Renewable energy in the European Union

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Proportion of renewable energy in the EU and Iceland, Turkey, Norway and Switzerland as percentage of total energy consumption.

The countries of the European Union are the number two global leaders in the development and application of renewable energy.[citation needed] Promoting the use of renewable energy sources is important both to the reduction of the EU's dependence on foreign energy imports, and in meeting targets to combat global warming.

Policy[edit]

Share of renewable energies in gross final energy consumption in EU-28 countries in 2012 (in %).[1]

The Maastricht Treaty set an objective of promoting stable growth while protecting the environment. The Amsterdam Treaty added the principle of sustainable development to the objectives of the EU. Since 1997, the EU has been working towards a renewable energy supply equivalent to 12% of the total EU's energy consumption by 2010.

The Johannesburg Summit failed to introduce the radical changes targeted for ten years after the Rio Summit. No specific goals were set for the energy sector, which disappointed many countries. While the EU had proposed an annual increase in the use of renewable energy at a rate of 1.5% worldwide until 2010, Johannesburg's action plan did not recommend such a "substantial" increase, with no concrete goals nor dates being set.

The EU was unwilling to accept this result and with other nations formed a group of "pioneer countries" that promised to establish ambitious national or even regional goals to achieve global targets. The Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition (JREC) has a total of more than 80 member countries; the EU members, Brazil, South Africa and New Zealand amongst them.

In the European Conference for Renewable Energy in Berlin in 2004, the EU defined ambitious goals of its own. The conclusion was that by 2020, the EU would seek to obtain 20% of its total energy consumption requirements with renewable energy sources. Up until that point, the EU had only set targets up to 2010, and this proposal was the first to represent the EU's commitment up to 2020.

Renewable energy targets[edit]

In 2009 the Renewables Directive set binding targets for all EU Member States, such that the EU will reach a 20% share of energy from renewable sources by 2020 and a 10% share of renewable energy specifically in the transport sector. By 2012 the EU realized a 14.1% share of energy from renewable sources.

In 2014, negotiations about EU energy and climate targets until 2030 are set to start. Central and Eastern European member states are likely to attempt to slow down the transformation process.[2]

Links to climate policy[edit]

Underlying many of the EU's energy policy proposals is the goal to limit global temperature changes to no more than 2 °C above pre-industrial levels,[3] of which 0.8 °C has already taken place and another 0.5–0.7 °C (for total warming of 1.3-1.5 °C) is already committed.[4] 2 °C is usually seen as the upper temperature limit to avoid 'dangerous global warming'.[5] However some scientists, such as Kevin Anderson[3], professor of energy and climate change in the School of Mechanical, Aeronautical and Civil Engineering at the University of Manchester and former director of the Tyndall Centre, the UK's leading academic climate change research organisation, have argued that to be consistent with the science, 1 °C is a more accurate threshold for "dangerous" climate change.[6][7]

Actions[edit]

EU energy efficiency and renewable energy actions includes:

Member states[edit]

Article 4 of the Renewables Directive required Member States to submit National Renewable Energy Action Plans by 30 June 2010. These plans, to be prepared in accordance with the template published by the Commission, provide detailed roadmaps of how each Member State expects to reach its legally binding 2020 target for the share of renewable energy in their final energy consumption. Member States must set out the sectoral targets, the technology mix they expect to use, the trajectory they will follow and the measures and reforms they will undertake to overcome the barriers to developing renewable energy. The plans are published by the EC upon receipt in the original language, allowing public scrutiny. The Commission will evaluate them, assessing their completeness and credibility. In parallel, the plans will be translated into English. In addition, the Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands was contracted by the European Environment Agency to create an external database and quantitative report of the reports received so far.

The Member States which joined the EU in 2004 must apply the provisions of Directive 2001/77/EC on producing electricity from renewable energy sources. Their Accession Treaty sets national indicative targets for the proportion of electricity produced from RES (RES-E) in each new Member State the result of which is an overall objective of 21% for the EU-25.

The Member States must adopt and publish, initially every five years, a report setting the indicative Member State targets for future RES-E consumption for the following ten years and showing what measures have or are to be taken to meet those targets. The Member State targets must take account of the reference values set out in the Annex to the Directive for Member States' indicative targets concerning the share of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in gross electricity consumption in 2010. They must also be compatible with all the national commitments entered into as part of the commitments accepted by the Community in Kyoto.

