Republic of Korea passport

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Republic of Korea passport
KOR ePassport.jpg
The front cover of a contemporary Republic of Korea biometric passport.
Issued by  South Korea
Type of document Passport
Eligibility requirements Republic of Korea citizenship
Expiration 1, 5, or 10 years

Republic of Korea passports are issued to citizens of South Korea to facilitate international travel. Like any other passports, they serve as proof for passport holders' personal information, such as nationality and date of birth. South Korean passports also indicate the holder's resident registration number, unless the holder does not have one. Republic of Korea passports are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and printed by Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation (KOMSCO) since 1973.[1]

In 2014, South Korean citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking South Korean passport 3rd in the world in terms of travel freedom.[2]

The passports of South Korea and Chile are worldwide the only ones to provide visa-free access to all G8 countries.

Cover of a machine-readable Republic of Korea passport.

Types[edit]

  • Ordinary passport: Issued to normal citizens.

Ordinary passports are issued for one, five, or ten years of validity.

  • Official passport: Issued to members of the National Assembly and civil servants.
  • Diplomatic passport: Issued to diplomats and nationals who serve under diplomatic terms are given this special passport. These passports guarantee special treatment in other countries.

Physical appearance[edit]

South Korean passports have the Korean Coat of Arms (bottom right) inscribed in the center of the front cover, with the Korean word Daehanminguk Yeogwon (대한민국 여권) inscribed above and its English translation Republic of Korea Passport below the coat of arms. Ordinary passports valid for five or ten years are in dark green.

The Coat of Arms of the Republic of Korea is printed on the front cover of the passport.

The identity information page contains:

  • Photo of the passport holder
  • Type (PM or PS) PM passports can be used for multiple entries while PS passports are valid for single entry.[3]
  • Issuing country code - KOR
  • Passport number (Includes a total of nine digits. Two Digits are the issued local code, 7 digits are the serial number. For example, JR is for Jongno-gu, TM is for Dongdaemun-gu, SC is for Seocho-gu, KN is for Gangnam-gu, GK is for Gyeonggi-do) In the newly issued passports starting August 25, 2008, the Passport Number will retain the same 9 digits but the Issued Local code will be changed to a single letter m noting PM passports and s for PS passports. The rest of the 8 digits will be the serial number.
  • Surname - (Passports from many other nations such as Bulgaria[4] and Greece[5] have the names to be written in local script then in Latin alphabet. However, in Korean passport, only Latin alphabet is permitted for use in the Surname and Given name sections.)
  • Given names
  • Nationality - Republic of Korea (Despite the law 'Framework Act on the National Language' [6] stating that all official document must be written in Hangul, the official script of the Republic of Korea, Nationality is not written in Hangul. According to the law, scripts other than Hangul can be used in parentheses after the counterpart written in Hangul and such usage must be permitted under a presidential decree.)
  • Date of birth
  • Date of issue
  • Date of expiry
  • Sex
  • Personal ID number (Resident registration number of South Korea); however, South Korean passports issued to Zainichi Koreans do not have resident registration numbers, reflecting their statutory exemption from taxation and conscription in South Korea (and conversely, their inability to vote or stand for election there).[7]
  • Issuing authority - Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Hangul name

The textual portions of passports is printed in both English and Korean. The note inside Republic of Korea passports are written in both Korean and English. The message in the passport, written by the South Korea's Minister of Foreign Affairs, states:

In Korean:

대한민국 국민인 이 여권 소지인이 아무 지장 없이 통행할수 있도록 하여 주시고 필요한 모든 편의 및 보호를 베풀어 주실 것을 관계자 여러분께 요청합니다.[Note 1]

In English:

The Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Korea hereby requests all those whom it may concern to permit the bearer, a national of the Republic of Korea, to pass freely without delay or hindrance and, in case of need, to afford him(her) every possible assistance and protection.

Visa free travel[edit]

Visa requirements for South Korean citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Republic of Korea. In 2014, South Korean citizens have visa-free or visa on arrival access to 172 countries and territories, ranking the South Korean passport 3rd in the world.[8]

Inter-Korea travel[edit]

The Republic of Korea's constitution considers the Democratic People's Republic of Korea as part of its territory, although under a different administration. In other words, the South does not view going to and from the North as breaking the continuity of a person's stay, as long as the traveler does not land on a third territory.

However, because of the political situation between the South and the isolated communist government of North Korea, it is almost impossible to enter the North from the South across the Korean DMZ (exiting South Korea via the northern border). Tourists wishing to enter North Korea have to pass through another country, and most enter from China, because most flights to/from Pyongyang serves Beijing.

