Rendaku

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Rendaku (連濁?, lit. "sequential voicing") is a phenomenon in Japanese morphophonology that governs the voicing of the initial consonant of the non-initial portion of a compound or prefixed word. In modern Japanese, rendaku is common but at times unpredictable, with certain words unaffected by it.

While Kanji do not indicate rendaku, they are marked in kana with dakuten (voicing mark).

Examples[edit]

Consonants (in Hepburn) undergoing rendaku[1]
Unvoiced Voiced
k g
s, sh z, j
t, ch, ts d, j, dz
h, f b

Rendaku can be seen in the following words:

ひと + ひと → ひとびと
hito + hitohitobito ("person" + "person" → "people")
いけ + はな → いけばな
ike + hanaikebana ("keep alive" + "flower" → "flower arrangement")
とき + とき → ときどき
toki + tokitokidoki ("time" + "time" → "sometimes")
て + かみ → てがみ
te + kamitegami ("hand" + "paper" → "letter")
おり + かみ → おりがみ
ori + kamiorigami ("fold" + "paper" → "paperfolding")
ひら + かな → ひらがな
hira + kanahiragana ("plain" + "character", compare かたかなkatakana, which does not undergo rendaku)
はな + ち → はなぢ
hana + chihanaji ("nose" + "blood" → "nosebleed")
まき + すし → まきずし
maki + sushimakizushi ("roll" + "sushi" → "nori-wrapped sushi") (Rendaku is prevalent with words that end in sushi)
やま + てら → やまでら
yama + teraYama-dera ("mountain" + "temple")
こころ + つかい → こころづかい
kokoro + tsukaikokorozukai ("heart" + "using" → "consideration" or "thoughtfulness")

In some cases, rendaku varies depending on syntax. For instance, the suffix tōri (〜通り?, "road, following"), from tōru (通る?, "to go, to follow"), is pronounced as -tōri (〜とおり?) following the perfective verb tense, as in omotta-tōri (思った通り ?, "as I thought"), but is pronounced as -dōri (〜どおり?, with rendaku) when following a noun, as in yotei-dōri (予定通り?, "as planned, according to schedule") or, semantically differently – more concretely – Muromachi-dōri (室町通?, "Muromachi Street").

Properties blocking rendaku[edit]

Research into defining the range of situations affected by rendaku has largely been limited to finding circumstances which cause the phenomenon not to manifest itself:

Lyman's Law[edit]

Lyman's Law states that rendaku does not occur if the second consonant of the second element is a voiced obstruent, a consonant sound formed by obstructing airflow. This was later modified to state that rendaku does not occur when the second element of the compound contains a voiced obstruent in any position (see third example below). This is considered to be one of the most fundamental of the rules governing rendaku.

yama + kado > Yamakado, not *Yamagado ("mountain" + "gate" > place name) (* indicates a non-existent form)
hitori + tabi > hitoritabi, not *hitoridabi ("one person" + "travel" > "traveling alone")
tsuno + tokage > tsunotokage, not *tsunodokage ("horn" + "lizard" > "horned lizard")

While this law is named after Benjamin Smith Lyman, who independently discovered it in 1894, it is really a re-discovery. The Edo period linguists Kamo no Mabuchi[2][3] (1765) and Motoori Norinaga[4][5] (1767–1798) separately and independently discovered the law during the 18th century.

Lexical properties[edit]

Similar to Lyman's Law, it has been found that for some lexical items, rendaku does not manifest itself if there is a voiced obstruent near the morphemic boundary, including preceding the boundary.

Some lexical items tend to resist rendaku voicing regardless of other conditions, while some tend to accept it.

Rendaku also occurs infrequently in Sino-Japanese words (Japanese words of Chinese origin) especially where the element undergoing rendaku is well integrated ("vulgarized").

kabushiki + kaisha > kabushiki-gaisha ("stock" + "company" > "corporation")
ao + shashin > aojashin ("blue" + "photo" > "blueprint")

It is even rarer to find rendaku among words of foreign origin, unless the loanword has become completely absorbed into Japanese:

ama + kappa > amagappa ("rain" + "coat" [a Portuguese loan, capa] > "raincoat").
aisu + kōhī > aisukōhī, not *aisugōhī ("ice" + "coffee" > "iced coffee")

Semantics[edit]

Rendaku also tends not to manifest itself in compounds which have the semantic value of "X and Y" (so-called dvandva or copulative compounds):

yama + kawa > yamakawa "mountains and rivers"

Compare this to yama + kawa > yamagawa "mountain's river".