Germany[edit]

At the end of 2012 renewable energy in Germany provided about 22.9% of Germany's electricity production, with the largest contribution being made by wind power.[8]

Italy[edit]

At the end of 2011 renewable energy sources accounted for almost 25% of the electricity production in Italy, and almost 40% at the end of 2013.

Lithuania[edit]

The majority of renewable energy in Lithuania is from firewood. The principal source of electricity from renewable resources is from hydropower.[9]

Lithuania has many yet undeveloped renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal energy, municipal waste, and biomass. The amount of biomass per capita in Lithuania is one of the highest in the European Union and it is estimated that in 2020 Lithuania will be the first in the EU according to the quantity of available biomass for biofuel production. The projected production of biofuels by 2020 is 0.25 tons per capita.[10]

Portugal[edit]

In 2010, more than 50% of all yearly electricity consumption in Portugal was generated from renewable energy sources.[11] The most important generation sources were hydroelectric (30%) and wind power (18%), with bioenergy (5%) and photovoltaic solar power (0,5%) accounting for the rest. In 2001, the Portuguese government launched a new energy policy instrument – the E4 Programme (Energy Efficiency and Endogenous Energies), consisting of a set of multiple, diversified measures aimed at promoting a consistent, integrated approach to energy supply and demand. By promoting energy efficiency and the use of endogenous (renewable) energy sources, the programme seeks to upgrade the competitiveness of the Portuguese economy and to modernize the country’s social fabric, while simultaneously preserving the environment by reducing gas emissions, especially the CO2 responsible for climatic change. As a result, in the five years between 2005 and 2010, energy production from renewable sources increased 28%.[12]

In January 2014, 91% of the monthly needed Portuguese electricity consumption was generated by renewable sources,[13][14] although the real figure stands at 78%, as 14% was exported .

Portugal has the second largest photovoltaic power station in the world,[15] which was completed in December 2008. The complex, called Amareleja photovoltaic power station, covers an area of 250-hectare. The 46-megawatt solar power plant produces enough electricity for 30,000 homes and saves more than 89,383 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions. Also in production since January 2007, the Serpa solar power plant with an installed capacity 11MW, covers an area of 60-hectare, produces enough energy for 8,000 homes and saves more than 30,000 tons a year in greenhouse gas emissions. These solar parks are approximately 30 km apart.

Spain[edit]

Spain as a whole has the target of generating 30% of its electricity needs from renewable energy sources by 2010, with half of that amount coming from wind power. In 2006, 20% of the total electricity demand was already produced with renewable energy sources, and in January 2009 the total electricity demand produced with renewable energy sources reached 34.8%.[16]

Some regions of Spain lead Europe in the use of renewable energy technology and plan to reach 100% renewable energy generation in few years. Castilla y León and Galicia, in particular, are near this goal. In 2006 they fulfilled about 70% of their total electricity demand from renewable energy sources.

If nuclear power is also considered CO2 free, two autonomous communities in Spain have already managed to fulfill their total 2006 electricity demand "free" of CO2 emissions: Extremadura and Castilla-La Mancha.[17]

In 2005 Spain became the first country in the world to require the installation of photovoltaic electricity generation in new buildings, and the second in the world (after Israel) to require the installation of solar hot water systems.[18]

United Kingdom[edit]

By 2004 4.65% of the UK's electricity requirements were being generated from renewable energy sources (including hydroelectricity), up from 2.55% in 1990. This figure rose to 8.7% by 2011. The total contribution of renewable energy to all energy consumption in the UK was 3.8% in 2011. This comprised 8.7% of electricity, 2.2% of heat and 2.9% of transport fuel coming from renewable sources. UK Government energy policy set a target for renewable electricity to provide 10% of all electricity use by 2010. This target was not met. The UK has agreed to the EU wide renewable energy target of 20% of all energy to come from renewables by 2020, in line with the EU 2009 Renewable Energy Directive. The UK's specific target is to achieve 15% of all energy from renewables. The UK's Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) has announced that the UK will attempt to meet this target with 30% renewable electricity, 12% renewable heat and 10% renewable transport fuel. As of 2010[dated info], the UK was 25th of the 27 EU Member States in terms of the fraction of energy produced from renewables.

