Renewable energy in the Netherlands
Despite the historic usage of wind power to drain water and grind grain, the Netherlands lags behind most EU countries in the production of energy from renewable sources. The flat and often sub-sea level landscape limits hydropower resources and the country does not lie in a region of high geothermal potential. The leading renewable power sources are biomass, wind, solar and geothermal. In 2010, the Netherlands produced only 3.7%, up from only 1% in 1990.
Three hydropower plants provide almost all of the Netherland's hydropower. In 2010, the Netherlands had 1973 wind turbines including 98 in two offshore windfarms. The turbines had a total nameplate capacity of 2237 MW. Flevoland was the leading province for wind energy with Groningen second in capacity and production. The Netherlands had 88 MW of solar electricity and 98 MW of manure digesters in 2010.
In 2009 the Netherlands used 3,9% wind power of electricity (278/ 7,073)  The wind capacity installed at end 2010 will, in a normal wind year, produce 4.1% of electricity, when the equivalent value for Germany is 9.4% and Portugal 14%.
In the Netherlands, household consumers can choose to buy renewable electricity. For 2008, the amount of renewable energy used by household users is increasing. Halfway through 2010 it was 44%, up from 38% in 2008 and 41% in 2009. A large part of the renewable electricity sold in the Netherlands comes from Norway, a country which generates almost all its electricity with hydropower plants.
Climate change 
According to prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende the Netherlands use annually 1-1.5 billion € (0.3% of national income) to protect against the risks of the sea level rise. Many areas are under the sea level in the Netherlands and are protected with the dam constructions. The Netherlands supported in 2010 rising the European Union emission restrictions from 20% to 30%; however, the Netherlands has only committed to reaching the minimum 14% goal for itself.
Renewable energy by source 
|Renewable energy in the Netherlands (by source, in TWh) |
|RE % = (production of RE / use) * 100% Note: Rounding errors may be present due to conversion from original source reported in PJ, European Union calculates the share of renewable energies in gross electrical consumption.
Warm milk represent heat recovered from fresh milk during cooling by heat exchange.
Renewable energy by use 
|Renewable energy in the Netherlands (by use, in TWh) |
|Renewable percent of
|Note: Rounding errors may be present due to conversion from original source reported in PJ|
See also 
- Renewable Energy in the Netherlands 2010, Statistics Netherlands, 2010
- Energy in Sweden 2010, table: Specific electricity production per inhabitant with breakdown by power source Table 49.
- Wind in power 2010 European statistics EWEA February 2011 page 11
- Alankomaissa sata miljardia euroa kuluu merenpinnan nousun estämiseen yle 03.09.2008
- Renewable Energy in the Netherlands 2011, Statistics Netherlands, 2012