|Republic of Palau
Beluu er a Belau
|Anthem: Belau rekid
Location of Palau (circled) in the western Pacific Ocean.
|Capital||Ngerulmud, Melekeok Statea
|Recognised regional languages|
|Ethnic groups (2000)|
|Government||Unitary presidential republic|
|-||Vice President||Antonio Bells|
|-||Compact of Free Association with the United States||1 October 1994|
|-||Total||459 km2 (196th)
177 sq mi
|-||2011 estimate||20,956 (218th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2008 estimate|
|-||Total||$164 million (not ranked)|
|-||Per capita||$8,100 (119th)|
high · 49th
|Currency||United States dollar (
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||PW|
|a.||On 7 October 2006, government officials moved their offices in the former capital of Koror to Ngerulmud in Melekeok State, located 20 km (12 mi) northeast of Koror on Babelthaup Island and 2 km (1 mi) northwest of Melekeok village.|
Palau (i//, sometimes spelled Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Palauan: Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean. It is geographically part of the larger island group of Micronesia. The country's population of around 21,000 is spread across 250 islands forming the western chain of the Caroline Islands. The most populous island is Koror. The islands share maritime boundaries with Indonesia, the Philippines, and the Federated States of Micronesia. The capital Ngerulmud is located in Melekeok State on the nearby island of Babeldaob.
The country was originally settled around 3,000 years ago by migrants from the Philippines and sustained a Negrito population until around 900 years ago. The islands were first visited by Europeans in the 18th century, and were made part of the Spanish East Indies in 1885. Following Spain's defeat in the Spanish–American War in 1898, the islands were sold to Imperial Germany in 1899 under the terms of the German–Spanish Treaty, where they were administered as part of German New Guinea. The Imperial Japanese Navy conquered Palau during World War I, and the islands were later made a part of the Japanese-ruled South Pacific Mandate by the League of Nations. During World War II, skirmishes, including the major Battle of Peleliu, were fought between American and Japanese troops as part of the Mariana and Palau Islands campaign. Along with other Pacific Islands, Palau was made a part of the United States-governed Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. Having voted against joining the Federated States of Micronesia in 1979, the islands gained full sovereignty in 1994 under a Compact of Free Association with the United States.
Politically, Palau is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, which provides defense, funding, and access to social services. Legislative power is concentrated in the bicameral Palau National Congress. Palau's economy is based mainly on tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing, with a significant portion of gross national product (GNP) derived from foreign aid. The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. The islands' culture mixes Japanese, Micronesian and Melanesian elements. The majority of citizens are of mixed Micronesian, Melanesian, and Austronesian descent, with significant groups descended from Japanese and Filipino settlers. The country's two official languages are Palauan (member of the wider Sunda–Sulawesi language group) and English, with Japanese, Sonsorolese, and Tobian recognised as regional languages.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Politics and government
- 4 States
- 5 Geography
- 6 Climate
- 7 Environment
- 8 Economy
- 9 Demographics
- 10 Culture
- 11 Transport
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The name for the islands in the Palauan language, Belau, likely derives from either the Palauan word for "village", beluu, or from aibebelau ("indirect replies"), relating to a creation myth. The name "Palau" entered the English language from the Spanish Los Palaos, via the German Palau. An archaic name for the islands in English was the "Pelew Islands". It should not be confused with Pulau, which is a Malay word meaning "island".
The islands sustained a population of short-statured Negrito or Pygmy people until the 12th century, when they were replaced. The modern population, judging by its language, may have come from the Sunda Islands.
Sonsorol, part of the Southwest Islands, an island chain approximately 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the main island chain of Palau, was sighted by Europeans as early as 1522, when the Spanish mission of the Trinidad, the flagship of Ferdinand Magellan's voyage of circumnavigation, sighted two small islands around the 5th parallel north, naming them "San Juan".
British traders became prominent visitors to Palau in the 18th century, followed by expanding Spanish influence in the 19th century. Following its defeat in the Spanish–American War, Spain sold Palau and most of the rest of the Caroline Islands to Germany in 1899. Control passed to Japan in 1914 and during World War II the islands were taken by the United States in 1944, with the costly Battle of Peleliu between 15 September and 25 November when more than 2,000 Americans and 10,000 Japanese were killed. The islands passed formally to the United States under United Nations auspices in 1947 as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
Four of the Trust Territory districts formed a single federated Micronesian state in 1979, but the districts of Palau and the Marshall Islands declined to participate. Palau, the westernmost cluster of the Carolines, instead opted for independent status in 1978. It approved a new constitution and became the Republic of Palau in 1981. It signed a Compact of Free Association with the United States in 1982. After eight referenda and an amendment to the Palauan constitution, the Compact was ratified in 1993. The Compact went into effect on 1 October 1994, marking Palau de jure independent, although it had been de facto independent since 25 May 1994, when the trusteeship ended.
