Drive the Change
|Traded as||Euronext: RNO|
|Founded||25 February 1899|
|Founders||Louis Renault, Marcel Renault, Fernand Renault|
|Area served||Worldwide (118 countries)|
|Key people||Carlos Ghosn (Chairman and CEO)|
|Products||Automobiles, commercial vehicles, Luxury Cars, financing|
|Production output||2,708,206 (2013)|
|Revenue||€40.932 billion (2013)|
|Operating income||€-34 million (2013)|
|Profit||€695 million (2013)|
|Total assets||€74.99 billion (end 2013)|
|Total equity||€23.21 billion (end 2013)|
Nissan Finance Co., Ltd.(15%)
Daimler AG (3.1%)
|Employees||127,086 (December 2012)|
Renault S.A. (French pronunciation: [ʁəno], re-noh) is a French multinational vehicle manufacturer established in 1899. The company produces a range of cars and vans, and in the past, trucks, tractors, tanks, buses/coaches and autorail vehicles. In 2011, Renault was the third biggest European automaker by production behind Volkswagen Group and PSA and the ninth biggest automaker in the world by production in 2011.
Headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, the Renault group is formed by the namesake Renault marque and subsidiaries Automobile Dacia from Romania and Renault Samsung Motors from South Korea. Renault has a 43.4% controlling stake in Nissan of Japan, a 25% stake in AvtoVAZ of Russia and a 1.55% stake in Daimler AG of Germany. Renault also owns subsidiaries RCI Banque (providing automotive financing), Renault Retail Group (automotive distribution) and Motrio (automotive parts). Renault Trucks, previously Renault Véhicules Industriels, has been part of Volvo Trucks since 2001. Renault Agriculture became 100% owned by German agricultural equipment manufacturer CLAAS in 2008. Renault has various joint ventures, including Turkish Oyak-Renault, Iranian Renault Pars, Chinese Dongfeng Renault. Carlos Ghosn is the current chairman and CEO and the French government owns a 15% share of Renault.
As part of the Renault–Nissan Alliance, the company is the fourth-largest automotive group. Together Renault and Nissan are undertaking significant electric car development, investing €4 billion (US$5.16 billion) in eight electric vehicles over three to four years from 2011.
- 1 History
- 2 Corporate governance
- 3 Head office
- 4 Products and technologies
- 5 Vehicle conception
- 6 Subsidiaries and alliances
- 6.1 Renault-Nissan
- 6.2 Dacia
- 6.3 Renault Samsung Motors
- 6.4 AvtoVAZ
- 6.5 RCI Banque
- 6.6 Renault Retail Group
- 6.7 Manufacturing subsidiaries
- 6.8 Proposed alliances
- 7 Motorsport
- 8 Renault in the UK
- 9 Accolades
- 10 Marketing and branding
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
Foundation and early years (1898–1918)
The Renault corporation was founded in 1899 as Société Renault Frères by Louis Renault and his brothers Marcel and Fernand. Louis was a bright, aspiring young engineer who had already designed and built several models before teaming up with his brothers, who had honed their business skills working for their father's textiles firm. While Louis handled design and production, Marcel and Fernand handled company management.
The first Renault car, the Renault Voiturette 1CV was sold to a friend of Louis' father after giving him a test ride on 24 December 1898. The client was so impressed with the way the tiny car ran and how it climbed the streets that he bought it.
In 1903, Renault began to manufacture its own engines in as much as until then it had been purchasing them from De Dion-Bouton. The first major sale was in 1905 to the Société des Automobiles de Place, which bought Renault AG1 cars to establish a fleet of taxis. These vehicles would eventually be used by the French military for transporting troops during World War I which earned them be known as "Taxi de la Marne." By 1907, a significant percentage of the taxis circulating in London and Paris had been built by Renault. Renault also was the most sold foreign marque at New York in 1907 and 1908. In 1908 the company produced 3,575 units, becoming the largest car manufacturer in France.
The brothers recognised the publicity that could be obtained for their vehicles by participation in motor racing and Renault made itself known through achieving instant success in the first city-to-city races held in Switzerland resulting in rapid expansion for the company. Both Louis and Marcel Renault raced company vehicles, but Marcel was killed in an accident during the 1903 Paris-Madrid race. Although Louis Renault never raced again, his company remained very involved, including Ferenc Szisz winning the first Grand Prix motor racing event in a Renault AK 90CV in 1906. Louis was to take full control of the company as the only remaining brother in 1906 when Fernand retired for health reasons. Fernand died in 1909 and Louis became the sole owner, renaming the company Société des Automobiles Renault (Renault Automobile Company).
The Renault reputation for innovation was fostered from very early on. At the time, cars were very much luxury items, and the price of the smallest Renaults available being 3000 francs reflected this; an amount it would take ten years for the average worker at the time to earn. In 1905 the company introduced mass-production techniques, and Taylorism in 1913. As well as cars and taxis, Renault manufactured buses and commercial cargo vehicles in the pre-war years. The first real commercial truck from the company was introduced in 1906. During World War I, it branched out into ammunition, military airplanes and vehicles such as the revolutionary Renault FT tank. The company's military designs were so successful that Renault himself was awarded the Legion of Honour for his company's contributions to the war. The company also exported their engines overseas to American auto manufacturers for use in such automobiles as the GJG which used a Renault 26 hp or 40 hp four-cylinder engine.
Between the world wars (1919–1938)
Louis Renault enlarged the scope of his company after 1918, producing agricultural and industrial machinery. A number of the new products emerged from war developments. The first Renault's tractor, the Type GP produced between 1919 and 1930, was based on the FT tank. However, Renault struggled to compete with the increasingly popular small, affordable "people's cars", while problems with the stock market and the workforce also adversely affected the company's growth. Renault also had to find a way to distribute its vehicles more efficiently. In 1920, he signed one of its first distribution contracts with Gustave Gueudet, an entrepreneur from northern France.
The pre-First World War cars had a distinctive front shape caused by positioning the radiator behind the engine to give a so-called "coalscuttle" bonnet. This continued through the 1920s and it was not until 1930 that all models had the radiator at the front. The bonnet badge changed from circular to the familiar and continuing diamond shape in 1925. Renault models were introduced at the Paris Motor Show which was held in September or October of the year. This has led to a slight confusion as to vehicle identification. For example a "1927" model was mostly produced in 1928.
Renault produced a range of cars from small to very large. For example in 1928, when Renault produced 45,809 cars, the range of seven models started with a 6cv, a 10cv, the Monasix, 15cv, the Vivasix, the 18/22cv and the 40cv. There was a range of factory bodies, of up to eight styles, and the larger chassis were available to coachbuilders. The number of a model produced varied with size. The smaller were the most popular with the least produced being the 18/24cv. The most expensive factory body style in each range was the closed car. Roadsters and tourers (torpedoes) were the cheapest.
The London operation was very important to Renault in 1928. The UK market was quite large and from there "colonial" modified vehicles were dispatched. Lifted suspensions, enhanced cooling and special bodies were common on vehicles sold to the colonies. Exports to the USA by 1928 had almost reduced to zero from their high point prior to WW1 when to ship back a Grand Renault or similar high class European manufactured car was common. A NM 40cv Tourer had a USA list price of over $4,600 being about the same as a Cadillac V-12. Closed 7-seat limousines started at $6,000 which was more expensive than a Cadillac V-16.
The whole range was conservatively engineered and built. The newly introduced 1927 Vivasix, model PG1, was sold as the "executive sports" model. Lighter weight factory steel bodies powered by a 3180 cc six-cylinder motor provided a formula that went through to the Second World War.
The "de Grand Luxe Renaults", that is any with over 12-foot (3.7 m) wheelbase, were produced in very small numbers in two major types – six- and eight-cylinder. The 1927 six-cylinder Grand Renault models NM, PI and PZ introduced the new three spring rear suspension that considerably aided road holding that was needed as with some body styles over 90 mph (140 km/h) was possible. The 8-cylinder Reinastella was introduced in 1929. This model led on to a range culminating in the 1939 Suprastella. Coachbuilders included Kellner, Labourdette, J. Rothschild et Fils and Renault bodies. Closed car Renault bodies were often trimmed and interior wood work completed by Rothschild.
Renault also introduced in 1928 an upgraded specification to the larger cars designated "Stella". The Vivastella's and Grand Renaults had upgraded interior fittings and had a small star fitted above the front hood Renault diamond. This proved to be a winning marketing differentiator and in the 1930s all cars changed to the Stella suffix from the previous two alpha character model identifiers.
The Grand Renaults were built using a considerable amount of aluminium. Engines, brakes, transmissions, floor and running boards and all external body panels were aluminium. Of the few that were built, many went to scrap to aid the war effort.
In 1931, Renault introduced diesel engines for its commercial vehicles.
Between 1936 and 1938, a series of labour disputes, strikes, and worker unrest spread throughout the French automobile industry. The disputes were eventually quashed by Renault in a particularly intransigent way, and over 2,000 people lost their job.
World War II and aftermath (1939–1944)
After the French capitulation in 1940, Louis Renault refused to produce tanks for Nazi Germany, which took control of his factories. He produced lorries for the German occupiers instead. On 3 March 1942, the RAF launched 235 low-level bombers at the Billancourt plant, the largest number of aircraft aimed at a single target during the war. 460 tons of bombs were dropped on the plant and the surrounding area, causing extensive damage to the plant along with heavy civilian casualties. Renault resolved to rebuild the factory as quickly as possible, but a further heavy bombardment a year later, on 4 April, this time delivered by the Americans, caused further damage, as did subsequent allied bombardments on 3 and 15 September 1943.