South Koreans are generally not allowed to visit North Korea, except with special authorizations granted by the Ministry of Unification and North Korean authorities on a limited basis (e.g. workers and businessmen visiting or commuting to/from Kaesong Industrial Complex). South Koreans who are allowed to visit North Korea are issued a North Korean visa on a separate sheet of paper, not in the Republic of Korea passport. The Republic of Korea passport cannot be used to enter North Korea.

In 1998, visa-free travel to the tourist resort of Mount Kumgang and the Kaesong Industrial Region was made possible under the "sunshine policy" orchestrated by South Korean President Kim Dae-jung. Those wishing to travel across the DMZ were given special travel certificates issued by the Ministry of Unification through Hyundai Asan. In July 2008, a female tourist named Park Wang-ja was shot to death by a North Korean guard on a beach near Mount Kumgang, which led to the suspension of the tours. As of March 2010 all travel across the DMZ has now been suspended due to increasing tensions between North and South Korea.

There are 4 land border checkpoints in South Korea for inter-Korea travel.

Biometric Passport[edit]

The Korean government has been issuing biometric passports since February 2008 for diplomats and government officials. They have been issuing this type of passports to all of their citizens since August 25, 2008.

Korean Ministry of Foreign Affairs formed the 'Committee for promoting e-passports' in April 2006, and it will be scheduled to issue biometric passports in the second half of 2008. On September 4, 2007, the media reported that the Korean government decided to revise its passport law to issue biometric passports which include fingerprint information, first to the diplomats in the first quarter of 2008, and the rest of the public in the second half of the year. Some civil liberties have caused some controversy over the fingerprinting requirement because the ICAO only requires a photograph be recorded on the chip.

On February 26, 2008, the Korean National Assembly passed the revision of passport law. A new biometric passport was issued to diplomats in March, and to the general public shortly thereafter. Fingerprinting measures will not be implemented immediately; however, they began January 1, 2010.

The appearance of the new biometric passports is almost identical to the former machine-readable versions, and they both have 48 pages. However, the space for visas was reduced by six pages. These pages are now reserved for identication purposes, notices and other information, as well as the bearer's contacts. In the new biometric passports, the main identification page has moved to the second page from inside the front cover. The note from the Foreign Affairs Minister is still shown on the front page and the signature is shown on the page after photo identification.

The new biometric passport incorporates many security features such as colour shifting ink, hologram, ghost image, infrared ink, intaglio, laser perforation of passport number (from the third page to the back cover), latent image, microprinting, security thread, solvent sensitive ink, and steganography.[1]

Inside the backcover, a caution for the biometric chip is written both in Korean,

"주의 – 이 여권에는 민감한 전자칩이 내장되어 있습니다. 접거나 구멍을 뚫는 행위 또는 극한 환경(온도,습도)에의 노출로 여권이 손상될 수 있으니 취급에 주의하여 주시기 바랍니다."

and in English,

"This passport contains sensitive electronics, For best performance please do not bend, perforate or expose to extreme temperatures or excess moisture."

The passport holders' contact information that was originally held inside the backcover has also been moved to the last page of the new passport.

Production[edit]

As of January 2009, Korea Minting and Security Printing Corporation takes eight hours to produce the new biometric passport and is capable of producing 26,500 passports per day.[1]

Restricted nations[edit]

The South Korean government has banned Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, Syria and Yemen as travel destinations for safety.[9]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In Korean mixed script: 大韓民國 國民인 이 旅券 所持人이 아무 支障 없이 通行할 수 있도록 하여 주시고 必要한 모든 便宜 및 保護를 베풀어 주실 것을 關係者 여러분께 要請합니다.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c http://english.komsco.com/products/passport.asp
  2. ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2014". Henley & Partners. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  3. ^ http://ecustoms.tistory.com/245
  4. ^ "Biodata page". European Communitie. 
  5. ^ "Biodata page". European Communities. 
  6. ^ "국어기본법". Korean Ministry of Government Legislation. 
  7. ^ Ryang, Sonya; Lie, John (2009), Diaspora without homeland: being Korean in Japan, University of California Press, p. 11, ISBN 978-0-520-09863-3 
  8. ^ "Global Ranking - Visa Restriction Index 2014". Henley & Partners. Retrieved 29 July 2014. 
  9. ^ S. Korea extends travel ban on four nations, Yonhap News, July 23, 2013

External links[edit]