1988). His highest-charting single was a collaboration with Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight, and Stevie Wonder on "That's What Friends Are For" (number 1, 1985); credited as Dionne and Friends, the song raised funds for AIDS research. His albums continued to sell, but of the six released in the latter half of the 1980s, only Reg Strikes Back (number 16, 1988) placed in the Top 20 in the United States.

1990s: "Sacrifice" to Aida (1990–1999)

In 1990, he finally achieved his first UK number one hit on his own, with "Sacrifice" (coupled with "Healing Hands") from the previous year's album Sleeping with the Past; it would stay at the top spot for six weeks.[61] The following year, John's "Basque" won the Grammy for Best Instrumental, and a guest concert appearance he had made on George Michael's cover of "Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me" was released as a single and topped the charts in both the US and UK.[62] At the 1991 Brit Awards in London, Elton John won the award for Best British Male.[63]

In 1992 he released the US number 8 album The One, featuring the hit song "The One".[64][65] John and Taupin then signed a music publishing deal with Warner/Chappell Music for an estimated $39 million over 12 years, giving them the largest cash advance in music publishing history.[66] In April 1992, John appeared at the Freddie Mercury Tribute Concert at Wembley Stadium, performing "The Show Must Go On" with the remaining members of Queen, and "Bohemian Rhapsody" with Axl Rose of Guns N' Roses and Queen.[67] In September, John performed "The One" at the 1992 MTV Video Music Awards, and also closed the ceremony performing "November Rain" with Guns N' Roses.[68] The following year, he released Duets, a collaboration with 15 artists including Tammy Wynette and RuPaul. This also included a new collaboration with Kiki Dee, entitled "True Love", which reached the Top 10 of the UK charts.[69]

Along with Tim Rice, Elton John wrote the songs for the 1994 Disney animated film The Lion King, which became the 2nd highest-grossing animated feature of all time.[70] At the 67th Academy Awards ceremony, The Lion King provided three of the five nominees for the Academy Award for Best Song, which he won with "Can You Feel the Love Tonight".[71] Both that and "Circle of Life" became hit songs for John.[72][73] "Can You Feel the Love Tonight" would also win Elton John the Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance at the 37th Grammy Awards.[71] After the release of the The Lion King soundtrack, the album remained at the top of Billboard's charts for nine weeks. On 10 November 1999, the RIAA certified The Lion King "Diamond" for selling 15 million copies.[74]

In 1995 he released Made in England (number 3, 1995), which featured the single "Believe".[75] John performed "Believe" at the 1995 Brit Awards, and picked up the prize for Outstanding Contribution to Music.[76] A compilation called Love Songs was released in 1996.[77]

Early in 1997 he held a 50th birthday party, costumed as Louis XIV, for 500 friends. He also performed with the surviving members of Queen in Paris at the opening night (17 January 1997) of Le Presbytère N'a Rien Perdu De Son Charme Ni Le Jardin De Son Éclat, a work by French ballet legend Maurice Béjart which draws upon AIDS and the deaths of Freddie Mercury and the company's principal dancer Jorge Donn. Later in 1997, two close friends died: designer Gianni Versace was murdered; Diana, Princess of Wales died in a Paris car crash on 31 August.[78]

Most of the lyrics of "Candle in the Wind 1997" were written to suit the circumstances of Diana, Princess of Wales' life and death

Problems playing this file? See media help.

In early September, he contacted his writing partner Bernie Taupin, asking him to revise the lyrics of his 1973 song "Candle in the Wind" to honour Diana, and Taupin rewrote the song accordingly.[79] On 6 September 1997, John performed "Candle in the Wind 1997" at the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales in Westminster Abbey.[80] The song became the fastest and biggest-selling single of all time, eventually selling over 33 million copies worldwide,[7][74][81] the best-selling single in UK Chart history – it sold 4.86 million copies in the UK,[82] the best-selling single in Billboard history and the only single ever certified Diamond in the United States – the single sold over 11 million copies in the U.S.[6][74][83] Also the Guinness World Records 2009 states that the song is "the biggest-selling single since UK and US singles charts began in the 1950s, having accumulated worldwide sales of 33 million copies" and is the best-selling single worldwide of all time.[7][8] The song proceeds of approximately £55 million were donated to the Diana, Princess of Wales Memorial Fund. It would win Elton John the Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance at the 40th Grammy Awards ceremony in 1998.[81] John has publicly performed "Candle in the Wind 1997" only once, at Diana's funeral, vowing never to perform it again unless asked by Diana's sons.[84]