The prospects for renewable energy in Scotland in particular are significant. Scotland has an estimated potential of 36.5 GW of installed capacity from wind and 7.5 GW from tidal power, 25% of the estimated total capacity for the European Union for both, and up to 14 GW of wave power potential, 10% of EU capacity.[19][20] The Scottish Government has a target of generating 50% of Scotland's gross annual consumption of electricity from renewables by 2015, rising to 100% by 2020.[21]

Renewable energy sectors[edit]

Bioenergy[edit]

Further information: Biofuel in the European Union

Britain's first major bioethanol plant should be completed by the middle of 2009 and should use more than one million tonnes of wheat per year. The plant, in Wilton, northeast England, will be Europe's largest biorefinery, producing around 400 million to 450 million litres of bioethanol a year as well as 350,000 tonnes of animal feed. Currently the largest plant in the UK is a British Sugar facility in eastern England with an annual production capacity of about 70 million litres.[22]

Geothermal[edit]

Further information: Geothermal energy

European Geothermal Energy Council (EGEC) promotes geothermal energy in the European Union.

GeoEner is the Building and Industrial Geothermal Energy Congress.[23]

Wind power[edit]

Wind power installed in Europe in 2012

In 2011, installed Wind power capacity in the European Union totalled 93,957 megawatts (MW) - enough to supply 6.3% of the EU's electricity. 9,616 MW of wind power was installed in 2011 alone, representing 21.4% of new power capacity. The EU wind industry has had an average annual growth of 15.6% over the last 17 years (1995-2011).[24]

A European Environment Agency report, entitled Europe's onshore and offshore wind energy potential confirms wind energy could power Europe many times over.[25] The report highlights wind power’s potential in 2020 as three times greater than Europe’s expected electricity demand, rising to a factor of seven by 2030.[26]

The EWEA estimates that 230 gigawatts (GW) of wind capacity will be installed in Europe by 2020, consisting of 190 GW onshore and 40 GW offshore. This would produce 14-17% of the EU's electricity, avoiding 333 million tonnes of CO2 per year and saving Europe €28 billion a year in avoided fuel costs.[27]

Research from a wide variety of sources in various European countries shows that support for wind power is consistently about 80 per cent amongst the general public.[28]

Solar energy[edit]

Photovoltaic solar power[edit]

Photovoltaic cells in use on top of a building in Berlin.

The need for the strategic development of photovoltaic systems in the EU has led to the creation of PV-NET, a network that gathers representatives from all the sectors of the research and development community concerned with the photovoltaic solar energy industry (see solar cell). The network promotes communication between speakers through the organisation of specialised conferences, workshops and congresses.

This interaction has led to the editing of a waybill, finished in 2003 with the aim of providing a solid basis for EU leaders and European citizens to base their decisions and policy making and in order to help reach the objective set by the European Commission to multiply the use of photovoltaic systems by thirty times by 2010.

In 2002, the world production of photovoltaic modules surpassed 550 MW, of which more than the 50% was produced in the EU. At the end of 2004, 79% of all European capacity was in Germany, where 794 MWp had been installed. The European Commission anticipates that Germany may have installed around 4,500 MWp by 2010.[29]

17.2 GW of PV capacity were connected to the grid in Europe in 2012, compared to 22.4 GW in 2011; Europe still accounts for the predominant share of the global PV market, with 55% of all new capacity in 2012.[30]

Concentrated solar power[edit]

One advantage that CSP has is the ability to add thermal storage and provide power up to 24 hours a day.[31] Gemasolar, in Spain, was the first to provide 24 hour power.[32] At the end of 2012, in the European Union, 2,114 MWp had been installed, mainly in Spain.