A few weeks after the Liberation of Paris, at the start of September 1944, the factory gates at Renault’s Billancourt plant reopened. Operations restarted only very slowly, in an atmosphere poisoned by plotting and political conspiracy, undertaken in the name of popular justice. Back in 1936 the Billancourt factory had been at the heart of violent political and industrial unrest that had surfaced in France under Leon Blum’s Popular Front government: although the political jostling and violence that followed the liberation was ostensibly a backlash from the rivalries between capitalist collaboration and communist resistance, many of the scores being settled actually predated the German invasion. Responding to the chaotic situation at Renault, on 27 September 1944 a meeting of the Council of (the provisional government's) Ministers took place under de Gaulle’s presidency. Postwar European politics had quickly become polarised between communists and anti-communists, and in France De Gaulle was keen to resist Communist Party attempts to monopolise the political dividends available to resistance heroes: politically Billancourt was a communist stronghold. The government decided to "requisition" the Renault factories. A week later, on 4 October Pierre Lefaucheux, a resistance leader with a background in engineering and top-level management, was appointed provisional administrator of the firm, assuming his responsibilities at once.
Meanwhile the provisional government accused Louis Renault of collaborating with the Germans. In the frenzied atmosphere of those early post-liberation days, with many wild accusations against him, but believing himself innocent of the crimes of collaboration, Renault was advised by his lawyers not to flee the country, but to present himself to a judge. He presented himself to Judge Marcel Martin, on 22 September 1944. Louis Renault was arrested on 23 September 1944, like several other French auto-industry leaders at the time. Renault's harsh handling of the 1936–1938 strikes had left him without political allies in those early days after the liberation; thus he was completely isolated and no one came to his aid. He was incarcerated at Fresnes prison where he died on 24 October 1944 under unclear circumstances, while awaiting trial.
On 1 January 1945, by decree of General Charles de Gaulle based on the untried accusations of collaboration, the company was expropriated from Louis Renault posthumously and on 16 January 1945 it was formally nationalised as Régie Nationale des Usines Renault. Renault's were the only factories permanently expropriated by the French government. In subsequent years, the Renault family tried to have the nationalisation ruling overturned by the French courts and receive compensation. In 1945 and 1961 the Courts responded that they had no authority to review the actions of the De Gaulle Government.
Postwar resurgence (1945–1971)
In secrecy during the war, Louis Renault had developed the rear engine 4CV which was subsequently launched under Lefacheux in 1946. Renault debuted its flagship model, the largely conventional 2-litre 4-cylinder Renault Frégate (1951–1960), shortly thereafter. The 4CV proved itself a capable rival for cars such as the Morris Minor and Volkswagen Beetle; its sales of more than half a million ensured its production until 1961.
After the success of the 4CV, Lefacheux continued to defy the postwar French Ministry of Industrial Production, which had wanted to convert Renault solely to truck manufacture, by directing the development of its successor. He oversaw the prototyping of the Dauphine (until his death) – enlisting the help of artist Paule Marrot in pioneering the company's textile and color division.
The Dauphine sold extremely well as the company expanded production and sales further abroad, including Africa and North America. The Dauphine sold well initially in the US, where it subsequently became outdated against increased competition, including from the country's nascent domestic compacts such as the Chevrolet Corvair.
During the 1950s, Renault absorbed small French heavy vehicles' manufacturers (Somua and Latil) and in 1955 merged them with its own truck and bus division to form the Société Anonyme de Véhicules Industriels et d'Equipements Mécaniques (Saviem).
Renault subsequently launched two cars which became very successful – the Renault 4 (1961–1992), a practical competitor for the likes of the Citroën 2CV, and Renault 8. The larger rear-engined Renault 10 followed the success of the R8, and was the last of the rear-engined Renaults. The company achieved success with the more modern and more upmarket Renault 16, a pioneering hatchback launched in 1966, followed by the smaller Renault 6.
On 16 January 1970 the manufacturer celebrated the 25th anniversary of its 1945 rebirth as the newly nationalised Régie Nationale des Usines Renault. The 1960s had been a decade of aggressive growth for France's largest auto-maker: a few months earlier, in October 1969, the manufacturer had launched the Renault 12, combining most of the engineering philosophy of its market-defining hatch-backs with the more conservative "three-box" design which many buyers continued to prefer. The four-door Renault 12 model slotted into the Renault range between the Renault 6 and Renault 16. The model was a success, and 1970 was also the first year ever during which Renault produced more than a million cars in a single year, the actual figure being 1,055,803.
Modern era (1972–1980)
The company's compact and economical Renault 5 model, launched in January 1972, was another success, particularly in the wake of the 1973 energy crisis. Throughout the 1970s the R4, R5, R6, R12, R15, R16 and R17 maintained Renault's production with further new models launches including the Renault 18 and Renault 20.
Endangered like all of the motor industry by the energy crisis, during the mid seventies the already expansive company diversified further into other industries and continued to expand globally, including into South East Asia. The energy crisis also provoked Renault's attempt to reconquer the North American market; despite the Dauphine's success in the United States in the late 1950s, and an unsuccessful car-assembly project in Saint-Bruno-de-Montarville, Quebec, (1964–72), Renault as a stand-alone brand, began to disappear from North America at the end of the 1970s.
Throughout the decades Renault developed a collaborative partnership with Nash Motors Rambler and its successor American Motors Corporation (AMC). From 1962 to 1967, Renault assembled complete knock down (CKD) kits of the Rambler Classic sedans in its factory in Belgium. Renault did not have large or luxury cars in its product line and the "Rambler Renault" would be aimed as an alternative to the Mercedes-Benz "Fintail" cars. Later, Renault would continue to make and sell a hybrid of AMC's Rambler American and Rambler Classic called the Renault Torino in Argentina (sold through IKA-Renault). Renault partnered with AMC on other projects, such as development of a rotary concept engine in the late 1960s.
This was one of a series of collaborative ventures undertaken by Renault in the late 1960s and 1970s, as the company established subsidiaries in Eastern Europe, most notably Dacia in Romania, and South America (many of which remain active to the present day) and forged technological cooperation agreements with Volvo and Peugeot, the latter signed in 1966 (for instance, for the development of the PRV V6 engine, which was used in Renault 30, Peugeot 604, and Volvo 260 in the late 1970s).
In the mid-1960s an Australian arm, Renault Australia, was set up in Heidelberg, Melbourne, the company would produce and assemble models from the R8, R10, R12, R16, sporty R15, R17 coupe's to the R18 and R20, soon the company would close in 1981. Renault Australia did not just concentrate on Renaults, they also built and marketed Peugeots as well. From 1977, they assembled Ford Cortina station wagons under contract- the loss of this contract led to the closure of the factory.
When Peugeot acquired Citroën and formed PSA, the group's collaboration with Renault was reduced, although already established joint production projects were maintained. As part of Citroën reorganisation prior to its merging with Peugeot, Renault purchased from them the truck and bus manufacturer Berliet in 1975, merging it with its subsidiary Saviem in 1978 to create Renault Véhicules Industriels, which became the only French manufacturer of heavy commercial vehicles. In 1976, Renault reorganised the company into four business areas which were automobiles (for car and light commercial vehicles or LCVs), finance and services, commercial vehicles (coaches and trucks over 2.5 tons GVW), and other minor operations under an industrial enterprises division (farm machinery, plastics, foundry, etc.). In 1980, Renault produced 2,053,677 cars and LCVs (the cars at the time were the Renault 4, 5, 6, 7, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 30; the LCVs were the 4, 5 and 12 Société and the Estafette), and 54,086 buses/coaches and trucks.
In North America, Renault formed a partnership with American Motors, lending AMC operating capital and buying a minority 22.5% stake in the company in late 1979. The first Renault model sold through AMC's dealerships was the R5, renamed Renault Le Car. Jeep was keeping AMC afloat until new products, particularly the XJ Cherokee, could be launched. When the bottom fell out of the 4×4 truck market in early 1980 AMC was in danger of going bankrupt. To protect its investment, Renault bailed AMC out with a big cash influx – at the price of a controlling interest in the company of 47.5%. Renault quickly replaced some top AMC executives with their own people.
The Renault–AMC partnership also resulted in the marketing of Jeep vehicles in Europe. Some consider the Jeep XJ Cherokee as a joint AMC/Renault project since some early sketches of the XJ series were made in collaboration by Renault and AMC engineers (AMC insisted that the XJ Cherokee was designed by AMC personnel; however, a former Renault engineer designed the Quadra-Link front suspension for the XJ series). The Jeep also used wheels and seats from Renault. Part of AMC's overall strategy when the partnership was first discussed was to save manufacturing cost by using Renault sourced parts when practical, and some engineering expertise. This led to the improvement of the venerable AMC in-line six – a Renault/Bendix-based port electronic fuel injection system (usually called Renix) that transformed it into a modern, competitive powerplant with a jump from 110 hp (82 kW) to 177 hp (132 kW) with less displacement (from 4.2L to 4.0L).
The Renault-AMC marketing effort in passenger cars was not as successful compared to the popularity for Jeep vehicles. This was because by the time the Renault range was ready to become established in the American market, the second energy crisis was over, taking with it much of the trend for economical, compact cars. One exception was the Renault Alliance (an Americanised version of the Renault 9), which debuted for the 1983 model year. Assembled at AMC's plant in Kenosha, Wisconsin, the Alliance received Motor Trend's domestic Car of The Year award in 1983. The Alliance's 72% U.S. content allowed it to qualify as a domestic vehicle, making it the first car with a foreign nameplate to win the award since the magazine established a separate Import Car of The Year prize in 1976. (In 2000, Motor Trend did away with separate awards for domestic and imported vehicles.)