In the musical theatre world, in addition to a 1998 adaptation of The Lion King for Broadway, he also composed music for a Disney production of Aida in 1999 with lyricist Tim Rice, for which they received the Tony Award for Best Original Score at the 54th Tony Awards,[85] and the Grammy Award for Best Musical Show Album at the 43rd Grammy Awards.[86][87] The musical was given its world premiere in the Alliance Theatre in Atlanta. It went on to Chicago and eventually Broadway. He also released a live compilation album called Elton John One Night Only – The Greatest Hits from the show he did at Madison Square Garden in New York City that same year. A concept album from the musical titled Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida was also released and featured a duet with Janet Jackson titled "I Know the Truth".

2000s: Are You Ready for Love and 60th birthday (2000–2009)

Elton John performs at the Skagerak Arena in Skien, Norway, June 2009

In 2000, he and Tim Rice teamed again to create songs for DreamWorks' animated film The Road to El Dorado. he released his 27th album, Songs from the West Coast, in October 2001. At this point, John disliked appearing in his own music videos; "This Train Don't Stop There Anymore" featured Justin Timberlake portraying a young Elton John, and "I Want Love" featured Robert Downey, Jr. lip-syncing the song. At the 2001 Grammy Awards, John performed "Stan" with Eminem.[88] In August 2003 he scored his fifth UK number one single when "Are You Ready for Love" topped the Charts.[89] Returning to musical theatre, John composed music for a West End Theatre production of Billy Elliot the Musical in 2005 with playwright Lee Hall. His only theatrical project with Bernie Taupin so far is Lestat: The Musical, based on the Anne Rice vampire novels. However it received harsh reviews from critics and closed in May 2006 after 39 performances.[90]

Elton John was named a Disney Legend for his numerous outstanding contributions to Disney's films and theatrical works on 9 October 2006, by The Walt Disney Company.[91] In 2006 he told Rolling Stone magazine that he plans for his next record to be in the R&B/hip-hop genre. "I want to work with Pharrell [Williams], Timbaland, Snoop [Lion], Kanye [West], Eminem and just see what happens."[92]

In March 2007 he performed at Madison Square Garden for a record breaking 60th time for his 60th birthday, the concert was broadcast live and a DVD recording was released as Elton 60 – Live at Madison Square Garden;[93] a greatest-hits compilation CD, Rocket Man – Number Ones, was released in 17 different versions worldwide, including a CD/DVD combo; and his back catalogue – almost 500 songs from 32 albums – became available for legal download.[94]

Elton John on stage at the Concert for Diana at Wembley Stadium, London, 1 July 2007

On 1 July 2007, Elton John appeared at the Concert for Diana held at Wembley Stadium in London, in honour of Diana, Princess of Wales, on what would have been her 46th birthday.[95] John opened the concert with "Your Song", and then closed the concert with his second performance, with "Saturday Night's Alright For Fighting", "Tiny Dancer", and "Are You Ready For Love".[95]

In a September 2008 interview with GQ magazine, John said: "I'm going on the road again with Billy Joel again next year," referring to "Face to Face," a series of concerts featuring both musicians. The tour began in March and will continue for at least two more years.[96]

In October 2003, he announced that he had signed an exclusive agreement to perform 75 shows over three years at Caesars Palace on the Las Vegas Strip. The show, entitled The Red Piano, was a multimedia concert featuring massive props and video montages created by David LaChapelle. Effectively, he and Celine Dion share performances at Caesars Palace throughout the year – while one performs, one rests. The first of these shows took place on 13 February 2004.[97] On 21 June 2008, he performed his 200th show in Caesars Palace. A DVD/CD package of The Red Piano was released through Best Buy in November 2008. A two-year global tour was sandwiched between commitments in Las Vegas, Nevada, some of the venues of which were new to John. The Red Piano Tour closed in Las Vegas in April 2009.

