Delhi Republic Day parade

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Delhi Republic Day parade
Indian Army-Madras regiment.jpeg
Madras Regiment marching in the Republic Day parade
Genre National patriotic parade
Begins 26 January
Ends 29 January
Frequency Annually
Location(s) New Delhi, India
Inaugurated 1950
Most recent 2014
Previous event 26 January 2014
Next event 26 January 2015
Organised by Ministry of Defence
Website
http://republicday.nic.in/

Delhi Republic Day parade refers to the grand parade on Rajpath, New Delhi, held on 26 January every year. It is the main attraction of India's Republic Day Celebrations, which extends for 3 days. The parade showcases India's Defense Capability, Cultural and Social Heritage.

Republic Day Parade[edit]

The Lion Capital at Rajpath decorated
President's Body Guards in their winter ceremonial dress.

To mark the importance of the occasion, every year a grand parade is held in the capital, New Delhi, from the Raisina Hill near the Rashtrapati Bhavan (the President's residence), along the Rajpath, past India Gate.[1] Prior to its commencement, the Prime Minister lays a floral wreath at the Amar Jawan Jyoti, a memorial to unknown soldiers at the India Gate at one end of Rajpath, which is followed by two minutes silence in the memory of unknown soldiers. It is a solemn reminder of the sacrifice of the martyrs who died for the country in the freedom movement and the succeeding wars for the defence of sovereignty of their country. Thereafter he/she reaches the main dais at Rajpath to join other dignitaries, subsequently the President arrives along with the chief guest of the occasion. They are escorted on horseback by the President's Bodyguard.

First, the president unfurls the National flag, as the National Anthem is played, and a 21-gun salute is given as the PBG renders the National Salute. Next, important awards like the Ashok Chakra and Kirti Chakra are given away by the President, before the regiments of Armed Forces start their march past. The President comes forward to award the medals of bravery to the people from the armed forces for their exceptional courage in the field and also the civilians, who have distinguished themselves by their different acts of valour in different situations. Children who receive the National Bravery Award ride past the spectators on colourfully decorated elephants or vehicles.[2]

Countries invited as chief guests for the Republic Day parade. Erstwhile Yugoslavia (twice invited) has not been depicted in the map.
The unique BSF Camel Contingent during the annual Republic Day Parade.

Nine to twelve different regiments of the Indian Army in addition to the Navy, and Air Force with their bands march past in all their finery and official decorations. The President of India who is the Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Armed Forces, takes the salute. Twelve contingents of various para-military forces of India and other civil forces also take part in this parade.[3] One of the unique sights of the parade is the camel mounted Border Security Force contingent, which is the only camel mounted military force in the world. The crème of N.C.C. cadets, selected from all over the country consider it an honour to participate in this event, as do the school children from various schools in the capital. They spend many days preparing for the event and no expense is spared to see that every detail is taken care of, from their practice for the drills, the essential props and their uniforms. 22 to 30 floats exhibiting the cultures of the various states and union territories of India, including floats of union ministries and state enterprises are in the grand parade, which is broadcast nationwide on television and radio. These moving exhibits depict scenes of activities of people in those states and the music and songs of that particular state accompany each display. Each display brings out the diversity and richness of the culture of India and the whole show lends a festive air to the occasion.[4] Around 1200 schoolchildren present cultural dances as part of the parade.[5]

The parade traditionally ends with dare devil motor cycle riding by motocycle units of the Armed Forces and a flypast by the Indian Air Force jets and helicopters carrying the national flag and the flags of the three services.

Comprising over 25 marching and mounted contingents, various military vehicles, 20 military bands, 30 cultural tableaux and 30 aircraft in addition to cultural performers and 1200 schoolchildren, India's Republic Day Parade in New Delhi is the most spectacular regular parade in the world.

Every part of the country is represented in the parade, which makes the Republic Day parade very popular.