Renault sold some interesting models in the U.S. in the 1980s, especially the simple-looking but fun Renault Alliance GTA and GTA convertible – an automatic-top convertible with a 2.0 L engine – big for a car of its class; and the ahead-of-its-time Renault Fuego coupe. The Alliance was followed by the Encore (U.S. version of the Renault 11), an Alliance-based hatchback. In 1982 Renault become the second European automaker to build cars in the United States, after Volkswagen. However, Renault's Wisconsin-built and imported models quickly became the target of customer complaints for poor quality, and sales plummeted.
Eventually, Renault sold AMC to Chrysler in 1987 after the assassination of Renault’s chairman, Georges Besse. The Renault Medallion (Renault 21 in Europe) sedan and wagon was sold from 1987 to 1989 through Jeep-Eagle dealerships. Jeep-Eagle was the new division Chrysler created out of the former American Motors. However, Renault products were no longer imported into the United States after 1989. A completely new full-sized 4-door sedan, the Eagle Premier, was developed during the partnership between AMC and Renault. The Premier design, as well as its state-of-the-art manufacturing facility in Bramalea, Ontario, Canada, were the starting point for the sleek LH sedans such as the Eagle Vision and Chrysler 300M.
In early 1979, as part of its attempts to expand into the American market, Renault bought a 20% minority stake in the truck manufacturer Mack Trucks. The aim of this operation was to make use of the extensive delearship network of the company to distribute light trucks. In 1983, Renault increased its stake in Mack Trucks to 44.6%. In 1987, it transferred the ownership of a 42% stake to Renault Véhicules Industriels.
In the late seventies and early eighties Renault increased its involvement in motorsport, with novel inventions such as turbochargers in their Formula One cars. Renault's head of engines, Georges Douin, orchestrated the installation of turbocharged engines across much of the Renault range beginning in 1980. 10% of all turbocharged cars built in Europe in 1984 were Renaults. The company's road car designs were revolutionary in other ways also – the Renault Espace was one of the first minivans and was to remain the most well-known minivan in Europe for at least the next two decades. The second-generation Renault 5, the European Car of the Year-winning Renault 9, and the most luxurious Renault yet, the aerodynamic 25 were all released in the early 1980s, building Renault's reputation, but at the same time the company suffered from poor product quality which reflected badly in the image of the brand and the ill-fated Renault 14 is seen by many as the culmination of these problems in the early 1980s.
Although its cars were somewhat successful both on the road and on the track, including the 1984 launch of the Espace – Europe's first multi-purpose vehicle, a dozen of years before any concurrent – Renault was losing a billion francs a month and reported a deficit of 12.5 billion in 1984. The government intervened and Georges Besse was installed as chairman; he set about cutting costs dramatically, selling off many of Renault's non-core assets (including a minority Volvo stake, Gitane, Eurocar and Renix), withdrawing almost entirely from motorsports, and laying off many employees. This succeeded in halving the deficit by 1986, but he was murdered by the communist terrorist group Action Directe in November 1986. He was replaced by Raymond Lévy, who continued along the same lines as Besse, slimming down the company considerably with the result that by the end of 1987 it was more or less financially stable.
The Renault 9, a small four-door family saloon, was voted European Car of the Year on its 1981 launch. It sold well in France, but was eventually eclipsed by the Renault 11 hatchback version, as the hatchback bodystyle became more popular on this size of car. The Renault 5 entered its second generation in 1984 and continued to sell well. The long-running Renault 18 was replaced by the Renault 21 early in 1986, with the traditional saloon being joined by a seven-seater estate badged as the Nevada or Savanna depending on where it was sold. Renault's top of the range model in the 1980s was the Renault 25, launched at the end of 1983.
In 1990, Renault strengthened its collaboration with Volvo by signing an agreement which allowed both companies to reduce vehicle conception costs and purchasing expenses. Renault had access to Volvo expertise in upper market segments and in return Volvo could take advantage of Renault designs for low and medium segments. In 1993 the two companies announced their intention to merge operations by 1 January 1994 and both increased their cross-shareholding. While in France the idea of merging was reluctantly accepted, in Sweden the opposition was outspoken and the Volvo shareholders rejected it.
The Renault Clio was launched in May 1990 as replacement for the long-running Renault 5, which ran alongside it for six years. The Clio was voted European Car of the Year soon after its launch, and was one of Europe's best selling cars in the 1990s, proving even more popular than its hugely successful predecessor.
A revitalised Renault launched several successful new cars in the early 1990s, including the 5 replacement, the Clio in 1990. The Clio is the first new model of a generation which will see the numeric models replaced by new cars with traditional nameplates. Other important launches included the second-generation Espace in 1996 and the innovative Twingo in 1992.
The Renault Twingo featured a one-box design to maximize interior space on a small car in the city car market, which was largely ignored by most European manufacturers following the success of modern small hatchbacks in the wake of the original postwar mini-cars like BMC/British Leyland's Mini, the Fiat 500 and the Hillman Imp. The original Twingo was only built for left-hand drive markets but sold particularly well in France and Italy, and some examples reached Britain as personal imports.
By the end of the 1990s, most leading European manufacturers were producing or developing a city car. The Renault Twingo also launched the trend of the customisation in the car industry, with its external stickers serials and its interior with bright colours and patterns. The Twingo was also roomier than any of the cars of this size range before.
The launches were aligned with an improved marketing effort on European markets. In the mid-1990s the successor to the R19, the Renault Mégane, was one of the first cars to achieve a 4-star rating, the highest at the time, in EuroNCAP crash test in passenger safety. The Megane also featured a wider range than its predecessor, including coupe and estate bodystyles.
Privatisation and the alliance era (1996–present)
It was eventually decided that the company's state-owned status was detrimental to its growth. By 1994, following the failed Renault-Volvo merger, plans to sell shares to public investors were officially announced. The company was privatised in 1996. This new freedom allowed the company to venture once again into Eastern Europe and South America, including a new factory in Brazil and upgrades for the infrastructure in Argentina and Turkey. In December 1996 General Motors Europe and Renault begun to collaborate in the development of LCVs, starting with the second generation Trafic (codenamed X83).
The financial problems of Renault were not all fixed by the privatisation, however, and the Renault's President, Louis Schweitzer gave to his then deputy, Carlos Ghosn, the task of confronting them. Ghosn elaborated a plan to cut costs for the period 1998–2000, reducing the workforce, revising production processes, standardising vehicle parts and pushing the launching of new models. The company also undertook organisational changes, introducing worldwide a lean production system with delegate responsibilities inspired by Japanese systems (the "Renault Production Way"), reforming work methods and creating a centralised research and development facility, the Technocentre, to reduce vehicle conception costs while accelerating such conception.
After Volvo exit, Renault searched for a new partner to cope with an industry that was consolidating and talks with BMW, Mitsubishi, Nissan, PSA and others were held. When Nissan's negotiations with Daimler stalled, the Japanese company agreed to associate with Renault. Signed on 27 March 1999, the Renault–Nissan Alliance is the first of its kind involving a Japanese and a French company, each with its own distinct corporate culture and marque identity, linked through cross-shareholding. Renault initially acquired a 36.8% stake at a cost of US$3.5 billion in Nissan, while Nissan in turn has a 15% stake (non-voting) in Renault. Renault continued to operate as a stand-alone company, but with the intent to collaborate with its alliance partner to reduce costs in developing new products. In the same year Renault bought 51% majority stake of the Romanian company Dacia, thus returning after 30 years, in which time the Romanians built over 2 million cars, which primarily consisted of local version of Renaults 8, 12 and 20. In 2000, Renault acquired a controlling stake of the South Korean Samsung Group's automotive division.
In the late 1990s and early 2000s, Renault sold various assets to finance its inversions and acquisitions, refocusing itself as a car and van manufacturer. In 1999, the company sold its industrial automation subsidiary, Renault Automation, to Comau and its engine parts division to TWR Engine Components. In 2001, Renault also sold its 50% stake in bus/coach manufacturer Irisbus to co-owner Iveco and its logistics subsidiary CAT France to Global Automotive Logistics. Following the sale of the Renault Véhicules Industriels truck and bus division to Volvo in 2001, the company retained a minority (but controlling) stake (20%) in the Volvo Group (Volvo passenger cars are now a subsidiary of the Zhejiang Geely Holding Group). In 2010 Renault reduced its participation to 6.5% and in December 2012 sold its remaining shares. In 2004, Renault sold a 51% majority stake in its agricultural machinery division, Renault Agriculture, to CLAAS. In 2006, CLAAS increased its ownership to 80% and in 2008 took full control.
In the twenty-first century, Renault was to foster a reputation for distinctive, outlandish design. The second generation of the Laguna and Mégane featured ambitious, angular designs which turned out to be successful, with the 2000 Laguna being the first European family car to feature "keyless" entry and ignition. Less successful were the company's more upmarket models. The Avantime, a bizarre coupé / multi-purpose vehicle, sold very poorly and was quickly discontinued while the luxury Vel Satis model did not sell as well as hoped. However, the design inspired the lines of the second-generation Mégane, the most successful car of the maker. As well as its distinctive styling, Renault was to become known for its car safety. The Laguna was the first car ever to achieve a 5 star rating; in 2004 the Modus was the first to achieve this rating in its category.
In April 2010, Renault-Nissan announced a new alliance with Mercedes-Benz parent company Daimler with Renault supplying Mercedes-Benz with its brand new 1.6 L turbodiesel engine and Mercedes-Benz to provide a 2.0 L four-cylinder petrol engine to Renault-Nissan. The resulting new alliance is to also develop a new model to replace the Smart with a new model based on the Renault Twingo.