2010–present

Elton John performed a piano duet with Lady Gaga at the 52nd Grammy Awards.[98] On 6 June 2010, John performed at the fourth wedding of conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh for a reported US$1 million fee.[99] Eleven days later, and 17 years to the day after his last previous performance in Israel, he performed at the Ramat Gan Stadium; this was significant because of other then-recent cancellations by other performers in the fallout surrounding an Israeli raid on Gaza Flotilla the month before. In his introduction to that concert, Elton John noted he and other musicians should not "cherry-pick our conscience", in reference to Elvis Costello, who was to have performed in Israel two weeks after John did, but cancelled in the wake of the aforementioned raid, citing his [Costello's] conscience.[100][101]

He released The Union on 19 October 2010. John says his collaboration with American singer, songwriter and sideman Leon Russell marks a new chapter in his recording career, saying: "I don't have to make pop records any more."[102]

He began his new show The Million Dollar Piano at The Colosseum at Caesars Palace, Las Vegas on 28 September 2011.[103] John will be performing the show at Caesars for the next three years. He performed his 3000th concert on Saturday 8 October 2011 at Caesars.[104] In 2011, John performed vocals on Snowed in at Wheeler Street with Kate Bush for her 50 Words for Snow album.[105] On 3 February 2012, Elton John visited Costa Rica for the first time when he performed at the recently built National Stadium.[106]

On 4 June 2012, he performed at the Queen's Diamond Jubilee Concert at Buckingham Palace, performing a repertoire including "Your Song", "Crocodile Rock" and "I'm Still Standing". On 30 June, John performed in Kiev, Ukraine at a joint concert with Queen + Adam Lambert for the Elena Pinchuk ANTIAIDS Foundation.[107]

An album containing remixes of songs that he recorded in the 1970s called Good Morning to the Night was released in July 2012. The remixes were conducted by Australian group Pnau and the album reached No. 1 in the U.K. charts, the first of Elton John's albums to do this for 22 years.[108]

In 2013, he collaborated with American rock band Queens of the Stone Age on their sixth studio album ...Like Clockwork, contributing piano and vocals on the song "Fairweather Friends". He stated that he was a fan of frontman Josh Homme's side project, Them Crooked Vultures, and had contacted Homme via phone call, asking if he could perform on the album.[109]

It had been announced in March 2012 that John had recently completed work on his thirty-first album entitled The Diving Board. The album was produced by T-Bone Burnett and was originally set for release in autumn 2012.[110][111] The album's release date was pushed back multiple times, but on its release in September 2013[112] it reached numbers 3 and 4 in the UK Albums Chart and US Billboard 200 respectively.

Artistry

Songwriting

Elton John with Bernie Taupin (left) in 1971

John has written with his songwriting partner Bernie Taupin since 1967 when he answered an advertisement for talent placed in the popular UK music publication, New Musical Express, by Liberty records A&R man Ray Williams.[113] The pair have collaborated on more than 30 albums to date.[114]

The 1991 film documentary Two Rooms described the writing style that Elton John and Bernie Taupin use, which involves Taupin writing the lyrics on his own, and John then putting them to music, with the two never in the same room during the process. Taupin would write a set of lyrics, then mail them to John, wherever he was in the world, who would then lay down the music, arrange it, and record.[115] In 1992 he was inducted into the Songwriter's Hall of Fame. John is a fellow of the British Academy of Songwriters, Composers and Authors (BASCA).[116]

Musical style

Elton John's voice was once classed as tenor; it is now baritone.[24] His piano playing is influenced by classical and gospel music.[117] He used Paul Buckmaster to arrange the music on his studio albums during the 1970s.[118]