Branching constraint[edit]

Rendaku is also blocked by what is called a "branching constraint". The process is blocked in the second element of a right-branching compound:

mon + (shiro + chō) > monshirochō, not *monjirochō ("family crest" + {"white" + "butterfly"} > "cabbage butterfly")

but

(o + shiro) + washi > ojirowashi ({"tail" + "white"} + "eagle" > "white-tailed eagle")

Further considerations[edit]

Despite a number of rules which have been formulated to help explain the distribution of the effect of rendaku, there still remain many examples of words in which rendaku manifests in ways currently unpredictable. Some instances are linked with a lexical property as noted above but others may obey laws yet to be discovered. Rendaku thus remains partially unpredictable, sometimes presenting a problem even to native speakers, particularly in Japanese names, where rendaku occurs or fails to occur often without obvious cause. In many cases, an identically written name may either have or not have rendaku, depending on the person. For example, 中田 may be read in a number of ways, including both Nakata and Nakada.

Voicing of preceding consonant[edit]

In some cases, voicing of preceding consonants also occurs, as in sazanami (細波?, ripple), which was formerly sasa-nami. This is rare and irregular, however.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Low, James, 2009, Issues in Rendaku: Solving the Nasal Paradox and Reevaluating Current Theories of Sequential Voicing in Japanese. (Senior thesis in linguistics) Pomona College.
  2. ^ Itō, 1928.
  3. ^ Suzuki, 2004.
  4. ^ Endō, 1981.
  5. ^ Yamaguchi, 1988.
  • Endō, Kunimoto (1981). Hirendaku no Hōzoku no Shōchō to Sono Imi: Dakushion to Bion to no Kankei kara.  (Japanese citation: 遠藤邦基(1981)「非連濁の法則の消長とその意味―濁子音と鼻音との関係から―」(『国語国文』50-3))
  • Irwin, Mark (April 2005). "Rendaku-based Lexical Hierarchies in Japanese: The Behaviour of Sino-Japanese Mononoms in Hybrid Noun Compounds". Journal of East Asian Linguistics 14 (2): 121–153. doi:10.1007/s10831-004-6306-9. ISSN 0925-8558. 
  • Itō, Shingo (1928). Kinsei Kokugoshi. Ōsaka: Tachikawa Bunmeidō. 
  • Kubozono, Haruo (2005). "Rendaku: Its Domain and Linguistic Conditions". In Jeroen van de Weijer, Kensuke Nanjo, and Tetsuo Nishihara. Voicing in Japanese. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 5–24. doi:10.1515/9783110197686.1.5. ISBN 978-3-11-018600-0. 
  • Martin, Samuel E. (1987). The Japanese Language Through Time. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03729-5. 
  • Shibatani, Masayoshi (1990). The Languages of Japan. Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press. pp. 173–175. ISBN 0-521-36918-5. 
  • Suzuki, Yutaka (2004). 'Rendaku' no Koshō ga Kakuritsu suru made: Rendaku Kenkyūshi.  (Japanese citation: 鈴木豊(2004)「「連濁」の呼称が確立するまで―連濁研究前史―」(『国文学研究』142)
  • van de Weijer, Jeroen; Kensuke Nanjo, and Tetsuo Nishihara (eds.) (2005). Voicing in Japanese. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-018600-0. 
  • Vance, Timothy J. (1987). An Introduction to Japanese Phonology. Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-88706-361-6. 
  • Yamaguchi, Yoshinori (1988). Kodaigo no Fukugō ni Kansuru: Kōsatsu, Rendaku o Megutte.  (Japanese citation: 山口佳紀(1988)「古代語の複合語に関する一考察―連濁をめぐって―」(『日本語学』7-5))

Further reading[edit]