In February 2010, Renault opened a new production factory near Tangier, Morocco, with an annual output capacity of 170,000 vehicles. Initially, it manufactured the new Dacia Lodgy and Dacia Dokker models and, starting from October 2013, the second generation Dacia Sandero, the output capacity being increased to 340,000 vehicles per year with the inauguration of this second production line. The site is located in a dedicated free trade area, neighboring the Tanger Automotive City, an industrial platform focused on automotive business. According to Renault, the new factory emits zero carbon and industrial liquid discharges. Over 100,000 vehicles were produced there in 2013, and Renault expects to eventually increase production at the Tangier plant to 400,000 vehicles per year, according to a report by the Committee of French Automobile Manufacturers.
In December 2012 the Algeria's National Investment Fund (FNI), the Société Nationale de Véhicules Industriels (SNVI), and Renault signed an agreement to establish a factory near the city of Oran, Algeria, with the aim of manufacturing Symbol units by 2014. The production output was estimated in 25,000 vehicles. The Algerian State will have a 51% stake in the facilities' property.
Renault is administered through a Board of Directors, an Executive Committee and a Management Committee. As of May 2014[update], members of the 19-seat board are, among others, Carlos Ghosn, Alain J. P. Belda, Charles de Croisset, Thierry Desmarest, Yuriko Koike, Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière, Franck Riboud and Pascale Sourisse. The Executive Committee is composed by Ghosn, Thierry Bolloré (Chief Competitive Officer), Marie-Françoise Damesin (Executive Vice President, Human Resources), Jose-Vicente De Los Mozos Obispo (Executive Vice President Manufacturing and Supply-Chain), Gaspar Gascon Abellan (Executive Vice President Engineering), Philippe Klein (Executive Vice President, Product Planning, Programs), Stefan Mueller (Executive Vice President, Chairman of Europe region), Mouna Sepehri (Executive Vice President, Office of the CEO), Jérôme Stoll (Executive Vice President, Chief Performance Officer) and Dominique Thormann (Executive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Chairman and CEO, RCI Banque). The Management Committee is composed by the members of the Executive. There are five regional management committees which focus on certain geographic areas.
Renault's head office is in Boulogne-Billancourt. The head office is located near the old Renault factories; Renault has maintained a historical presence in Boulogne-Billancourt, as the historic Boulogne-Billancourt plant had Renault's activity since 1898.
Products and technologies
Current model line up, with calendar year of introduction or facelift:
Dacia vehicles sold in some markets under the Renault marque:
Renault Samsung vehicles sold in some markets under the Renault marque
Renault light commercial vehicles:
Renault SA ceased manufacturing large goods vehicles by 2004 when it sold its truck and military divisions to Volvo in 2001 (but still sold under the Renault Trucks name) and its bus and tram business to Irisbus in 1999. Renault's agricultural division was sold to CLAAS in 2004.
Renault has displayed numerous concept cars to show future design and technology directions. Since 2008 Renault displayed various all-electric car concepts under the name "Z.E.", starting with a concept based on the Renault Kangoo Be Bop. Further concepts and announcements followed, with a pledge to start production of the Fluence Z.E. saloon in 2011 and the Renault Zoe in 2012.
Renault also revealed the Ondelios hybrid concept in 2008. but this was overtaken by the Z.E. programme. However, Renault presented a new hybrid car in September 2014, the Eolab, which incorporates various innovations that the company said will be added to production models by 2020.
In 2014 at the New Delhi Auto Show, Renault announced a new model, the KWID Concept, which comes with its own helicopter drone.
Electric vehicle partnerships
From 2008, Renault entered a number of agreements for its planned zero-emissions products, including Israel, Portugal, Denmark, the U.S. states of Tennessee and Oregon, Yokohama in Japan and the Principality of Monaco. Serge Yoccoz is the electric vehicle project director.
In 2008, Renault-Nissan signed a deal to mass-produce electric cars for an initiative in Israel with Better Place, a US company developing new non-petroleum–based transport infrastructure. Renault aimed to mass market 10,000 to 20,000 cars a year in Israel. Renault would also develop exchangeable batteries for the project. Renault also collaborated with Better Place to produce a network of all-electric vehicles and thousands of charging stations in Denmark, planned to be operational by 2011. The Renault Fluence Z.E., was selected for the Israel project, being the first zero-emission vehicle with a switchable battery, with trials in 2010 undertaken with the Renault Laguna. Renault ended the partnership in 2013, following Better Place's bankruptcy, with only 1000 vehicle sales in Israel and 240 in Denmark.
Renault-Nissan and the largest French electric utility, Electricite de France (EDF) signed an agreement to promote emission-free mobility in France. The partnership planned to pilot projects on battery management and charging infrastructure. Renault-Nissan also signed deals with Ireland's ESB, and in Milton Keynes as part of the UK's Plugged in Places national project.
|“||We have decided to introduce zero-emission vehicles as quickly as possible in order to ensure individual mobility against the background of high oil prices and better environmental protection||”|
—Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Renault and Nissan
According to Ghosn, the Renault-Nissan alliance was a fundamental step in electric car development, and that although the two companies alone could produce an electric car, they both need each other for other issues like battery manufacturing, electric vehicle charging infrastructure, and business strategy.
|“||I don't think either Renault or Nissan would have been able to launch an EV alone successfully. You can have an electric car alone. But what you cannot have is an EV business system, from batteries to recycling to cars to infrastructure to negotiation, by being alone.||”|
—Carlos Ghosn, CEO of Renault and Nissan
The Renault-Nissan group is a member of the PHEV Research Center.
Renault introduced a new line of eco-friendly derivatives in 2007 marked eco² based on normal production cars. A minimum of 5% recycled plastic was used and at the end of the vehicles life the remains are 95% reusable. Eco²'s CO2 emissions were not to exceed 140g/km, or are biofuel compatible. At the 2008 Fleet World Honours, Renault was rewarded with the Environment Award. The chairman of Judges, George Emmerson, commented, “This was the most hotly contested category in the history of the Fleet World Honours, such is the clamour for organizations’ green credentials to be recognised. There were some very impressive entries, but the panel felt that Renault’s impressive range of low-emission vehicles was the most tangible, and the most quantifiable.
During its early years, Renault only manufactured the cars' chassis, the bodywork was in charge of coachbuilders. The first car with Renault's optional bodywork was the "Taxi de la Marne" introduced in 1905. Most Renault-made bodyworks were simple and utilitarian until the Reinastella unveiling in 1928. In the 1930s, Renault developed streamlined cars as the Viva Grand Sport. In the 1950s the company worked with Ghia designers.
In 1961, with the assistance of the independent designer Philippe Charbonneaux (responsible of the R8), was created Renault Styling as a department for design dependent on Engineering, led by Gaston Juchet since 1963. In 1975, Robert Opron was named chief designer and Renault Styling was divided into three sub-departments: Interior, Exterior and Advanced Design. The following years saw the introduction of a number of relevant cars for the marque, including the Fuego and the 11.
In 1987, Renault hired Patrick le Quément as chief designer and created the Industrial Design Department to replace Renault Styling. The new division incorporated a new, more complex, management system, with a great increment in technologies and personnel. Renault gave it the same importance as Engineering and Product Planning, making it to participate in product development. Le Quément was responsible of bold designs such as the Mégane II and the Vel Satis, giving Renault a more coherent and stylish image. In 1995, Design and Quality were merged under le Quément direction. Later, the new department was moved to Guyancourt's Technocentre, which also became the base for Engineering and Product Planning. Design was divided into three sections: Automobile Design; Truck, LCV and Bus Design; and Concept Cars and Advanced Design. During the next years were created satellite centres in Spain (1999), Paris (2000), South Korea (2003), Romania (2007), India (2007) and Brazil (2008).
Engineering and Product Planning
Most of Renault engineering was decentralised until 1998, when the Technocentre became the main Renault's engineering facility. Satellite centres exist, including: Renault Technologies Americas (with branches in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Mexico), Renault Technologies Romania (branches in Morocco, Russia, Slovenia and Turkey) and Renault Technologies Spain (branch in Portugal). As of 2013[update], Renault's engineering section has over 6500 employees world-wide, of which 34% are engineers and 63% technicians. The engines' development is in charge of a specific division, Renault Powertrains, which employs nearly 65 engineers.
The Renault Technocentre (French pronunciation: [ʁəno tɛknɔˈsɑ̃tʁ])) is the main research and development facility of Renault. It is located in Guyancourt and its construction was completed in 1998. It covers an area of 150 hectares and integrates all departments involved in developing new products and industrial processes (design, engineering, product planning) as well as representatives of suppliers. The Technocentre gathers more than 8000 employees and comprises three main sections: The Advance Precinct, The Hive and the prototype build centre. The Advance Precinct, a stepped structure surrounded by a lake, has design studios and other departments related to the early conception stages as well as administrative and reception areas. The Hive is the tallest structure, and includes research and engineering facilities dedicated to complete the development process of new vehicles. The prototype build centre is an extension of The Hive. The three main structures are combined with smaller technical buildings.
The Technocentre was one of the first enterprises to have real-time life-size 3D modelling systems.
Renault Tech is a division of Renault Sport Technologies, headquartered in Les Ulis. It was established in 2008 and is in charge of modifying cars and vans for special purposes (transporting people with reduced mobility, driving school cars, business fleets).
Subsidiaries and alliances
Renault has a 43.4% stake in Nissan, and Nissan holds a 15% stake (with no voting rights) in Renault, thereby giving it effective control. Renault has a 50% stake in the joint venture Renault-Nissan b.v., which was established to manage synergies in the Renault-Nissan alliance. The company is responsible for the management of two joint companies, RNPO (Renault Nissan Purchasing Organization) and RNIS (Renault-Nissan Information Services). Combined vehicle sales in 2008 reached 6.9 million (including AvtoVAZ), making the Renault-Nissan Alliance the world’s third-largest automotive group.