Solar heating and cooling[edit]

Solar heating is the usage of solar energy to provide space or water heating. Worldwide the use was 88 GWthermal (2005). Growth potential is enormous. At present the EU is second after China in the installations. If all EU countries used solar thermal as enthusiastically as the Austrians, the EU’s installed capacity would already be 91 GWth (130 million m2 today, far beyond the target of 100 million m2 by 2010, set by the White Paper in 1997). In 2005 solar heating in the EU was equivalent to more than 686.000 tons of oil. ESTIF’s minimum target is to produce solar heating equivalent to 5.600.000 tons of oil (2020). A more ambitious, but feasible, target is 73 millions tons of oil per year (2020) – a lorry row spanning 1.5 times around the globe.[33]

The research efforts and infrastructure needed to supply 50% of the energy for space and water heating and cooling across Europe using solar thermal energy has been set out under the aegis of the European Solar Thermal Technology Platform (ESTTP).[34] Published in late December 2008, more than 100 experts developed the strategic research agenda (SRA),[35] which includes a deployment roadmap showing the non-technological framework conditions that will enable this ambitious goal to be reached by 2050.[36]

Wave power[edit]

Pelamis wave energy converter

The world's first commercial wave farm is located at the Aguçadora Wave Park near Póvoa de Varzim in Portugal. The farm which uses three Pelamis P-750 machines was officially opened in 2008[37] by the Portuguese minister for the economy. A second phase of the project is now planned to increase the installed capacity from 2.25MW to 21MW using a further 25 machines.[38]

Funding for a wave farm in Scotland using four Pelamis machines was announced on 20 February 2007 by the Scottish Executive. The funding of just over £4 million is part of a £13 million funding package for marine power in Scotland. The farm, is to be located at the European Marine Test Centre (EMEC) off the coast of Orkney and will have an installed capacity of 3MW.[39]

Hydrogen fuel[edit]

The Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Joint Undertaking, FCH JU, is a public private partnership supporting research, technological development and demonstration activities in fuel cell and hydrogen energy technologies in Europe. Its aim is to accelerate the market introduction of these technologies.

The HyFLEET:CUTE is a project bringing together many partners from industry, government, academic and consulting organisations. It is intended that 47 hydrogen powered buses will operate in regular public transport service in 10 cities on three continents. Many of the HyFLEET:CUTE project partners have been involved in previous hydrogen transport projects, most notably the CUTE, ECTOS and STEP projects.

Economics[edit]

Jobs[edit]

The renewable energy industry have offered new work opportunities in the EU during 2005–2009.

Jobs by the renewable
energy industry in the EU[40]
Year Employees
2005 230.000
2006 300.000
2007 360.000
2008 400.000
2009 550.000

In 2012, the use of intermittent renewable energy caused, according to the German newspaper Der Spiegel, increasing electricity prices and grid instability induced power outages,[41] created by renewable energy usage. It is also claimed by German heavy industry spokesmen that this has forced their industries to close, move overseas, and resulted in the loss of German heavy industry jobs.[42]

Statistics[edit]

Installed wind power capacity[edit]