Politics and government
Palau is a multi-party democratic republic. The President of Palau is both head of state and head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the Palau National Congress. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The capital is Ngerulmud. Palau adopted its own constitution in 1981.
The governments of the United States and Palau concluded a Compact of Free Association in 1986, similar to compacts that the United States had entered into with the Federated States of Micronesia and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The compact entered into force on 1 October 1994, concluding Palau's transition from trusteeship to independence as the last portion of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands to secure its independence.
The Compact of Free Association between the United States and Palau sets forth the free and voluntary association of their governments. It primarily focuses on the issues of government, economic, security and defense relations. Palau has no independent military, relying on the United States for its defense. Under the compact, the American military was granted access to the islands for 50 years. The US Navy role is minimal, limited to a handful of Navy Seabees (construction engineers.) The United States Coast Guard patrols in national waters.
As a sovereign nation, Palau conducts its own foreign relations. Since independence, Palau has established diplomatic relations with a number of nations, including many of its Pacific neighbors. Palau was admitted to the United Nations on 15 December 1994 and has since joined several other international organizations. In September 2006, Palau hosted the first Taiwan-Pacific Allies Summit. Its President has made official visits to other Pacific countries, including Taiwan.
The United States maintains a diplomatic delegation and an embassy in Palau, but most aspects of the countries' relationship have to do with Compact-funded projects, which are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Insular Affairs. This has led to some ambiguity in the official status of Palau.
In 1981, Palau voted for the world's first nuclear-free constitution. This constitution banned the use, storage and disposal of nuclear, toxic chemical, gas and biological weapons without first being approved by a 3/4 majority in a referendum. This ban delayed Palau's transition to independence, because while negotiating the Compact, the U.S. insisted on the option to operate nuclear propelled vessels and store nuclear weapons within the territory. After several referendums that failed to achieve a 3/4 majority, the people of Palau finally approved the Compact in 1994.
Asylum for former Guantanamo prisoners
On 10 June 2009, Palau announced that it would accept up to all 17 of the remaining Uyghurs detained in Guantanamo "as a humanitarian gesture". Five Uyghur captives were released without being prosecuted in 2004 and transferred to Albania in 2006. The remaining seventeen were released due to lack of evidence in 2008.
Stuart Beck, Palau's representative to the United Nations, published an op-ed in the New York Times disputing the widely distributed report that Palau's agreement to accept the Uyghurs was tied to Palau's receipt of US$200 million in foreign aid. Beck asserted that Palau had received funds from the USA connected with accepting the Uyghurs, but it was $90,000 per Uyghur, not "$12 million". Beck asserted that the $90,000 was to compensate Palau for its "relocation costs" and was "to cover transportation, food, housing and medical help until the men can get oriented and get jobs". ABC News confirmed that the United States would be paying Palau for each captive who was resettled and quoted a senior official who described the amount as "not very substantial".
"The detainee transfer deal comes at a time when generous U.S. financial aid and economic development grants to Palau under a 15 year old treaty of free association between the two nations have expired. Palauan leaders apparently wanted to demonstrate their commitment to sharing mutual interests and burdens with the U.S., as they make the case for renewal of U.S. grant assistance."
He listed the USA's desire to continue to be able to base U.S. military personnel on Palau, to balance the growing military force of the People's Republic of China, as one complicating factor. He also listed Palau's desire for an exemption from proposed restrictions on immigration from former protectorates like Palau.
An official "technical working group" from Palau traveled to Guantanamo to meet with the Uyghurs in mid-June 2009. On 23 June, the Palau government published a press release which said only eight of the thirteen Uyghurs agreed to meet with the delegation. Their report stated: "The team advised President Toribiong that in their opinion only a few of the detainees that were interviewed had any real interest in being relocated to Palau." On 30 June, Radio New Zealand International reported only one Uyghur agreed to be temporarily resettled in Palau. On 10 September, The Times reported that three of the Uyghurs have accepted the invitation to be transferred to asylum in Palau. On 19 September, Fox News reported that in the week since the first announcement three further Uyghurs agreed to be transferred to Palau. Fox reported that five of the other Uyghurs had refused to speak with Palau officials. On 31 October, six Uyghurs were reported to have been transferred to Palau. Twelve of the thirteen remaining Uyghurs were offered asylum. The thirteenth man was not offered asylum because his mental health had deteriorated beyond the nation's mental health resources to care for him.
The United States agreed to give Palau additional aid in January 2010. Palau had rejected an earlier aid package of US$156 million. The new aid package was for US$250 million. President Toribiong asserted that the increase in aid was unrelated to Palau agreement to host the Uyghurs.