As well as sharing a number of engines in the alliance and joint-development of zero-emissions technology, Nissan increased its presence in Europe by badging various Renault van models such as the Renault Kangoo/Nissan Kubistar, Renault Master/Nissan Interstar, Renault Trafic/Nissan Primastar. Some passenger cars have also been badged-engineered, such as the Renault Clio-based Nissan Platina in Brazil. The "Renault Production System" standard used by all Renault factories borrowed extensively from the "Nissan Production Way" and has resulted in Renault productivity improving by 15%. The alliance has led to the loss of 21,000 jobs, the closure of three assembly plants and two powertrain plants.
In March 2010 the Renault-Nissan alliance opened its first joint facility in Chennai, India, investing 45 billion rupees (US$991.1 million). The facility builds the Nissan Micra, and the Renault Fluence and Renault Koleos are intended to be assembled there from completely knocked-down units. As a result of opening its own factory, Renault ended its five-year Mahindra Renault joint venture with Mahindra & Mahindra company to make and sell the Renault Logan in India.
Renault-Nissan and Daimler alliance
On 7 April 2010 Renault-Nissan executive, Carlos Ghosn and Daimler AG executive, Dieter Zetsche announced a partnership between the three companies in a joint press conference. Under the terms of a deal, Daimler acquired a 3.1 per cent stake in Renault-Nissan and Renault and Nissan each take a 1.55 per cent stake in Daimler.
Renault-Nissan and Mitsubishi collaboration
On 5 November 2013 Nissan and Mitsubishi agreed to include Renault and the Renault-Nissan Alliance in its long-term partnership. Renault will provide to Mitsubishi two saloons developed by the former and made at the Busan's Renault Samsung Motors facility. There are also plans to exchange electric vehicle technology between the three companies.
In 1999, Renault acquired a 51% controlling stake from the Romanian-based manufacturer Automobile Dacia, which increased during the next three years to a 99.3% stake and subsequently to the present 99.43%. As part of the Renault group, Dacia is a regional marque of entry-levels cars focused on Europe and Northern Africa which shares various models with the Renault marque.
Renault Samsung Motors
Renault acquired the car division of Samsung on 1 September 2000 in a $560 million deal for 70% of the company, eventually rising its stake to 80.1%. Renault Samsung Motors is a marque used almost exclusively in South Korea (although some models are also sold in Chile). The majority of the company production at its Busan plant is exported under the Renault badge.
In February 2008 Renault acquired a 25% share in AvtoVAZ, known for its Lada range of vehicles. For a long time needing to modernise its technology, VAZ was seeking a strategic partnership since the late nineties. Its owners tried to form an alliance with various foreign auto manufacturers, such as General Motors. However, most of these attempts weren't successful and generally fell through.
Renault was in talks with AvtoVAZ on and off since 2005, initially insisting on CKD assembly of Logan cars with its facilities, while VAZ intended to keep its own Lada brand and only wished to acquire a new platform and engine. After several rounds of talks, between which VAZ also sought alliance with Fiat and Magna, Renault agreed to the partnership under terms not unlike the earlier Nissan deal. Renault and Rosoboronexport, the state corporation that is a major stockholder of VAZ, discussed Renault increasing its stake in VAZ to 50%.
Renault Retail Group
Renault Retail Group is Renault's wholly owned automobile distributor for Europe. Since its inception, Renault developed a retail network. In 1997, the French branches were merged to establish the subsidiary Renault France Automobiles (RFA). In 2001, it served as the basis for Renault Europe Automobiles (REA), which was created to manage sales in Europe. In 2008, the company adopted its current name. Renault Retail Group operates in France, Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom.
Manufacturing subsidiaries outside France
On 30 June 2006, the media reported that General Motors convened an emergency board meeting to discuss a proposal by shareholder Kirk Kerkorian to form an alliance between GM and Renault-Nissan. The hastily arranged meeting suggests that GM's board was treating Kerkorian's proposal with urgency. There was speculation that a GM–Renault–Nissan alliance could pave the way for Renault's return to the U.S. market. However, GM CEO Richard Wagoner felt that an alliance would benefit Renault's shareholders more than those of GM, and that GM should receive some compensation for it. This did not sit well with Renault; subsequently, talks between GM and Renault ended on 4 October 2006.
In 2007 Renault-Nissan were in talks with Indian manufacturer Bajaj Auto to develop a new ultra-low-cost car along the lines of the Tata Nano. Renault's existing partner in India, Mahindra, was not interested in taking part in the project despite already manufacturing the Dacia Logan. The proposed deal for a split of the joint venture (50% Bajaj and 25% each for Renault and Nissan) did not come to fruition, when in late 2009 it was announced that Bajaj would develop and manufacturer the vehicle itself and supply Renault-Nissan with completed cars.
On 7 October 2008, the Wall Street Journal reported that a Renault executive said the company was interested in acquiring or partnering with Chrysler, which at the time was owned by the private equity firm Cerberus Capital Management. On 11 October 2008, the New York Times reported that General Motors, Nissan and Renault had all been in discussions over the past month with Cerberus about acquiring Chrysler. Chrysler was eventually acquired by, and became a wholly owned subsidiary of, the Italian automotive company Fiat.
Renault has taken part in motorsport since the beginning of the 20th century, promoted by Marcel Renault's racing interests, and over the years has acquired companies with a sporting connection such as Gordini and Alpine. In the seventies, Renault set up a dedicated motorsport division called Renault Sport, and won the Le Mans 24 Hours with the Renault Alpine A442 in 1978. Renault has achieved success in both rallying and in Formula One over several decades. The company backs several one-make single-seater series such as Formula Renault, and World Series by Renault.
Renault introduced the turbo engine to Formula One when they debuted their first car, the Renault RS01 at Silverstone in 1977 and the Renault team continued until 1986. From 1989 Renault supplied engines to the successful Williams-Renault car.
Renault took over the Benetton Formula team in 2000 for the 2001 season and became Renault F1 in 2002. In 2005 and 2006 the team won the Constructors' and Drivers' titles (with Fernando Alonso). At the 2005 French Grand Prix Carlos Ghosn set out his policy regarding the company's involvement in motorsport:
- "We are not in Formula One out of habit or tradition. We're here to show our talent and that we can do it properly… Formula One is a cost if you don't get the results. Formula One is an investment if you do have them and know how to exploit them."
Renault powered the winning 2010 Red Bull Racing team, and entered to a similar role with its old team in December 2010, when sold the final participation on it to the investment group Genii Capital, the main stakeholder since December 2009, ending Renault's direct role in running a F1 team for the second time.
As of 2014[update], the F1 involvement of Renault is centred in Renault Sport F1, which provides engines and related elements to several client teams (Infiniti Red Bull Racing, Lotus F1 Team, Scuderia Toro Rosso and Caterham F1 Team).
During the 1950s and 1960s, Renault manufactured several small cars with rear wheel drive in some cases, as the R4, the R8 or the Dauphine. These cars were well-adapted to the rally of the time, and the tuner Amedee Gordini collaborated with its performance. In the 1950s the Renault Dauphine won several international rallies, including the 1956 Mille Miglia and the 1958 Monte Carlo Rally.
In 1973, Renault took control of Automobiles Alpine, a related company for several years, which was responsible for building successful rally cars such as the A110. A highly evolved A110 won the first World Rally Championship, representing Alpine-Renault.
In 1976, the Alpine's competition department and the Gordini factory at Viry-Chatillon were merged into Renault Sport. The focus shifted to Formula One, although Renault achieved several victories including the 1981 Monte Carlo Rally with the Renault 5 Turbo before retirement from the world rally in late 1994.
Renault cars also participate of cross-country races, most prominently the Dakar Rally. The Marreau brothers won the 1982 edition driving a Renault 20 Turbo 4x4 prototype. Later, Renault motorised and sponsored the Schlesser-Renault Elf buggies which won the 1999 and 2000 editions. The 1999 car was the first two-wheel drive Dakar's winner.
From 1983 to 1984, Renault sponsored an Unlimited hydroplane in the United States. Owned by Jerry Schoenith and driven by E. Milner Irvin, the Miss Renault was powered by a turbocharged Allison V-1710 piston engine. Miss Renault won the 1983 World Championship race in Houston, Texas.
Renault in the UK
The first popular Renault motor vehicles to achieve sustained sales success in the United Kingdom were the R5 mini-car and R18, both of which attained six-digit sales figures during the late 1970s and early 1980s, although they failed to achieve anything like the volumes of established carmakers Ford, Vauxhall and Austin Rover.
Renault enjoyed a huge rise in popularity among British buyers on the arrival of the Clio supermini in early 1991. It was regularly among Britain's most popular cars each year during the 1990s and its successor (launched in 1998 alongside the final installment of the successful 'Nicole and Papa' advertising campaign), where the original model left off. The sedan/saloon version, called Thalia, was not launched in the UK.
Renault went from strength to strength in the UK during the 2000s following the introduction of its distinctively styled Mégane hatchback in November 2002. Any suggestions that its quirky styling would not fit in with the tastes of British buyers were quickly confounded in 2005 when it was the fourth best-selling car in Britain. By 2006 Renault was the third most popular brand of car in the United Kingdom, only Ford and Vauxhall sold more units.
In 2007 Renault UK lost a US$2 million lawsuit against an independent distributor who had placed orders for 217 cars under a discount scheme intended for members of the British Airline Pilots Association- 3 were legitimate- because they had "made a profit of some sort on every vehicle". Two Renault employees were criticised for having "turned a blind eye" to the very large number of orders.
By 2008, Renault sales had started declining in the UK and the marque was down to eighth most popular brand with 89,570 sales (down 29% compared to 2007) and considerably less than the 194,685 sales made in 2002. Renault suffered more than most main brands in the UK during 2009 as the recession deepened and ended the year with 63,174 sales and a reduced 3.17% market share. In 2010, however, as the economy returned to growth, Renault sold more than 95,000 cars and boosted its market share to 4.71%. However, in 2011 Renault's fortunes fell again. It sold 68,449 cars, down more than 28 per cent on the year before, a 3.53 per cent market share.