Beating Retreat[edit]

Vijay Chowk (Victory Square) at Rajpath, with Secretariat Buildings in the background, New Delhi, the venue of the Beat Retreat ceremony

The Beating Retreat ceremony officially denotes the end of Republic Day festivities. It is conducted on the evening of 29 January, the third day after the Republic Day. It is performed by the bands of the three wings of the military, the Indian Army, Indian Navy and Indian Air Force. The venue is Raisina Hills and an adjacent square, Vijay Chowk, flanked by the north and south block of the Rashtrapati Bhavan (President's Palace) towards the end of Rajpath.

Rashtrapati Bhavan and adjacent buildings, illuminated for the Republic Day.

The Chief Guest of the function is the President of India who arrives escorted by the (PBG), a cavalry unit. When the President arrives, the PBG commander asks the unit to give the National Salute, which is followed by the playing of the Indian National Anthem, Jana Gana Mana, by the Army developed the ceremony of display by the massed bands in which Military Bands, Pipe and Drum Bands, Buglers and Trumpeters from various Army Regiments besides bands from the Navy and Air Force take part which play popular tunes like Abide With Me, Mahatma Gandhi's favourite hymn, and Saare Jahan Se Achcha at the end.[2][6][7] 2012

Chief guest[edit]

Since 1950, India has been hosting a head of state or government of another country as the state guest of honour for Republic Day celebrations in New Delhi. During 1950–1954, Republic Day celebrations were organised at different venues (like Irwin Stadium (National Stadium), Kingsway (Rajpath), Red Fort and Ramlila grounds). It was only starting 1955 when the parade in its present form was organised at Rajpath. The guest country is chosen after a deliberation of strategic, economic and political interests. During the 1950s–1970s, a number of NAM and Eastern Bloc countries were hosted by India. In the post-Cold War era, India has also invited several Western leaders on a state visit during the Republic Day. It is notable that before India fought wars with China and Pakistan, leaders from these countries were invited as state guests for the Republic Day celebrations. Interestingly, Pakistan Food and Agriculture Minister was the second state guest from that country for Republic Day in 1965, a few days after which the two countries went to a war. Countries which have been invited multiple times include India's neighbours (Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Mauritius), defence allies (Russia/USSR, France and Britain), trade partners (Brazil) and NAM allies (Nigeria, Indonesia and erstwhile Yugoslavia). France and Bhutan have the distinction of being the guest of honour for the maximum (four) number of times followed by three visits each from Mauritius and USSR/Russia. In 2014, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe would be the Chief Guest at Republic Day Parade.[8]

The List of Republic Day Chief Guests since 1950 is given below:

Year Guest Name Country Number of visits
1950 President Sukarno[9]  Indonesia 1
1951 _
1952
1953
1954 King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck[10]  Bhutan 1
1955 Governor General Malik Ghulam Muhammad[9]  Pakistan 1
1956
1957
1958 Marshall Ye Jianying  PRC 1
1959
1960 President Kliment Voroshilov[11]  USSR 1
1961 Queen Elizabeth II[9]  United Kingdom 1
1962
1963 King Norodom Sihanouk[12]  Cambodia 1
1964
1965 Food and Agriculture Minister Rana Abdul Hamid  Pakistan 2
1966
1967
1968 Prime Minister Alexei Kosygin  USSR 2
President Josip Broz Tito[13]  SFR Yugoslavia 1
1969 Prime Minister of Bulgaria Todor Zhivkov[14]  Bulgaria 1
1970
1971 President Julius Nyerere[15]  Tanzania 1
1972 Prime Minister Seewoosagur Ramgoolam[16]  Mauritius 1
1973 President Mobutu Sese Seko[17]  Zaire 1
1974 President Josip Broz Tito  SFR Yugoslavia 2
Prime Minister Sirimavo Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike[18]  Sri Lanka 1
1975 President Kenneth Kaunda[19]  Zambia 1
1976 Prime Minister Jacques Chirac[9]  France 1
1977 First Secretary Edward Gierek[20]  Poland 1
1978 President Patrick Hillery[21]  Ireland 1
1979 Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser[22]  Australia 1
1980 President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing[9]  France 2
1981 President José López Portillo[23]  Mexico 1
1982 King Juan Carlos I[24]  Spain 1
1983 President Shehu Shagari[25]  Nigeria 1
1984 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck[26]  Bhutan 2
1985 President Raúl Alfonsín[27]  Argentina 1
1986 Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou  Greece 1
1987 President Alan García[28]  Peru 1
1988 President Junius Jayewardene[29]  Sri Lanka 2
1989 General Secretary Nguyen Van Linh[30]  Viet Nam 1
1990 Prime Minister Anerood Jugnauth[31]  Mauritius 2
1991 President Maumoon Abdul Gayoom[31]  Maldives 1
1992 President Mário Soares[31]  Portugal 1
1993 Prime Minister John Major[9]  United Kingdom 2
1994 Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong[9]  Singapore 1
1995 President Nelson Mandela[32]  South Africa 1
1996 President Dr. Fernando Henrique Cardoso[31]  Brazil 1
1997 Prime Minister Basdeo Panday[31]  Trinidad and Tobago 1
1998 President Jacques Chirac[9]  France 3
1999 King Birendra Bir Bikram Shah Dev[31]    Nepal 1
2000 President Olusegun Obasanjo[9]  Nigeria 2
2001 President Abdelaziz Bouteflika[31]  Algeria 1
2002 President Cassam Uteem[31]  Mauritius 3
2003 President Mohammed Khatami[9]  Iran 1
2004 President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva[9]  Brazil 2
2005 King Jigme Singye Wangchuck[31]  Bhutan 3
2006 King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz al-Saud[31]  Saudi Arabia 1
2007 President Vladimir Putin[9]  Russia 3
2008 President Nicolas Sarkozy[9]  France 4
2009 President Nursultan Nazarbayev[9]  Kazakhstan 1
2010 President Lee Myung Bak[31]  Republic of Korea 1
2011 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono[33]  Indonesia 2
2012 Prime Minister Yingluck Shinawatra[34]  Thailand 1
2013 King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck[35]  Bhutan 4
2014 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe[36]  Japan 1

Awards[edit]

Best marching contingents[edit]

Year Best marching contingent among the three services Best marching contingent among paramilitary forces and other auxiliary marching contingents
1997 Border Security Force
1998 Indo-Tibetan Border Police
1999 Indo-Tibetan Border Police
2000 Indo-Tibetan Border Police
2001 Madras Regiment Delhi Police
2002
2003 Madras Engineer Group Delhi Police
2004 Indo-Tibetan Border Police
2005
2006
2007 Jat Regiment Central Industrial Security Force
2008 Rajputana Rifles Central Industrial Security Force
2009 Territorial Army Central Reserve Police Force
2010 Dogra Regiment Central Reserve Police Force
2011 Indian Air Force Indo-Tibetan Border Police
2012 Indian Air Force Border Security Force
2013[37] Indian Air Force and Indian Navy Central Industrial Security Force
2014[38] Territorial Army Central Reserve Police Force

Best three tableaux[edit]

Year First Second Third
1981[39] Goa
1988[39] Goa
1989[39] Goa
1990[39] Goa
1991[39] Goa
1995[39] Goa
2000[39] Goa
2001 Rajasthan Ministry of Railways Gujarat and Jammu and Kashmir
2002 Jammu and Kashmir
2003 Goa Assam Uttar Pradesh
2007 Orissa Ministry of Culture Maharashtra
2008 Kerala Karnataka Ministry of Human Resource Development
2009 Kerala Maharashtra Tamil Nadu and Jammu and Kashmir
2010 Ministry of Culture Goa Chhattisgarh
2011 Delhi Karnataka Rajasthan
2012 Ministry of Human Resource Development Goa Karnataka
2013[37] Kerala Rajasthan Chhattisgarh
2014[38] West Bengal Tamil Nadu Assam