Personal life

Sexuality and family

In the late 1960s, Elton John was engaged to be married to his first lover, secretary Linda Woodrow, who is mentioned in the song "Someone Saved My Life Tonight".[119][120] He married German recording engineer Renate Blauel on 14 February 1984, in Darling Point, Sydney, with speculation that the marriage was a cover for his homosexuality. John came out as bisexual in a 1976 interview with Rolling Stone,[119][120] but after his divorce from Blauel in 1988, he told the magazine that he was "comfortable" being gay.[121]

He has revealed that he considers himself lucky to have avoided the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s that claimed the lives of prominent gay celebrities such as Rock Hudson, Freddie Mercury and many of his friends and loved ones. He admitted that he did not know how he had failed to contract HIV from the risks he took with unprotected gay sex.[122]

In 1993, he began a relationship with David Furnish, a former advertising executive and now filmmaker. On 21 December 2005 (the day that the Civil Partnership Act came into force), John and Furnish were amongst the first couples in the UK to form a civil partnership, which was held at the Windsor Guildhall.[123] Their son, Zachary Jackson Levon Furnish-John, was born to a surrogate mother on 25 December 2010 in California.[124][125] A second son, Elijah Joseph Daniel Furnish-John, was born to the couple by the same surrogate mother on 11 January 2013.[126] John has stated his intention to marry Furnish in a quiet ceremony in May 2014, now that it is legal in England.[127]

In September 2009, he announced his intention to adopt a 14-month-old boy, Lev, from an AIDS orphanage in Ukraine, but he was denied due to his age and marital status.[128] Furnish stated they would continue to financially support Lev and his brother and would campaign for a change in Ukrainian law.[129]

Elton John has ten known godchildren, including Sean Lennon, David and Victoria Beckham's sons Brooklyn and Romeo, Elizabeth Hurley's son Damian Charles, and the daughter of Seymour Stein.[130]

In 2010, he was criticised by some Christian groups in the United States after describing Jesus as a "compassionate, super-intelligent gay man who understood human problems". William Anthony Donohue, president of the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, responded: "To call Jesus a homosexual is to label him a sexual deviant. But what else would we expect from a man who previously said, 'From my point of view, I would ban religion completely.'"[131]

After supporting civil partnership, as opposed to same-sex marriage, in 2008,[132] John is now a staunch supporter of same-sex marriage in the United Kingdom and argued in 2012: "There is a world of difference between calling someone your 'partner' and calling them your 'husband'. 'Partner' is a word that should be preserved for people you play tennis with, or work alongside in business. It doesn't come close to describing the love that I have for David, and he for me. In contrast, 'husband' does."[133] In 2014, he returned to addressing the religious perspective on sexuality, claiming Jesus would have been in favour of homosexual marriage.[134]

In 2013, he resisted calls to boycott Russia in protest at the country's anti-gay legislation, but told fans at a Russian concert that the laws were "inhumane and isolating" and he was "deeply saddened and shocked over the current legislation."[135]

Wealth

John on stage in July 2008

In April 2009, the Sunday Times Rich List estimated John's wealth to be £175 million (US$265 million), and ranked him as the 322nd wealthiest person in Britain.[136] John was estimated to have a fortune of £195 million in the Sunday Times Rich List of 2011, making him one of the 10 wealthiest people in the British music industry.[137] Aside from his main home "Woodside" in Old Windsor, Berkshire, John owns residences in Atlanta, Nice, London's Holland Park, and Venice. John's property in Nice is based on Mon Boron mountain.[138]

Elton John is an art collector, and is believed to have one of the largest private photography collections in the world.[139]