The Koleos SUV was discontinued in the UK in August 2010 due to slow sales under 3,000 units. In late 2011, Renault announced that the Laguna, Espace, Kangoo, Modus, and Wind lines would be discontinued in the UK due to cutting costs and 55 of its 190 British dealerships would be closed. This change took place in early 2012, leaving the current range limited to the Twingo, Clio, Mégane, Scénic, and the new Twizy and Fluence Z.E. models, and Renault feared that the company's overall sales figures in Britain for 2012 would be around 51,000 – barely a quarter of the record 190,000 sales in 2005.
Car of the Year award in Europe
Renault was a six time winner of the European Car of the Year award in the last forty years.
- 1966: Renault 16
- 1982: Renault 9
- 1991: Renault Clio
- 1997: Renault Scénic
- 2003: Renault Mégane II
- 2006: Renault Clio III
Car of the Year award in the USA
'Autobest' Car of the Year award
'Autobest' is awarded by the members of the Autobest jury, coming from 15 countries : Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Cyprus, Macedonia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Turkey, Ukraine and Malta. The members of the jury score 13 criteria like fuel consumption, versatility, roominess or design.
'Semperit Irish Car of the Year' award
Car of the Year award in Australia
The inaugural Australian Wheels Car of the Year award was won by the R8 in 1963 (particularly in consideration to its four-wheel disc brake system), and Renault won again in 1970 when the Renault 12 won the prestigious award.
Car of the Year awards in Spain
(*) : in 1994, the Citroën Xantia was elected winner ex aequo
Marketing and branding
The first badge of Renault was introduced in 1900 and consisted in Renault brothers' intertwined initials. When the company started mass production in 1906, it adopted a gear-shaped logo with a car inside it. After the World War I the company used a special logo depicting a FT tank. In 1923 it introduced a new circle-shaped badge, which was replaced by the today most widely known "diamond" or lozenge in 1925.
The Renault diamond logo has been through many iterations since it was first used. To modernise its image, Renault asked Victor Vasarely to design its new logo in 1972. Vasarely had already worked in the advertising world and he placed his graphic talents at the service of the brand. The transformed logo maintained the diamond shape but gained cleaner, more dynamic and angular lines. A seventies design that has since been revised to reflect the new more rounded lines of the brand’s styling cues. The current diamond badge has been in use since 1992, though the Renault brand logo for web and print use was updated two times since then. In 2004 was incorporated a more realistic badge representation inside a yellow square with the word "Renault" in Renault Identité typeface besides it. In 2007, Renault commissioned to Saguez & Partners a new redesign. In this new version, currently in use, the word "Renault" was included inside the yellow square.
Both the Renault logo and its documentation (technical as well as commercial) historically used a specially designed typeface called Renault MN, developed by British firm Wolff Olins. This type family is said to have been designed not for prestige reasons, but mainly to save costs at a time where the use of typefaces was more costly than it is now. In 2004, French typeface designer Jean-François Porchez was commissioned to design a replacement. This was shown in October of that year and is called Renault Identité.
L'Atelier Renault Paris
Renault's flagship showroom, L'Atelier Renault (French pronunciation: [latəlje ʁəno])), is located on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, where other car manufacturers such as Peugeot, Citroën and Toyota also have showrooms. It was opened in November 2000, located on the site of Pub Renault, which ran from 1963 to 1999. The first Renault's venue at the location was the Magasin Renault established in 1910, a pioneering car showroom, in a building leased by Louis Renault.
L'Atelier currently features a Renault Boutique as well as regular exhibitions featuring Renault and Dacia cars, while an upmarket restaurant is located on the second floor, looking out onto the Champs-Élysées. The ground floor can hold up to five different exhibitions at any one time. As of March 2009, 20 million visitors have visited L'Atelier Renault.
Renault Classic is a department within Renault that seeks to collect, preserve and exhibit notable vehicles from the company's history. Originally named Histoire & Collection, the collection was assembled in 2002 and its workshops formally opened on 24 April 2003.
Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, Renault's European advertising made extensive use of Robert Palmer's song "Johnny and Mary". The earlier television advertisements used Palmer's original version, while a range of special recordings in different styles were produced during the 1990s; most famously Martin Taylor's acoustic interpretation which he released on his album Spirit of Django.
- "Renault Atlas March 2014" (PDF). Renault. Archived from the original on 19 March 2013. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Consolidated financial statements 2013" (PDF). Renault. Archived from the original on 18 March 2014. Retrieved 18 March 2014.
- "Stockholder structure". Renault. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2014.
- "Formula Renault 3.5 Series. 2012 Sporting Regulations" (PDF). Formula Renault 3.5. p. 2. Archived from the original on 14 November 2013. Retrieved 14 November 2013.
- "World motor vehicle production OICA correspondents survey without double counts world ranking of manufacturers year 2011".
- Pearson, David (8 July 2010). "Renault's First-Half Global Sales Rise 22%". online.wsj.com. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Ciferri, Luca (10 January 2014). "Why Ghosn favors separate CEOs for Renault and Nissan". europe.autonews.com. Automotive News Europe. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- "France Investigates Renault Spying Case". NPR.org. Retrieved 10 January 2011.
- "Renault Group website". Renault.com. 27 March 1999. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- Renault Atlas March 2011
- Boutillier, Sophie; Uzunidis, Dimitri (2006). L'aventure des entrepreneurs [The entrepreneurs' adventure]. Studyrama perspectives (in French) 625. Studyrama. pp. 28–29. ISBN 2-84472-790-5.
- Porázik, Juraj; Oravec, Ján (1985). Old time classic cars, 1885−1940. Arco Pub. p. 58. ISBN 0-668-06307-6.
- "A brief history of the House of Renault". Automotive Industries (New York: Automotive Industries) 20 (14): 569–570. 8 April 1909. ISSN 1099-4130.
- Smith, Michael Stephen (2006). "The Automobile and its Allies". The Emergence of Modern Business Enterprise in France, 1800–1930. Harvard Studies in Business 49. Harvard University Press. pp. 402–405. ISBN 0-674-01939-3.
- "Une page d'histoire - le taxi de la Marne" [A page of the history - The Taxi de la Marne]. francebleu.fr. France Bleu. 11 March 2013. Retrieved 15 April 2013.
- "Renault leads the foreigners". Automotive Industries (New York: Automotive Industries) 20 (4): 212. 28 January 1909. ISSN 1099-4130.
- Weeks, Lyman Horace (2010). The History of the Automobile And Its Inventors. Books on Demand. pp. 101–102. ISBN 3-861-95242-4.
- "100 years in the driving seat: Renault celebrates a century of Grand Prix Victories". Renault UK. Retrieved 1 March 2008.[dead link]
- "Renault official history". Renault.co.uk. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- Bradley, Elliot (1979). Trucks and trucking. Crescent Books. p. 94. ISBN 0-517-27343-8.
- "Science Photo Library". Sciencephoto.com. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- De Angelis, Marianne. "The GJG and the New York Guard" (PDF). New York State Military Museum. Retrieved 21 June 2014.
- Pederson, Jay P.; Derdak, Thomas (1999). International Directory of Company Histories 26. St. James Press. pp. 401–403. ISBN 1-558-62385-X.
- Williams, Michael (1974). Farm tractors in color. New York: Macmillan Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 0-026-29300-5.
- "Lot 128 / Sale 5545: 1909 Renault AX". christies.com. Christie's. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- Siedman, Michael (2000). "The Birth of the weekend and the revolt against work: The workers of the Paris region during the popular Front (1936–1938)". Society for French Historical Studies (Bell & Howell Information and Learning Company).
- Jolly, David; Matthew Saltmarsh (19 May 2011). "To Restore Reputation of a Renault Founder, Family Goes to Court".
- Ben Macintyre, Agent Zigzag, p37, Bloomsbury, 2010 (ISBN 978-1-4088-1149-8)
- "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1940–46 (les années sans salon) (Paris: Histoire & collections). Nr. 26: Page 5. 2003.
- Jolly, David; Saltmarsh, Matthew (19 May 2011). "To Restore Reputation of a Renault Founder, Family Goes to Court". Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- Ian Morton (14 May 2005). "Louis Renault and the shame of a nation". The Daily Telegraph (London).
- "Foreign News: Was He Murdered?". Time Magazine. 6 February 1956.
- Scriba, Jay (7 January 1970). "The Rise and Fall of Louis Renault". The Milwaukee Journal. p. 16. Retrieved 11 February 2014.
- Ager, D. E; Wright, Sue; Hantrais, Linda; Howorth, Jolyon (1974). Language, politics, and society, p. 46-47. ISBN 978-1-85359-487-8. "The activities of Louis Renault led to the spectacular expropriation of his company by the State; what is less well known is that he died in prison awaiting trial, and therefore was never convicted. The car manufacturer Marius Berliet suffered the same fate of expropriation. At his trial in September 1945, Berliet claimed in his defence that his company had produced few cars for the German occupants than any other car producer: 2239 cars for the Germans vs. 6548 for French customers. This compared to Renault which had delivered 32,887 vehicles to the Germans and only 1697 to French clients, a pattern followed by Citroen (32,248 produced for Germans and only 2052 for French clients)(Aron, 1974). Managers at Renault claimed for their part, that they had deliberately slowed down production, producing 7677 fewer vehicles than the target of 41,909 vehicles imposed by the German occupants. The argument, however, cut no ice with the Confederation Generale du Travail (CVT), who maintained that the go-slow had been organised by the workers, not the management. Louis Renault may have been punished more for his attitudes than his actions, which were mirrored by those of many other employers. Robert Aron reports that when a Gaullist seeking his support for the Free French, Renault is alleged to have replied "De Gaulle connais pas!" (Aron, 1974, 234)."