References[edit]

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  2. ^ a b National Bravery Awards-2005 Press Release, Govt. of India.
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  4. ^ http://mod.nic.in/samachar/feb01-05/body.html
  5. ^ Age Correspondent (15 January 2012). "1,200 schoolkids to take part in R-Day parade". New Delhi: The Asian Age. Retrieved 22 July 2012. 
  6. ^ "Beating Retreat weaves soul-stirring musical evening". The Times of India. 29 Jan 2011. 
  7. ^ "Martial music rings down the curtain". The Times of India. 30 Jan 2011. 
  8. ^ the-chief-guest-at-republic-day-parade-2014/ "Japan PM Shinzo Abe to be Chief Guest at Republic Day Parade 2014". IANS. Biharprabha News. Retrieved 23 January 2014. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Choosing the Republic Day chief guest: continuing principle, changing preferences Indian Express
  10. ^ http://www.claudearpi.net/maintenance/uploaded_pics/SW29.pdf
  11. ^ Dr. Rajendra Prasad, correspondence and select documents: Volume seventeen ... – Rajendra Prasad. Google Books. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  12. ^ Indian information – India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting – Google Boeken. Google Books. 1 January 1957. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  13. ^ Revolutionary Socialist Party (1968). The Call. S. Bhattacharya. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  14. ^ Asian recorder. K. K. Thomas at Recorder Press. 1969. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  15. ^ India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting (1971). India. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  16. ^ India. Ministry of External Affairs (1972). Foreign affairs record. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  17. ^ "The Times of India directory and year book including who's who". The Times of India. 1974. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  18. ^ India. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting. Publications Division (1973). Indian and foreign review. Publications Division of the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  19. ^ India. Parliament. House of the People; India. Parliament. Lok Sabha (1975). Lok Sabha debates. Lok Sabha Secretariat. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  20. ^ Eastern economist. 1977. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  21. ^ "Patrick J. Hillery". Clarelibrary.ie. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  22. ^ "Bilateral Visits". Hcindia-au.org. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  23. ^ "Annual REPORT 1980-81". mealib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  24. ^ "Annual REPORT 1981-82". mealib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  25. ^ "Annual REPORT 1983-84". mealib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  26. ^ "Annual REPORT 1984-85". mealib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  27. ^ "India-Kiribati Relations". mealib.nic.in. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  28. ^ "Annual Report". meacommunity.org. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  29. ^ "Annual Report". meacommunity.org. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  30. ^ http://meacommunity.org/Documents/ANNUAL%20REPORT%201988.doc
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Choosing R-Day chief guest: Behind the warm welcome, a cold strategy Indian Express, 25 Jan 2010
  32. ^ "General South African History timeline" sahistory.org.za Accessed on 13 June 2008.
  33. ^ "Indonesian President next R-Day parade chief guest – Rediff.com India News". Rediff.com. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  34. ^ New Delhi, 2 Dec (IANS) (20 January 2012). "Thai PM to be chief guest on India's Republic Day". Deccan Herald. Retrieved 25 January 2012. 
  35. ^ http://ibnlive.in.com/news/india-invites-king-of-bhutan-as-chief-guest-at-republic-day-celebrations/317802-3.html
  36. ^ http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/japanese-prime-minister-shinzo-abe-guest-at-republic-day-japan-china/1/320753.html
  37. ^ a b "IAF, Navy adjudged best marching contingents among Services". The Times Of India. 30 January 2013. 
  38. ^ a b http://www.business-standard.com/article/pti-stories/army-s-sikh-light-infantry-wins-best-marching-contingent-award-114012801070_1.html
  39. ^ a b c d e f g http://www.tribuneindia.com/2005/20050206/spectrum/main7.htm