EU Wind Energy Capacity (MW)[43][44][45][46][47]
No Country 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998
- EU-28 117,289 105,696 93,957 84,074 74,767 64,712 56,517 48,069 40,511 34,383 28,599 23,159 17,315 12,887 9,678 6,453
1 Germany 33,730 31,332 29,060 27,214 25,777 23,897 22,247 20,622 18,415 16,629 14,609 11,994 8,754 6,113 4,442 2,875
2 Spain 22,959 22,796 21,674 20,676 19,149 16,689 15,131 11,623 10,028 8,264 6,203 4,825 3,337 2,235 1,812 834
3 UK 10,531 8,445 6,540 5,204 4,051 2,974 2,406 1,962 1,332 904 667 552 474 406 362 333
4 Italy 8,551 8,144 6.747 5,797 4,850 3,736 2,726 2,123 1,718 1,266 905 788 682 427 277 180
5 France 8,254 7,196 6,800 5,660 4,492 3,404 2,454 1,567 757 390 257 148 93 66 25 19
6 Denmark 4,772 4,162 3,871 3,752 3,465 3,163 3,125 3,136 3,128 3,118 3,116 2,889 2,489 2,417 1,771 1,443
7 Portugal 4,724 4,525 4,083 3,898 3,535 2,862 2,150 1,716 1,022 522 296 195 131 100 61 60
8 Sweden 4,470 3,745 2,907 2,163 1,560 1,048 788 571 509 442 399 345 293 231 220 174
9 Poland 3,390 2,497 1,616 1,107 725 544 276 153 83 63 63 27 0 0 0 0
10 Netherlands 2,693 2,391 2,328 2,245 2,229 2,225 1,747 1,558 1,219 1,079 910 693 486 446 433 361
11 Romania 2,599 1,905 982 462 14 11 8 3 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
12 Ireland 2,037 1,738 1,631 1,428 1,260 1,027 795 746 496 339 190 137 124 118 74 73
13 Greece 1,865 1,749 1,629 1,208 1,087 985 871 746 573 473 383 297 272 189 112 39
14 Austria 1,684 1,378 1,084 1,011 995 995 982 965 819 606 415 140 94 77 34 30
15 Belgium 1,651 1,375 1,078 911 563 415 287 194 167 96 68 35 32 13 6 6
16 Bulgaria 681 674 612 375 177 120 57 36 10 10 0 0 0 0 0 0
17 Finland 448 288 197 197 146 143 110 86 82 82 52 43 39 39 39 17
18 Hungary 329 329 329 295 201 127 65 61 17 3 3 3 0 0 0 0
19 Croatia 302 180 131 89 28
20 Estonia 280 269 184 149 142 78 59 32 32 6 2 2 0 0 0 0
21 Lithuania 279 225 179 163 91 54 54 51 48 6 6 0 0 0 0 0
22 Czech Republic 269 260 217 215 192 150 116 54 28 17 9 3 0 0 0 0
23 Cyprus 147 147 134 82 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
24 Latvia 62 60 31 30 28 27 27 27 27 27 27 24 0 0 0 0
25 Luxembourg 58 58 44 44 35 35 35 35 35 35 22 17 15 10 10 9
26 Slovakia 3 3 3 3 3 5 5 5 5 3 0 0 0 0 0 0
27 Slovenia 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
28 Malta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- EU-28 Offshore 6,562 4,993 3,810 2,944 2,061 1,471 1,088
- Turkey 2,956 2,312 1,691 1,329 801 458
- Norway 768 703 520 441 431 429 333 314 267 160 101
- Ukraine 371 278 151 87 94 90 89 86 77
- Switzerland 60 46 42 18 14 12 12 12
- Russia 15 15 9 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Iceland 1.8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
- Europe (MW) 121,474 109,238 96,607 86,075 76,152 65,741 57,136 48,563 40,898

Photovoltaics[edit]

Total installed capacity[edit]

PV in Europe (MWpeak)[48][49][50][51][52][52]
# Country 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
1 Germany 1,910 3,063 3,846 6,019 9,830 17,370 24,857 32,698
2 Italy 46 58 120 458 1,032 3,484 12,764 16,361
3 Spain 58 118 733 3,421 3,520 3,859 4,214 4,517
4 France 26 33 47 104 289 1,197 2,831 4,028
5 Belgium 2 4 22 71 363 1,037 1,812 2,650
5 Czech Republic 0 1 4 55 466 1,959 1,959 2,022
7 United Kingdom 11 14 19 23 33 77 1,014 1,657
8 Greece 5 7 9 19 55 205 631 1,543
9 Bulgaria 0.8 1 6 32 212 933
10 Slovakia 0 0 0 0.07 0.2 174 488 517
11 Austria 24 29 27 32 53 96 174 422
12 Denmark 3 3 3 3 5 7 17 392
13 Netherlands 51 51 53 57 68 88 118 321
14 Portugal 3 4 18 68 102 131 144 289
15 Slovenia 0.2 0.4 1 2 9 46 90 217
16 Luxembourg 24 24 24 25 26 30 31 47
17 Sweden 4 5 6 8 9 11 19 24
18 Malta 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 2 3.8 11.5 19
19 Cyprus 0.5 1 1 2 3 6.2 10.1 17
20 Finland 4 4 5 6 8 9.6 11.2 11
21 Romania 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.6 1.9 2.9 6.4
22 Lithuania 0 0 0 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.1 6.1
23 Hungary 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.5 0.7 1.8 2.7 3.7
24 Poland 0.3 0.4 0.6 1 1 1.8 2.2 3.4
25 Latvia 0 0 0 0.004 0.008 0.008 1.5 1.5
26 Ireland 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.7
27 Estonia 0 0 0 0.01 0.05 0.08 0.2 0.2
EU-27 2,170 3,420 4,940 10,380 15,860 29,829 53,357 68,647

