In economic terms, the rental value is the added value an individual contributes when goods are being exchanged or traded for profit. This additional quality is often fixed and is alone under the trader’s ownership. The characteristic can be tangible such as a signature method of use or intangible such as exclusive knowledge pertaining to a product; also known as intellectual property. The value arises from when the market or model is in equilibrium and it is advantages for an individual to take part in trading activities rather than not participate, considering profit or utility can be achieved. Two separate but ideally identical exchange scenarios may occur but may have completely different values calculated. This is explained by two classic examples, a consumer achieves a surplus or profit when buying goods if they are able to buy all quantities at a single price. The produces lacks knowledge concerning the relationship between an individual’s willingness-to-pay and quantity. This means the produces cannot price discriminate according to the consumer’s demand marginality. In this example the buyer has achieved a beneficial rent. If the seller were to discover the buyers willingness-to-pay at different quantities, the seller could maximize their profit by selling quantities at different prices. In most situations this is achieved by slightly lowering the price as more products are bought. In this example the seller achieves a beneficial rent. Economic theories suggest that a free market would correct itself of rents. Considering the producer surplus example, if the gradual discounting of prices also attracted more consumers, the producer would have to re-evaluate their strategy. Often, consumers have different willingness’-to-pay for goods. Following this assumption, profit would not be maximized because the price strategy would not be applicable to all buyers. However if analyzed in reality, through means such as market research, the producer can find a willingness-to-pay that represents most buyers. Consumer rent from the individuals who still pay for goods lower than willing and the producer rent from ability to price discriminate would then counter one another, resulting in market equilibrium.