Rendang

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Rendang
Rendang daging sapi asli Padang.JPG
Authentic Minangkabau Rendang is dark in color and rather dry, served with ketupat
Alternative names Randang (Minangkabau dialect)
Course Main course
Place of origin Indonesia
Region or state Minangkabau, West Sumatra
Serving temperature Hot or room temperature
Main ingredients Meat (beef, lamb or goat), coconut milk, chili, ginger, galangal, turmeric, lemon grass, garlic, shallot, chilli pepper
Variations Chicken rendang, Itiak (duck) rendang, liver rendang
Cookbook:Rendang  Rendang

Rendang is a spicy meat dish which originated from the Minangkabau ethnic group of Indonesia,[1] and is now commonly served across the country.[2] One of the characteristic foods of Minangkabau culture, it is served at ceremonial occasions and to honour guests.[3] Rendang is also served among the Malay community in Malaysia, and is also in Singapore and Brunei. Rendang is traditionally prepared by the Minangkabau community during festive occasions such as traditional ceremonies, wedding feasts, and Hari Raya (Eid al-Fitr). Culinary experts often describe rendang as: 'West Sumatran caramelized beef curry'.[1][4] In 2011 an online poll by 35,000 people held by CNN International chose Rendang as the number one dish of their 'World’s 50 Most Delicious Foods (Readers' Pick)' list.[5]

Composition and cooking method[edit]

The cooking technique flourished because of its role in preserving meat in a tropical climate.[6] Rendang is rich in spices. Along with the main meat ingredient, rendang uses coconut milk (Minangkabau: karambia) and a paste of mixed ground spices, which includes ginger, galangal, turmeric leaves, lemon grass, garlic, shallot, chillies and other spices. This spice mixture is called pemasak in Minangkabau. The spices, garlic, shallot, ginger and galangal used in rendang have antimicrobial properties and serve as natural organic preservatives.[7] If cooked properly, dry rendang can last for as long as four weeks.[4]

Traditional Padang rendang takes hours to cook. Cooking rendang involves pounding and grinding ingredients as well as slow cooking, and so is time-consuming and requires patience.[8] The meat pieces are slowly cooked in coconut milk and spices until almost all the liquid is gone, allowing the meat to absorb the condiments. The cooking process changes from boiling to frying as the liquid evaporates. The slow cooking process allows the meat to absorb all the spices and to become tender.[9] To cook the meat until tender, with almost all liquids evaporated, requires great care, if the meat is not to be burned or be spoiled. Because of its generous use of numerous spices, rendang is known for having a complex and unique taste.

Rendang is often served with steamed rice, ketupat (a compressed rice cake), or lemang (glutinous rice barbecued in bamboo tubes), accompanied with vegetable side dishes such as boiled cassava leaf, cubadak[10] (young jackfruit gulai), cabbage gulai, and lado (red or green chilli pepper sambal).

Cultural significance[edit]

Rendang is a dish delivered to elders during traditional Minangkabau ceremonies.

Rendang is revered in Minangkabau culture as an embodiment of the philosophy of musyawarah, discussion and consultation with elders.[11] It has been claimed that the four main ingredients represent Minangkabau society as a whole[citation needed]:

  1. The meat (dagiang) symbolizes the Niniak Mamak, the traditional clan leaders, such as the datuk, the nobles, royalty and revered elders.
  2. The coconut milk (karambia) symbolizes the Cadiak Pandai, intellectuals, teachers, poets and writers.
  3. The chili (lado) symbolizes the Alim Ulama, clerics, ulama and religious leaders. The hotness of the chili symbolizes sharia.
  4. The spice mixture (pemasak) symbolizes the rest of Minangkabau society.

In Minangkabau tradition, rendang is a requisite dish for special occasions in traditional Minang ceremonies, from birth ceremonies to circumcision, marriage, Qur'an recitals and religious festivals such as Eid ul-Fitr and Eid ul-Adha.[12]

History[edit]

Padang restaurants found across the region have increased the popularity of rendang

Rendang originates from the Sumatran Minangkabau region.[13] One of the earliest written records of rendang is from the early 16th century Hikayat Amir Hamzah.[14] The making of rendang spreads from Minangkabau region to Mandailing, Riau, Jambi, across the strait to Malacca and Negeri Sembilan, resulting in a variety of rendang traditions.[13]

The popularity of rendang has spread widely from its original domain because of the merantau (migrating) culture of Minangkabau people. Overseas Minangkabau leave their hometown to start a career in other Indonesian cities as well as neighboring countries, and Padang restaurants, Minangkabau eating establishments that are ubiquitous in Indonesian cities, spring up. These Padang restaurants have introduced and popularized rendang and other Padang food dishes across Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, and the wider world.