Installed capacity per capita[edit]

PV per capita 2012 [53]
# Country W/capita
1  Germany 399.5
2  Italy 269.0
3  Belgium 240.0
4  Czech Republic 192.5
5  Greece 136.7
6  Bulgaria 127.4
7  Slovenia 105.7
8  Spain 97.8
9  Slovakia 95.7
10  Luxembourg 89.9
11  Denmark 70.2
12  France 61.6
13  Austria 49.9
14  Malta 45.0
15  United Kingdom 26.3
16  Portugal 21.7
17  Cyprus 19.9
18  Netherlands 19.2
19  Croatia 7.6
20  Sweden 2.5
21  Finland 2.1
22  Lithuania 2.0
23  Latvia 0.7
24  Hungary 0.4
25  Romania 0.3
26  Ireland 0.2
27  Estonia 0.1
28  Poland 0.1
EU28 (W/capita) 136.3

Solar heating[edit]

Solar heating in European Union* (kWth)[54][55][56]
Country Total (2010) Total (2009) Total (2008) add 2006 add 2005 add 2004
Germany 9,676,800 8,896,300 7,765,800 1 050 000 665 000 525 000
Greece 2,858,940 2,851,940 2,707,740 168 000 154 350 150 500
Austria 2,685,556 2,517,812 2,268,231 204 868 163 429 127 816
Italy 1,870,211 1,404,361 1 124 361 130 200 88 941 68 417
Spain 1,474,806 1,261,516 987,816 122 500 74 760 63 000
France[57] 1,101,730 1,371,370 1,136,870 154 000 85 050 36 400
Cyprus 500,515 514,640 485,240 42 000 35 000 21 000
Portugal 470,888 345,338 223,265 14 000 11 200 7 000
Poland 459,123 356,902 255,973 28 980 19 390 20 230
UK 401,254 332,514 270,144 37 800 19 600 17 500
Denmark 367,602 330,946 292,796 17 710 14 875 14 000
Netherlands 313,317 285,139 254,339 10 280 14 174 18 410
Belgium 229,703 203,593 188,263 24 945 14 164 10 290
Sweden 226,615 217,362 202,445 19 977 15 835 14 041
Czech Republic 215,863 147,854 115,570 15 421 10 885 8 575
Slovenia 122,710 111,510 96,110 4 830 3 360 1 260
Hungary 104,870 57,813 17,675 700 700 1 050
Ireland 92,042 75,432 52,080 3 500 2 450 1 400
Slovakia 85,225 76,125 66,675 5 950 5 250 3 850
Bulgaria 73,710 89,530 22,120 1,540 1,400 1,260
Romania 73,290 80,010 66,010 280 280 280
Malta 32,102 28,602 24,752 3,150 2,800 2,951
Finland 23,046 18,881 17,705 2,380 1,668 1,141
Luxembourg 22,120 19,040 15,750 1,750 1,330 1,190
Estonia 2,044 1,694 1,379 210 175 175
Latvia 1,358 1,218 5,005 840 700 350
Lithuania 1,680 1,540 3,003 420 350 350
EU27+CH
GWth
24.11 22.14 19.08 2.10 1.43 1.14
* = The relation between collector area and capacity: m2 = 0.7 kWthermal

Biofuels[edit]