- Auto Plus (Auto Bild France) n°1362, 10 to 17 of october 2014 - 1964 : La Renault 8 Gordini, la première "GTi" (translation : "1964 : Renault 8 Gordini, the first 'GTi'").
- "Thirty Remarkable years of Renault". Autoworld 45: Page 11. April 1974.
- "50 Jahre Renault Dauphine". Auto-Motor, 05.10.2006, In German.
- Carroll, John; Davies, Peter James (2007). Complete Book Tractors and Trucks. Hermes House. pp. 66–67. ISBN 1-843-09689-7.
- "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1970 (salon [Oct] 1969) (Paris: Histoire & collections). Nr. 31: Page 40. 2004.
- "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1972 (salon [Oct] 1971) (Paris: Histoire & collections). Nr. 76s: Page 50. 2005.
- "Renault Meconnues". Renault. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Fourth Section: Manufacturer's profile". Transit bus manufacturer profiles (Washington DC: U.S. Dept. of Transportation, Urban Mass Transportation Administration, Office of Technical Assistance, Office of Bus and Paratransit Systems): 128–137. October 1982. OCLC 9384438.
- Cranswick, Marc (2011). "Kenosha Serves Cafe au Lait!". The Cars of American Motors: An Illustrated History. McFarland & Company. pp. 279–295. ISBN 978-0-7864-4672-8.
- Hart, Jeffrey A. (1992). "France". Rival Capitalists: International Competitiveness in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe. Cornell studies in political economy. Cornell University Press. p. 119. ISBN 0-8014-9949-6.
- Shope, Dan (2 October 1990). "Renault's Buyout Of Mack Puts Bite Back In The Bulldog". articles.mcall.com. The Morning Call. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Shope, Dan (28 May 1987). "Mack Shares Shifted At Renault". articles.mcall.com. The Morning Call. Retrieved 1 August 2013.
- Williams, Howard (September 1984). Cropley, Steve, ed. "Power professor". Car (London, UK: FF Publishing): 94.
- Donnelly, Tom; Donnelly, Tim; Morris, David (2004). "Renault 1985–2000: From bankruptcy to profit". Working papers (Caen Innovation Marché Entreprise) (30). OCLC 799704146.
- Midler, C.; Neffa, P.; Monnet, J-C (2002). "Globalizing the firm through co-operative projects: The Case of Renault". International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 2 (1). ISSN 1741-5012.
- Kase, Kimio; Sáez-Martinez, Hernán; Riquelme (2005). "Case Studies". Transformational CEOs: Leadership and Management Success in Japan. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 123–124. ISBN 1-84542-046-2.
- Grünig, Rudolf; Morschett, Dirk (2011). "Strategies for Being International". Developing International Strategies: Going and Being International for Medium-sized Companies. Springer. p. 308. ISBN 978-3-642-24724-8.
- "Renault buys Samsung unit". money.cnn.com. CNN. 1 April 2000. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- de Saint-Seine, Sylviane (24 March 2003). "Agriculture deal marks end of Renault sell-offs". autonews.com. Automotive News. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
- "Renault sells remaining Volvo stake". reuters.com. Reuters. 12 December 2012. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
- Fone, Nick (1 July 2008). "Renault’s Le Mans tractor plant falls under 100% Claas control". fwi.co.uk. Farmers Weekly. Retrieved 20 April 2013.
- "Mercedes and Renault to share engines". IOL.co.za. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Taylor, Alex (23 December 2010). "Carlos Ghosn: Around the world for Renault Nissan". CNNMoney. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Renault begins Lodgy production in Morocco, targets Europe" (10 February 2010). Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 8 April 2014.
- "Noile Dacia Logan, Sandero și Sandero Stepway" (in Romanian). Dacia Group. 27 September 2012. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "Inauguration of second production line at Renault-Nissan Tangier plant". Renault. 8 October 2013. Retrieved 8 April 2014. "The new line will increase the site’s output capacity to 340,000 vehicles a year, starting in 2014. It required an investment of €400 million and will produce Dacia Sandero and Dacia Sandero Stepway, two leading models in the Dacia range."
- "Tangier plant: setting new standards". Renault.com. Retrieved 12 January 2013.
- "Renault Shifts Production to North Africa". Groundreport.com. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- Jolly, David (18 December 2012). "Renault to Build Assembly Plant in Algeria". nytimes.com. New York Times. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Warburton, Simon (20 December 2012). "Renault exclusivity deal will produce Symbol model from 2014". Just-auto.com. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Leadership". Renault. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Board of Directors". Renault. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "Executive Committee". Renault. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "BOULOGNE-BILLANCOURT – RSAS." Renault. Retrieved 22 September 2009.
- "Renault n'a pas quitté Boulogne." Le Journal du Net. Retrieved on 8 July 2010.
- "Renault Cars". Renault.com. Retrieved 3 January 2012.
- Stoy, Andrew (10 September 2008). "Renault Ondelios Concept Sets Gullwing Doors into Attack Mode Ahead of Paris – Renault Ondelios Concept". Jalopnik. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- Abuelsamid, Sam (10 September 2008). "Paris Preview: Renault Ondelios diesel hybrid crossover, 52.3 mpg". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- Horrell, Paul (16 September 2014). "Top Gear drives the Renault Eolab". Top Gear. Retrieved 23 September 2014.
- MacKenzie, Angus (10 February 2014). "Renault's KWID Concept comes with its own Flying Companion quadcopter". Gizmag. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
- Christoph Hammerschmidt. ", Automotive DesignLine Europe". Automotivedesign-europe.com. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- "Renault-Nissan Alliance Adds Oregon and Monaco to Growing Roster of EV Partners". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- "Electric vehicle". Renault.com. Retrieved 3 October 2010.[dead link][dead link]
- Steven Scheer (21 January 2008). "Renault to develop electric cars for Israel project". Reuters. Retrieved 15 April 2010.
- "Renault-Nissan and Project Better Place prepare for first mass produced electric vehicles" (Press release). Better Place. 21 January 2008.
- Sean O'Grady (14 May 2008). "Renault Bets on Electric". The Independent (UK). Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- "Renault’s Fluence Z.E. Headed for a Better Place". Wired. 16 April 2010. Retrieved 12 January 2011.
- "Israel's Better Place and Renault partner in first mass-market electric vehicle". Israel 21c Innovation News Service. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2010.
- "Renault to End Better Place Partnership After Bankruptcy". Bloomberg. 27 May 2013. Retrieved 8 August 2013.
- Massy, Helen (1 October 2010). "Reuters 1 October 2010". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Energy Efficiency News 13 April 2010". Energyefficiencynews.com. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Energy Efficiency News 23 April 2010". Energyefficiencynews.com. 23 April 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Loveday, Eric (25 June 2010). "Ghosn says Nissan-Renault partnership makes EVs doable, companies couldn't go it alone – Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 3 July 2010.
- Carnegy, Hugh; Thomson, Adam (12 September 2013). "Renault and Bolloré in electric car deal". ft.com. Financial Times. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
- "Renault launches its 'Renault eco²' line of vehicles". Easier.com. 11 May 2007. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- "Renault scoops environment award in 2008 Fleet World Honours". Easier.com. 14 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008.
- Mortimore, James (7 February 2014). "Renault unveils NEXT TWO autonomous prototype". autoexpress.co.uk. Auto Express. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "The story of Renault automotive design". Conceptcar.co.uk. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Woodham, Jonathan M. (2004). "Renault". A Dictionary of Modern Design. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-280097-3.
- Beaume, Romain; Midler, Christophe; Vervaeke, Monique (2010). "Le attività dello stile dell'auto in Francia". In Calabrese, Giuseppe. La filiera dello stile e le politiche industriali per l'automotive in Piemonte e in Europa [The styling and the industrial policy for the automotive industry in Piedmont and Europe] (in Italian). FrancoAngeli. pp. 141–143. ISBN 978-8-856-82275-5.
- "Patrick le Quément quitte Renault en septembre" [Patrick le Quément will leave Renault in September]. lefigaro.fr (in French). Le Figaro. 10 April 2009. Retrieved 12 February 2013.
- Bry, Nicolas (12 August 2012). "When Drawing is Thinking by Patrick Le Quément, Renault Design creator". Innovationeexcellence.com. Retrieved 4 February 2013.
- Lewin, Tony; Borroff, Ryan (2010). How to design cars like a pro. Motorbooks International. pp. 55–56. ISBN 9781610609890.
- Ozler, Levent (22 April 2008). "Renault Design America Latina". Dexigner. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- "Renault's design strategy". Renault. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- Winter, Drew (1 July 2001). "Renault's Technocentre". wardsauto.com. Wards. Archived from the original on 24 July 2014. Retrieved 1 August 2014.
- "Conception". Renault. Archived from the original on 28 March 2013. Retrieved 13 January 2013.
- "Vehicle Engineering". Renault. Archived from the original on 3 October 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Key Figures". Renault Powertrains. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Gain, Bruce (25 June 2014). "Renault names new engineering chief". europe.autonews.com. Automotive News Europe. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- "Philippe Klein". Renault. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "GUYANCOURT - TECHNOCENTRE - RSAS". Renault. Archived from the original on 27 November 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- Carré, Dennis; Lefebvre, Gilliane; Madeuf, Bernardette; Milelli, Christian (2006). "Global RD networks and ICT what impacts on firms?". In Laperche, Blandine; Galbraith, James K.; Uzunidis, Dimitri. Innovation, Evolution and Economic Change: New Ideas in the Tradition of Galbraith. New Directions in Modern Economics Series. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 134–135. ISBN 978-1-84542-715-3.