In 2000, he admitted to spending £30 million in just under two years—an average of £1.5 million a month. Between January 1996 and September 1997, he spent more than £9.6m on property and £293,000 on flowers.[140] In June 2001 John sold 20 of his cars at Christie's, saying he didn't get the chance to drive them because he was out of the country so often.[141] The sale, which included a 1993 Jaguar XJ220, the most expensive at £234,750, and several Ferraris, Rolls-Royces, and Bentleys, raised nearly £2 million.[142] In 2003, John sold the contents of his Holland Park home—expected to fetch £800,000 at Sotheby's—in a bid to create more room for his collection of contemporary art which includes many works of art by Young British Artists such as Sam Taylor-Wood and Tracy Emin.[143] Every year since 2004, John has opened a shop called "Elton's Closet" in which he sells his second-hand clothes.[144]

Other

By 1975, the pressures of stardom had begun to take a serious toll on him. During "Elton Week" in Los Angeles that year, he suffered a drug overdose.[145] He also battled the eating disorder bulimia. In a CNN interview with Larry King in 2002, King asked if John knew of Diana, Princess of Wales' eating disorder. John replied, "Yes, I did. We were both bulimic."[146]

A longtime tennis enthusiast, he wrote the song "Philadelphia Freedom" in tribute to long-time friend Billie Jean King and her World Team Tennis franchise of the same name. John and King also co-host an annual pro-am event to benefit AIDS charities, most notably Elton John's own Elton John AIDS Foundation, for which King is a chairwoman. John, who maintains a part-time residence in Atlanta, Georgia, became a fan of the Atlanta Braves baseball team when he moved there in 1991.[147]

Watford Football Club

Elton John became chairman and director of Watford Football Club in 1976, appointing Graham Taylor as manager and investing large sums of money as the club rose three divisions into the First Division.[148] The pinnacle of the club's success was finishing runners up in the First Division in 1983 and reaching the FA Cup Final a year later. He sold the club to Jack Petchey in 1987, but remained their lifelong president.[149]

In 1997, he re-purchased the club from Petchey and once again became chairman. He stepped down in 2002 when the club needed a full-time chairman although he continued as president of the club.[149] Although no longer the majority shareholder, he still holds a significant financial interest. In June 2005 he held a concert at Watford's Vicarage Road ground, donating the funds to the club, and another concert in May 2010.[149] For a time, between late 1975 – 1976, he was also a part-owner of the Los Angeles Aztecs of the North American Soccer League.

AIDS Foundation

Elton John has been associated with AIDS charities since the deaths of his friends Ryan White and Freddie Mercury, raising large amounts of money and using his public profile to raise awareness of the disease. For example, in 1986 he joined with Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight, and Stevie Wonder to record the single "That's What Friends Are For", with all profits being donated to the American Foundation for AIDS Research. The song won John and the others the Grammy Award for Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal (as well as Song of the Year for its writers, Burt Bacharach and Carole Bayer Sager). In April 1990, John performed "Skyline Pigeon" at the funeral of White, a teenage haemophiliac he had befriended.

He founded the Elton John AIDS Foundation in 1992 as a charity to fund programmes for HIV/AIDS prevention, for the elimination of prejudice and discrimination against HIV/AIDS-affected individuals, and for providing services to people living with or at risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. This cause continues to be one of his personal passions. In early 2006, John donated the smaller of two bright-red Yamaha pianos from his Las Vegas, Nevada show to auction on eBay to raise public awareness and funds for the foundation.

To raise money for his AIDS charity, he hosts annually a glamorous White Tie & Tiara Ball, to which many famous celebrities are invited. On 28 June 2007, the 9th annual White Tie & Tiara Ball took place. The menu consisted of a truffle soufflé followed by Surf and Turf (filet mignon with Maine lobster tail) and a giant Knickerbocker glory ice cream. An auction followed the dinner held by Stephen Fry. A Rolls Royce 'Phantom' drophead coupe and a piece of Tracey Emin's artwork both raised £800,000 for the charity fund, with the total amount raised reaching £3.5 million.[150] Later on in the event, John sang "Delilah" with Tom Jones and "Big Spender" with Shirley Bassey.[151]