Andalas University historian, Prof. Gusti Asnan suggests that rendang began to spread across the region when Minangkabau merchants and migrant workers began to trade and migrate to Malacca in the 16th century. “Because the journey through the river waterways in Sumatra took much time, a durable preserved dry rendang is suitable for long journey.”[6] The dried Padang rendang is a durable food, good to consume for weeks, even when left at room temperature.[4]

Types[edit]

Nasi Ramas Padang, rendang served with steamed rice, cassava leaf, egg, and gulai sauce

In Minangkabau culinary tradition, there are three recognised stages in cooking meat in spicy coconut milk. The dish which results is categorised according to the liquid content of the cooked coconut milk, which ranges from the most wet and soupy to the most dry: Gulai — Kalio — Rendang.[15] The ingredients of gulai, kalio and rendang are almost identical with the exceptions that gulai usually has less red chilli pepper and more turmeric, while rendang has richer spices.

If pieces of meat are cooked in spicy coconut milk and the process stopped right when the meat is done and the coconut milk has reached its boiling point, the dish is called gulai. If the process continues until the coconut milk is partly evaporated and the meat has begun to brown, then you have kalio. For a traditional dry rendang, the process continues hours beyond this, until the liquid has all but completely evaporated and the color turns to a dark brown, almost black color. Thus not only liquid content but also colour indicate which type of rendang is involved: gulai is light yellow, kalio is brown, and rendang is very dark brown. Today one mostly only finds two simpler categories of rendang: either dry or wet.

Dried rendang[edit]

According to Minangkabau tradition, their true rendang is the dry one. Rendang was diligently stirred, attended and cooked for hours until the coconut milk evaporated and the meat absorbed the spices. It is still served for special ceremonial occasions or to honour guests. If cooked properly, dried rendang can last for three to four weeks stored in room temperature and still good to consume.[4] It can even last months stored in a refrigerator, and up to six months if frozen.[16]

Wet rendang or Kalio[edit]

Most Rendang in the Netherlands is actually a kalio because it is still wet and runny

Wet rendang, more accurately identified as kalio, is a type of rendang that is cooked for a shorter period of time and much of the coconut milk liquid has not evaporated. If stored at room temperature, kalio lasts less than a week.[3] Kalio usually has a light golden brown color, paler than dry rendang.

Outside of its native land in Minangkabau, rendang is also known in neighboring countries such as Malaysia and Singapore. Most Malaysian rendang is more like kalio, lighter in color and taste when compared with its Minang counterpart. Malaysian rendang has several variants, such as Kelantan rendang and Negeri Sembilan rendang. Malaysian rendangs are typically cooked for shorter periods, and use kerisik (toasted grated coconut paste) to thicken the spice,[4] instead of stirring over a low heat for many hours to evaporate the coconut milk as Indonesian rendang requires. Nonetheless, in Malaysia the Rendang Tok version, found in the state of Perak, is a dry one.

Other ethnic groups in Indonesia also have adopted a version of rendang into their daily diet. For example, in Java, other than Padang rendang sold in Padang restaurants, the Javanese cooked a wet rendang, slightly sweeter and less spicy to accommodate Javanese tastes. Through colonial ties the Dutch are also familiar with rendang and often serve the wet kalio version in the Netherlands — usually as part of a Rijsttafel.

Variations[edit]

Beef liver rendang

Rendang is made from beef (or occasionally beef liver, chicken, mutton, water buffalo, duck, or vegetables like jackfruit or cassava). Chicken or duck rendang also contains tamarind and is usually not cooked for as long as beef rendang.[17]

The original Indonesian-Minangkabau rendang has two categories, Rendang Darek and Rendang Pesisir. Rendang Darek (Land Rendang) is an umbrella term for dishes from old regions in mountainous areas of Minangkabau such as Batusangkar, Agam, Lima Puluh Kota, Payakumbuh, Padang Panjang, Bukittinggi. It mainly consists of beef, offal, poultry products, jackfruit, and many other vegetables and animal products which are found in these places. The second category is Rendang Pesisir (Coastal Rendang) from the coastal regions of Minangkabau such as Pariaman, Padang, Painan, and Pasaman. Rendang Pesisir mainly consists of seafood, although it isn't unusual for them to incorporate beef or water buffalo meat in their Rendang.

