Kurdish Republic of Ararat

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Republic of Ararat
Komara Agiriyê

1927–1930


Flag

Capital Kurd Ava[1] / Kurdava[2]
(Doğubayazıt)
Languages Kurdish
Soranî
Kurmanji
Zazaki
Government Republic
President[3] Ibrahim Haski[4]
Supreme Commander[4] Ihsan Nuri[4]
Historical era Interwar period
 -  Independence declared[5] 28 October 1927
 -  Retaken by Turkey September 1930

The Republic of Ararat or Kurdish Republic of Ararat[6][7][8] was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. It was located in eastern Turkey, being centered on Karaköse Province. Agirî is the Kurdish name for Ararat.

History[edit]

The Republic of Ararat led by the central committee of Xoybûn party (founded by Kurds and Armenians) declared independence on October 28, 1927[5] or 1928,[8][9][10] during a wave of rebellion among Kurds in southeastern Turkey.

The Ararat rebellion was led by General Ihsan Nuri Pasha. In October 1927, Kurd Ava[1] or Kurdava,[2] a village near Mount Ararat was designated as the provisional capital of Kurdistan. Xoybûn made appeals to the Great Powers and the League of Nations, and also sent messages to other Kurds in Iraq and Syria to ask for co-operation.[11]

Peace negotiations[edit]

Third Ararat Operation and the fall of the republic[edit]

The Turkish military subsequently defeated the Republic of Ararat in September 1930.[12]

Aftermath[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wadie Jwaideh, The Kurdish national movement: its origins and development, Syracuse University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7, p. 211.
  2. ^ a b (French) Celal Sayan, La construction de l'état national turc et le mouvement national kurde, 1918-1938, Presses universitaires du septentrion, 2002, p. 649.
  3. ^ Paul J. White, Primitive rebels or revolutionary modernizers?: the Kurdish national movement in Turkey, Zed Books, 2000, ISBN 978-1-85649-822-7, p. 77.
  4. ^ a b c (Turkish) Emin Karaca, Ağrı Eteklerinde İsyan: Bir Kürt Ayaklanmasının Anatomisi, 3. Baskı, Karakutu Yayınları, 2003, ISBN 975-8658-38-7, s. 23.
  5. ^ a b Dana Adams Schmidt, Journey among brave men, Little, Brown, 1964, p. 57.
  6. ^ Christopher Houston, Kurdistan: crafting of national selves, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-22050-5, p. 52.
  7. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, 1. cilt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6, p. 385.
  8. ^ a b Abbas Vali, Essays on the origins of Kurdish nationalism, Mazda Publishers, 2003, ISBN 978-1-56859-142-1, p. 199.
  9. ^ Martin Strohmeier, Crucial images in the presentation of a Kurdish national identity: heroes and patriots, traitors and foes, Brill, 2003, ISBN 978-90-04-12584-1, s. 97.
  10. ^ Christopher Houston, Kurdistan: crafting of national selves, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-22050-5, s. 52.
  11. ^ Edmonds, C.J. (1971). "Kurdish Nationalism". Journal of Contemporary History 6 (1): 91. doi:10.1177/002200947100600105. 
  12. ^ Kemal Kirişci,Gareth M. Winrow, The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-state Ethnic Conflict, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7146-4746-3, p. 101.
  13. ^ Rohat Alakom, Hoybûn örgütü ve Ağrı ayaklanması, Avesta, 1998, ISBN 975-7112-45-3, p. 180. (Turkish)

See also[edit]