Honours and awards

He was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in his first year of eligibility in 1994. He and Bernie Taupin had previously been inducted into the Songwriters Hall of Fame in 1992. John was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1995.[152] For his charitable work, John was knighted by Queen Elizabeth II on 24 February 1998. In October 1975, John became the 1,662nd person to receive a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.[153]

He became a recipient of a Kennedy Center Honor in 2004, and a Disney Legends Award in 2006. In 2010, he was awarded with the PRS for Music Heritage Award, which was erected, on The Namaste Lounge Pub in Watford, where John performed his first ever gig.[154]

Music awards include the Academy Award for Best Original Song for "Can You Feel The Love Tonight" from The Lion King (award shared with Tim Rice); the Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song in 1994 for "Can You Feel The Love Tonight" from The Lion King (award shared with Tim Rice); and the Tony Award for Best Original Score in 2000 for Elton John and Tim Rice's Aida (award shared with Tim Rice). He has also received five Brit Awards, including the award for Best British Male in 1991, and awards for Outstanding Contribution to Music in 1986 and 1995.[155] In 2013, he was presented with the first Brits Icon award in recognition of his "lasting impact" on UK culture. The award was presented by his close friend Rod Stewart in a special show at the London Palladium, subsequently broadcast on ITV1.[156]

Film awards

Academy Awards

  1. 1995: Best Original Song (won) for Can You Feel the Love Tonight from The Lion King
  2. 1995: Best Original Song (nominated) for Circle of Life from The Lion King
  3. 1995: Best Original Song (nominated) for Hakuna Matata from The Lion King

Music awards

Grammy Awards

  1. 1972: Grammy Award for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture (nominated) for Friends
  2. 1987: Best Pop Performance by a Duo or Group with Vocal (won) for "That's What Friends Are For", performed by Dionne Warwick & Friends (award shared with Dionne Warwick, Gladys Knight & Stevie Wonder)
  3. 1991: Best Instrumental Composition (won) for "Basque", performed by James Galway
  4. 1994: Best Male Pop Vocal Performance for "Can You Feel The Love Tonight"
  5. 1995: Grammy Award for Best Male Pop Vocal Performance (won) for Can You Feel the Love Tonight from The Lion King
  6. 1995: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television (nominated) for Can You Feel the Love Tonight from The Lion King
  7. 1995: Best Song Written Specifically for a Motion Picture or for Television (nominated) for Circle of Life from The Lion King
  8. 1997: Best Male Pop Vocal Performance (won) for "Candle in the Wind 1997"
  9. 1999: Grammy Legend Award
  10. 2001: Best Musical Show Album (won) for Elton John & Tim Rice's Aida (award shared with Guy Babylon, Paul Bogaev & Chris Montan (producers), Tim Rice (lyricist) and the original Broadway cast with Heather Headley, Adam Pascal, and Sherie Rene Scott)
  11. 2011: Best Pop Collaboration with Vocals (nominated) for If it Wasn't for Bad

Theatre awards

Tony Awards

  1. 1998: Best Original Musical Score (nominated) for The Lion King (musical)
  2. 2000: Best Original Musical Score (won) for Aida (musical)
  3. 2009: Best Score (Music and/or Lyrics) (nominated) for Billy Elliot, The Musical
  4. 2010: Best Play (nominated as producer) for Next Fall

Elton John Band

The Elton John Band 15 March 2012 Left to Right: John, Johnstone, Birch, and (not pictured, right), Olsson and Cooper

Since 1970, John's band, of which he is the pianist and lead singer, has been known as the Elton John Band.[157][158] The band has had multiple line-up changes, but Nigel Olsson, Davey Johnstone, and Ray Cooper have been members (albeit non-consecutively) since 1969 (Olsson) and 1972 (Johnstone and Cooper). Olsson left the band in 1984 but rejoined in 2000 .[159][160] Ray Cooper has worked on and off with the Elton John Band because he maintains obligations to other musicians as a session player and sideman as a road-tour percussionist.

Discography

Solo studio albums
Collaborative albums
Soundtracks, scores & theatre albums
Films

See also


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Bibliography

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