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|Scottish Gaelic: Rinn Friù|
Renfrew Town Hall and centre
Renfrew shown within Renfrewshire
|Population||20,251 (2001 census)|
|OS grid reference|
|Sovereign state||United Kingdom|
|UK Parliament||Paisley and Renfrewshire North|
|Scottish Parliament||Renfrewshire North and West|
Renfrew (//; Scottish Gaelic: Rinn Friù) is a town 6 miles (10 km) west of Glasgow in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. Renfrew is known as the "Cradle of the Royal Stewarts" as a result of its early link with the Royal house of Scotland and Great Britain. It gained royal burgh status in 1397 and became the county town of Renfrewshire, also known as the County of Renfrew. The town is also a barony: the current Baron of Renfrew is His Royal Highness The Prince Charles, Duke of Rothesay (known outside Scotland as The Prince of Wales) who holds lands in the area as part of the principality of Scotland.
As the county town, Renfrew once was a centre of local government for the surrounding area. Whilst the county remained, the focus of local government in Renfrewshire gradually shifted from Renfrew to the larger neighbouring town of Paisley. Following the reorganisation of 1996, the county of Renfrewshire was divided for local government purposes into three modern council areas: Renfrewshire, with considerably smaller boundaries than the county, including Renfrew and with its administrative centre at Paisley; Inverclyde with its centre at Greenock, covering the western part of the county; and East Renfrewshire, with its centre at Giffnock. The boundaries of the historic county of Renfrewshire remain for a number of ceremonial and administrative purposes.
The recorded history of the town began with the granting of land in the area to Walter fitz Alan, the High Steward of Scotland by King David I of Scotland in the 12th century. The strategic location of this castle was to prevent the eastern expansion of the lordship belonging to Somerled, the Lord of the Isles, and protect Western Scotland from Norse invaders. Eventually the hereditary title of High Steward came to form the surname Stewart.
The castle was situated in what is now part of the well-known Braehead shopping complex. It was located on the King's inch or King's island. This location both added to the castle's defences but also added to its strategic positioning on the Clyde. Many street names close to this area demonstrate the survival of knowledge of this citadel. 'Orchard Street' is a reference to the royal orchards for example.
Later in the 12th century, King Malcolm IV, grandson of David I, finally demanded the Somerled's fealty. In 1164, Somerled sailed to Renfrew and attacked an assembling Scottish army in a conflict known as the Battle of Renfrew. The outcome was a defeat of the Lordship of the Isles and the death of Somerled. The Lords of the Isles were eventually stripped of their lands and titles in 1493, as a consequence of conspiring with an earlier King of England (Edward IV) to overthrow the Scottish monarchy. Since that time, "Lord of the Isles" - as with "Baron of Renfrew" - has been a courtesy title of the heir to the throne and both are currently held by The Prince Charles, heir to Queen Elizabeth II.
The role of the Stewarts continued to grow and in 1315 Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward married Marjorie, daughter of King Robert the Bruce. Their son succeeded to the throne as Robert II of Scotland.
During the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll was injured and captured at Renfrew before being transported to Edinburgh and executed for his role in attempting to overthrow the Crown. The Argyle Stones in the town mark the site where his capture took place.
During the night of 13 March 1941, three Polish airmen saved Renfrew's Roman Catholic church of Saint James. Lance Corporal Pawel Radke, Aircraftman Antoni Ptaszkowski and Aircraftman Zygmunt Sokolowski were at the church and at great risk were extinguishing incendiaries. These had caused a number of fires in the church. Two of the airmen were killed by a bomb and the third died in Alexandria Hospital the following day. They were in their twenties. When 309 Squadron transferred to Dunino in Fife in May 1941, it presented to the church a portrait of Our Lady as a token of their appreciation to the people of Renfrew. Parishioners never forgot the sacrifice and in October 1982 at a special Mass, a silver plaque in memory of the airmen and the portrait of the Black Madonna was blessed and dedicated by Bishop McGill. The plaque was crafted by a local Polish jeweller, Eugeniusz Waclawski.
In 2013, the Rev Lorna Hood, minister at Renfrew North Parish Church and Chaplain to The Queen, will become Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
Renfrew also has two Masonic Lodges; Prince of Wales and Lodge Moorpark numbers 426 and 1263, respectively, of the Roll of the Grand Lodge of Scotland.
Local government and royal burgh
Although the town gives its name to the council area of Renfrewshire and the larger county of the same name which was used for local government before 1975, the administrative functions of both have in modern times been operated from the considerably larger neighbouring town of Paisley.
The early origins of Renfrewshire lie in the expanding influence of the Stewarts of Renfrew, the family holding the hereditary High Stewardship of Scotland. In 1371, Robert Stewart was crowned King of Scotland as Robert II and in 1402 his son, Robert III established the shire of Renfrew crafted from territory previously within the shire of Lanark and based out of Renfrew, the site of the Stewarts' castle.
Renfrewshire's Commissioners of Supply, Quarter Sessions and freeholders met at Renfrew, as did the sheriff court until it was moved to Paisley in 1705. This began a gradual move in the focus of local government to Paisley. During this time, however, Renfrew continued to hold status not only as a royal burgh, but as a parliamentary, municipal and police burgh.
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Renfrew was a parliamentary burgh as a component of Glasgow Burghs from 1708 to 1832, and as a component of Kilmarnock Burghs from 1832 to 1918, when it was merged into the East Renfrewshire constituency.
Since 2005, it has been part of the Paisley and Renfrewshire North constituency.
The M8 motorway intersects Renfrew and two junctions at Arkleston and Braehead provide access to the town, with the neighbouring town of Paisley largely lying on the opposite side. The former Renfrew Airport was located to the south of the town (only a couple of miles from the present Glasgow Airport). The site of the terminal building is now occupied by a Tesco supermarket. The Renfrew Ferry connects to Yoker on the north bank of the Clyde, with the crossing taking a few minutes to make. Renfrew was also once served by a series of stations on a branch of the Glasgow and Paisley Joint Railway. However it was closed to passengers in 1967.
Renfrew is served by McGills bus services 21, 23, X23, 101, and 26, which give regular services to Braehead, Erskine, Govan, Paisley, and Glasgow City Centre. The 747 First bus service to Glasgow City Centre also passes through via Kings Inch Road.
Further expansion of Renfrew's economy took place in 1938 with the opening of Hillington industrial estate, now named Hillington Park, not to be confused with Hillington housing estate in the city of Glasgow.
- "Renfrew History". Retrieved 21 January 2010.
- Paterson 2008, p9
- "Portrait of a Lady and a Silver Plaque in memory of Polish Airmen". www.ostrycharz.free-online.co.uk. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Renfrewshire Community Website - Renfrew meetings
- History of Renfrew, J.A. Dunn, Town Council of Renfrew, 1971
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