- Bell, Jonathan, ed. (2003). Concept Car Design: Driving the Dream. Interior and Industrial Design. Rotovision. p. 33. ISBN 978-2-880-46564-3.
- "HEUDEBOUVILLE - RENAULT TECH". Renault. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "RENAULT TECH". Renault. Archived from the original on 27 December 2013. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "Renault-Nissan alliance website". Renault.com. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Renault-Nissan press release 29 May 2009
- "cover_1" (PDF). Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Renault website". Renault.com. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Chowdhury, Anirban (21 December 2010). "Wall Street Journal 10 January 2011". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Moffett, Sebastian (7 April 2010). "Daimler, Nissan, Renault Set Small-Car Cooperation". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- Robert, Lea (7 April 2010). "Daimler confirms Renault-Nissan joint venture". The Times (UK). Retrieved 9 January 2011.
- "Renault-Nissan expand Mitsubishi tie-up to building new sedans and an EV". europe.autonews.com. Automotive News Europe. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "RENAULT-NISSAN ALLIANCE & MITSUBISHI MOTORS CORPORATION EXPLORE WIDE RANGING GLOBAL PRODUCT AND TECHNOLOGY COOPERATION". nissan-global.com. Nissan. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Profile". Dacia. Archived from the original on 2 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- Terry Macalister in London and Paul Webster in Paris (26 April 2000). "', The Guardian', Wednesday 26 April 2000". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Renault company atlas March 2010.
- "Renault Samsung Motors". Renault. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- Associated Press (25 September 2009). "', The Guardian', 25 September 2009". Guardian (UK). Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "Wall Street Journal 16 December 2010". The Wall Street Journal. 5 April 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.[dead link]
- "Company Description: RCI Banque SA". businessweek.com. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "2011 Annual Report" (PDF). RCI Banque. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- "Company Overview of Renault Retail Group". businessweek.com. BusinessWeek. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "Historique". Renault Retail Group. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- Genet, Jean-Pierre (6 July 2007). "Jean-Pierre Laurent P-DG de Renault Retail Group" [Jean-Pierre Laurent, Renault Retail Group's CEO] (in French). Largus.fr. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
- "100,000th Master rolls off Renault's SoVAB plant production line". Easier.com. 12 July 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Renault has acquired Caterham Group’s stake in Société des Automobiles Alpine Caterham". media.renault.com. Renault. 10 June 2014. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- "Présentation du site". Française de Mécanique. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Le Mans - ACI". Renault. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Maubeuge - MCA". Renault. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Ruitz". Renault. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Renault Atlas September 2012" (PDF). Renault. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- The Report: Turkey 2008. Oxford Business Group. pp. 138–139. ISBN 9781902339863.
- Crumley, Bruce (9 February 2012). "Renault’s Morocco Factory: When Globalization and Politics Collide". world.time.com. Time. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Renault producirá un auto en Aguascalientes" [Renault will manufacture a car in Aguascalientes] (in Spanish). Carnews.com.mx. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- "Renault to produce cars in Iran". BBC News. BBC. 6 October 2004. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Renault in South Africa". Renault. Retrieved 20 February 2013.
- Chandran, Rina (29 October 2007). "Reuters 29 October 2007". Reuters. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- "The Hindu 8 July 2009". Thehindubusinessline.com. 9 July 2010. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Pearson, David (7 October 2008). "Renault Itching for a Return to the U.S.". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
- Vlasic, Bill (11 October 2008). "G.M. and Chrysler Explore Merger". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 April 2010.
- "Fiat completes Chrysler acquisition in $4.35 billion deal". Automotive News. Retrieved 15 March 2014.
- "The Guardian 3 March 2003". Guardian (UK). 3 March 2003. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Garside, Kevin (21 December 2005). "The Telegraph 21 December 2005". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- Benson, Andrew (8 December 2010). "Renault F1 team to be renamed Lotus Renault GP in 2011". BBC Sports (BBC). Retrieved 11 September 2011.
- Cary, Tom (8 December 2010). "', The Telegraph', 8 December 2010". The Daily Telegraph (UK). Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- "Renault Manufacturer Profile & Rally History". Rallye-info.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "'Autocar', 28 November 2007". Autocar.co.uk. 28 November 2007. Retrieved 6 January 2011.
- "CONSTRUCTORS: ALPINE (AUTOMOBILES ALPINES)". Grandprix.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "RENAULT 20 4X4 PARIS-DAKAR". Renault.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Renault Buggy – Dakar 1999". Renaultclub.cz. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "List of Dakar Rally Car, Truck and Moto Champions". Whoholdsthetitle.com. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Dakar – Cairo 2000. The Schlesser-Renault-Elf team out in strength". Renault.com. Archived from the original on 16 May 2012. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "CAP Online, Nicole and Papa: a 1990s retrospective (title page)". Jyanet.com. Retrieved 29 September 2009.
- "Telling lies to a computer is still lying, rules High Court". theregister.co.uk. 2007. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- "UK 2010 car sales analysis: winners and losers, Automotive & Motoring News, Car Magazine Online". Carmagazine.co.uk. 7 January 2011. Retrieved 10 April 2011.
- Pulman, Ben (19 December 2011). "Renault cuts back UK range, axes Laguna, Espace, Modus". Car Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2012.
- "Car of the year website 1966" (in Spanish). Caroftheyear.org. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "Car of the year website 1982" (in Spanish). Caroftheyear.org. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "'Auto Trader', 8 November 2007". Autotrader.co.uk. 8 November 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "', The Northern Echo',, Monday 16th November 2009". Thenorthernecho.co.uk. 16 November 2009. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "', The Telegraph',, 19 November 2002". The Daily Telegraph (UK). 19 November 2002. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "'Autocar', website Nov 15, 2005". Autocar.co.uk. 15 November 2005. Retrieved 5 January 2011.
- "Car of the Year Winners, 1983 AMC Renault Alliance". Motor Trend. 2012-11-09. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "The great winner of Autobest 2005 award is the new Renault/Dacia Logan". Autobest. 2005-01-26. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- "The 'Autobest 2009' award goes to new Renault Symbol/Thalia". Dacia. 2008-12-09. Retrieved 2014-10-01.
- "Renault/Dacia Duster takes top 'Autobest 2011' award". Renault. 2010-12-10. Retrieved 2014-10-09.
- "Dinesh.com". Dinesh.com. 25 August 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- "El logotipo de Renault" [Renault's logo] (in Spanish). Excelenciasdelmotor.com. Retrieved 24 March 2013.
- "Victor Vasarely". Renault.com. Retrieved 7 September 2011.
- Sandison, Nikki (12 September 2007). "Renault opts for stronger image in brand revamp". brandrepublic.com. Haymarket Media Group. Retrieved 23 March 2013.
- "Renault type". microsoft.com. Microsoft. 27 October 2004. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Renault et son identité visuelle..." [Renault and its visual identity...]. Admirabledesign.com. 17 September 2007. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Monuments historiques, Caisse nationale des monuments historiques et des sites, 1990, ISSN 0153-3673
- "Background" (PDF). Renault. Retrieved 13 April 2013.
- "L'Atelier Renault". Renault. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Ball, Norman. "Finding Car Heaven at Paris Concept Car Showrooms". Bonjourparis.com. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- Petit Futé Paris. Thématique guide (in French) (28 ed.). Petit Futé. 2009. p. 442. ISBN 978-2-746-92442-0.
- Smith, Roy P. (1 October 2008). Alpine and Renault: The Development of the Revolutionary Turbo F1 Car 1968-1979. Veloce Publishing Ltd. pp. 231–232. ISBN 978-1-84584-177-5. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
- Howells, Richard; Negreiros, Joaquim (2012). "Semiotics". Visual Culture (2nd ed.). Polity Press. pp. 127–129. ISBN 978-0-7456-5070-8.
- "French car maker Renault signs major sponsorship deal with Port Adelaide Football Club". Herald Sun. 5 March 2013. Retrieved 30 April 2014.
- Cuq, Benjamin (October 2013). Le livre noir de Renault [The Renault's Black Book] (in French). Paris: First Éditions. ISBN 978-2754052290.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Renault.|
- Official website
- Renault Classic
- Renault Samsung Motors
- Renault Sport
- Renault Sport F1
- Renault Trucks
- Carmaker alliances Interactive infographic from the Financial Times
|Renault car timeline, 1940s–1980s — next »|
|Economy car||3 / 4||4|
|Supermini||5 / 7||5|
|Small family car||Juvaquatre||Dauphine||6||14||9 / 11||19|
|4CV||8 / 10|
|Large family car||Colorale||12||18||21|
|Executive car||Frégate||16||20 / 30||25|
|Coupé||15 / 17||Fuego|
|Sports car||Alpine GTA/A610|
|Off-roader||Rodeo 4 / 6||Rodeo|
|« previous — Renault car timeline, 1980s–present|
|City car||4||Twingo I||Twingo II||Twingo III|
|Supermini||5 / 7||Super 5||Clio Symbol||Symbol II|
|Clio I||Clio II||Clio III||Clio IV|
|Small family car||14||9 / 11||19||Fluence|
|Alliance / Encore||Mégane I||Mégane II||Mégane III|
|Large family car||18||21 / Medallion||Laguna I||Laguna II||Laguna III|
|Executive car||20 / 30||25||Safrane||Vel Satis||Latitude|
|LAV||Express||Kangoo I||Kangoo II|
|Compact MPV||Scénic I||Scénic II||Scénic III|
|Large MPV||Espace I||Espace II||Espace III||Espace IV||Espace V|
|Van||Trafic I||Trafic II||Trafic III|
|Master I||Master II||Master III|