Biofuels[58]
Consumption 2005 (GWh) Consumption 2006 (GWh) Consumption 2007 (GWh)
No Country Total Total Biodiesel Bioethanol Total Biodiesel Bioethanol
1  Germany* 21,703 40,417 29,447 3,544 46,552 34,395 3,408
2  France 4,874 8,574 6,855 1,719 16,680 13,506 3,174
3  Austria 920 3,878 3,878 0 4,524 4,270 254
4  Spain 1,583 1,961 629 1,332 4,341 3,031 1,310
5  United Kingdom 793 2,097 1,533 563 4,055 3,148 907
6  Sweden* 1,938 2,587 523 1,894 3,271 1,158 2,113
7  Portugal 2 818 818 0 1,847 1,847 0
8  Italy 2 059 1,732 1,732 0 1,621 1 621 0
9  Bulgaria 96 96 0 1,308 539 769
10  Poland 481 1 102 491 611 1,171 180 991
11  Belgium 0 10 10 0 1,061 1,061 0
12  Greece 32 540 540 0 940 940 0
13  Lithuania 97 226 162 64 612 477 135
14  Luxembourg 7 6 6 0 407 397 10
15  Czech Republic 33 226 213 13 382 380 2
16  Slovenia 58 50 48 2 160 151 9
17  Slovakia 110 153 149 4 154 n.a. 154
18  Hungary 28 139 4 136 107 0 107
19  Netherlands 0 371 172 179 101 n.a. 101
20  Ireland 9 36 8 13 97 27 54
21  Denmark 0 42 0 42 70 0 70
22  Latvia 34 29 17 12 20 0 20
23  Finland 0 0 10 0 10 n.a. n.a.
24  Romania 32 32 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
25  Malta 8 10 10 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
26  Estonia 0 7 0 n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a.
27  Cyprus 0 0 0 0 n.a. n.a. n.a.
27 EU 34,796 65,148 47,380 10,138 89,482 67,154 13,563
*Total includes vegetable oils in Germany: 7309 GWh (2006) and 2018 GWh (2005) and biogas in Sweden: 225 GWh (2006) and 160 GWh (2005), n.a. = not available

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Joanna Krzeminska, Are Support Schemes for Renewable Energies Compatible with Competition Objectives? An Assessment of National and Community Rules, Yearbook of European Environmental Law (Oxford University Press), Volume VII, Nov. 2007, p. 125

In the media[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Share of renewable energy up to 14.1% of energy consumption in the EU28 in 2012. Eurostat News Release, 11 March 2014.
  2. ^ Severin Fischer/Oliver Geden (2013), Updating the EU's Energy and Climate Policy. New Targets for the Post-2020 Period, FES International Policy Analysis
  3. ^ New EU energy plan – more security, less pollution, press release by European Commission
  4. ^ Oliver Geden (2013), Modifying the 2°C Target. Climate Policy Objectives in the Contested Terrain of Scientific Policy Advice, Political Preferences, and Rising Emissions, SWP Research Paper 5
  5. ^ Samuel Randalls (2010), History of the 2 °C climate target, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp. 598–605, July/August 2010
  6. ^ [Prof Kevin Anderson, past climate danger, in denial YouTube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=32HfnxIDLLA] Nov 18, 2012
  7. ^ [The Truth About Global Warming: Brutal Numbers, Tenuous Hope http://vimeo.com/39555673] Cabot Institute Annual Lecture, 2012
  8. ^ http://www.focus.de/immobilien/energiesparen/von-wegen-blackout-trotz-eiseskaelte-exportiert-deutschland-strom_aid_711389.html
  9. ^ Renewable energy in Lithuania
  10. ^ Lithuanian Renewable Energy Promotion Action Plan 2010-2020 years. 2008. Applied research. Vilnius. 215
  11. ^ Nation Bureau for Geology and Energy, Energias Renováveis - Estatísticas Rápidas de fevereiro de 2011 (in Portuguese)
  12. ^ ROSENTHAL, ELISABETH (August 9, 2010). "Portugal Gives Itself a Clean-Energy Makeover". New York Times. Retrieved 11 August 2010. 
  13. ^ Renewable energy association, Energias Renováveis - February Press release (in Portuguese)
  14. ^ Portuguese newspaper (in Portuguese)
  15. ^ http://ww1.rtp.pt/noticias/?article=379834&visual=26&tema=4 ww1.rtp.pt
  16. ^ Las renovables ahorraron en enero 90 millones de euros en importaciones de gas, Energías-Renovables.com, (Spanish)
  17. ^ [1] Red Eléctrica de España Annual Report 2006
  18. ^ "Layout 1". Ren21.net. Retrieved 24 April 2011. 
  19. ^ RSPB Scotland, WWF Scotland and FOE Scotland (February 2006) The Power of Scotland: Cutting Carbon with Scotland's Renewable Energy. RSPB et al.
  20. ^ A Scottish Energy Review (November 2005) Scottish National Party Framework Paper. Edinburgh.
  21. ^ [2]
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External links[edit]

Organizations[edit]