Indonesian Rendang variations:[6]

  1. Rendang daging: meat rendang. The most common rendang is made from beef, but may also be from water buffalo, goat, mutton or lamb, specialty of Padang
  2. Rendang ayam: chicken rendang, specialty of Batusangkar, Bukittinggi
  3. Rendang baluik (rendang belut): eel rendang, specialty of Solok, in Solok dialect also called randang baluk
  4. Rendang cubadak (rendang nangka): jackfruit rendang, specialty of Payakumbuh
  5. Rendang hati: cattle liver rendang, specialty of Minangkabau
  6. Rendang itiak (rendang bebek): duck rendang, specialty of Bukittinggi
  7. Rendang jo kantang: beef rendang with baby potatoes, specialty of Kapau
  8. Rendang lokan or (rendang tiram): marsh clam rendang, specialty of coastal regions of Minangkabau (e.g. Pariaman, Painan, and Pesisir Selatan)
  9. Rendang tahu: tofu rendang, specialty of Minangkabau
  10. Rendang talua (rendang telur): eggs rendang, specialty of Payakumbuh
  11. Rendang tempe: tempe rendang, specialty of Minangkabau
  12. Rendang tongkol: mackerel tuna rendang, specialty of coastal regions of Minangkabau
  13. Rendang paru: cattle lung rendang, specialty of Payakumbuh
  14. Rendang runtiah(rendang suir): shredded beef/poultry meat rendang, specialty of Payakumbuh
  15. Rendang jantung pisang: banana blossom rendang, specialty of Minangkabau
  16. Rendang jariang (rendang jengkol): Archidendron Pauciflorum rendang, specialty of Bukittinggi
  17. Rendang pucuak ubi (rendang daun singkong): cassava leaves rendang, specialty of Minangkabau

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Owen, Sri (1993). The Rice Book. Doubleday. ISBN 0-7112-2260-6. 
  2. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. p. 46. ISBN 0-300-10518-5. 
  3. ^ a b Lipoeto, Nur I; Agus, Zulkarnain; Oenzil, Fadil; Masrul, Mukhtar; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana; Wahlqvist, Mark L (February 2001). "Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia". Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (Blackwell Synergy) 10 (1). doi:10.1046/j.1440-6047.2001.00201.x. PMID 11708602. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Indonesia Proud: William Wongso: Duta Rendang di Dunia Kuliner Internasional
  5. ^ World’s 50 Most Delicious Foods by CNN GO.
  6. ^ a b c Urang Minang.com Inilah Rendang Minang Juara dunia itu
  7. ^ Winiati Pudji Rahayu, Aktivitas Antimikroba Bumbu Masakan Tradisional Hasil Olahan Industri Terhadap Bakteri Patogen Perusak
  8. ^ Rendang Padang, Ikon Masakan Indonesia Hadir di Pameran Wisata Berlin
  9. ^ Female Kompas.com: Rendang, Hidangan Terlezat di Dunia
  10. ^ Gulai Cubadak | Green Jackfruit Gulai Recipe | Online Indonesian Food and Recipes at IndonesiaEats.com
  11. ^ [citation needed]
  12. ^ Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 109. ISBN 9780313376269. Retrieved 1 July 2013. 
  13. ^ a b Brissenden, Rosemary (2007). Southeast Asian Food: Classic and Modern Dishes from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. Tuttle Publishing. p. 189. ISBN 9780794604882. Retrieved July 1, 2013. 
  14. ^ Hikayat Amir Hamzah, A. Samad Ahmad
  15. ^ Dian Kelana (17 March 2010). "Gulai, Kalio, atau Rendang?" (in Indonesian). Kompasiana. Retrieved 14 September 2014. 
  16. ^ Rendang Uni Farah : Bikin Rendang Tahan Lebih Lama
  17. ^ Owen, Sri (1999). Indonesian Regional Food and Cookery. Frances Lincoln Ltd. ISBN 0-7112-1273-2. 

See also[edit]