Palau is divided into sixteen states (until 1984 called municipalities). These are listed below with their areas (in square kilometres) and 2005 Census populations:
|State||Area (km2)||Census 2005|
Historically, Palau's uninhabited Rock Islands have been part of the State of Koror.
Palau's most populous islands are Angaur, Babeldaob, Koror and Peleliu. The latter three lie together within the same barrier reef, while Angaur is an oceanic island several miles to the south. About two-thirds of the population live on Koror. The coral atoll of Kayangel is north of these islands, while the uninhabited Rock Islands (about 200) are west of the main island group. A remote group of six islands, known as the Southwest Islands, some 375 miles (604 km) from the main islands, make up the states of Hatohobei and Sonsorol.
Palau has a tropical climate with an annual mean temperature of 82 °F (28 °C). Rainfall is heavy throughout the year, averaging 150 inches (3,800 mm). The average humidity is 82% and although rain falls more frequently between July and October, there is still much sunshine. Typhoons are rare, as Palau is outside the main typhoon zone. The most recent typhoon that struck Palau was Typhoon Haiyan during the 2013 Pacific typhoon season. A mandatory evacuation was issued for Kayangel. A storm surge damaged several houses. Despite residents' refusal to evacuate safely, no fatalities or major injuries were reported.
|Climate data for Palau Islands (1961–1990)|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||27.3
|Average low °C (°F)||23.9
|Precipitation mm (inches)||271.8
|Avg. precipitation days||19.0||15.9||16.7||14.8||20.0||21.9||21.0||19.8||16.8||20.1||18.7||19.9||224.6|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||198.4||194.9||244.9||234.0||210.8||168.0||186.0||176.7||198.0||179.8||183.0||182.9||2,357.4|
|Source: Hong Kong Observatory,|
While much of Palau remains free of environmental degradation, areas of concern include illegal dynamite fishing, inadequate solid waste disposal facilities in Koror and extensive sand and coral dredging in the Palau lagoon. As with other Pacific island nations, rising sea level presents a major environmental threat. Inundation of low-lying areas threatens coastal vegetation, agriculture and already-insufficient water supply. Wastewater treatment is a problem, along with the handling of toxic waste from fertilizers and biocides.
Saltwater crocodiles are also residents of Palau and occur in varying numbers throughout the various mangroves and even in parts of the beautiful rock islands. Although this species is generally considered extremely dangerous, there has only been one fatal human attack in Palau within modern history, and that was in the 1960s. In Palau the largest crocodile measured in at 4.5 metres (15 ft).
The nation is also vulnerable to earthquakes, volcanic activity, and tropical storms. Palau already has a problem with inadequate water supply and limited agricultural areas to support its population.
On 5 November 2005, President Tommy E. Remengesau, Jr. took the lead on a regional environmental initiative called the Micronesia challenge, which would conserve 30% of near-shore coastal waters and 20% of forest land by 2020. Following Palau, the initiative was joined by the Federated States of Micronesia and Marshall Islands, and the U.S. territories of Guam and Northern Mariana Islands. Together, this combined region represents nearly 5% of the marine area of the Pacific Ocean and 7% of its coastline.
On 25 September 2009, Palau announced that it would create the world's first shark sanctuary. Palau banned all commercial shark fishing within its EEZ waters. The sanctuary protects about 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi) of ocean, a similar size to France. President Johnson Toribiong announced the sanctuary at a meeting of the United Nations. President Toribiong proposed a worldwide ban on fishing for sharks. In 2012, Palau received the Future Policy Award from World Future Council, because "Palau is a global leader in protecting marine ecosystems".
Palau's economy consists primarily of tourism, subsistence agriculture and fishing. Tourist activity focuses on scuba diving and snorkeling in the islands' rich marine environment, including its barrier reefs walls and World War II wrecks. The government is the major employer, relying heavily on US financial assistance. Business and tourist arrivals numbered some 50,000 in financial year 2000/2001. The population enjoys a per capita income twice that of Micronesia as a whole. Long-term prospects for the key tourist sector have been greatly bolstered by the expansion of air travel in the Pacific, the rising prosperity of leading East Asian countries and the willingness of foreigners to finance infrastructure development.
Air service has at times been spotty. Palau Micronesia Air, Asian Spirit and Pacific Flier provided service to the Philippines and other destinations at various times during the 2000s, but all suspended service. United Airlines now provides near-daily service to and from Guam, and once-weekly service to Yap. Also, Delta Airlines provides service three times per week to Tokyo.
In November 2006, Palau Saving Bank officially announced bankruptcy. On 13 December of the same year the Palau Horizon reported that 641 depositors had been affected. Among them 398 held less than $5000 USD, with the remainder ranging from $5000 to 2 million USD. On 12 December 79 affected people received compensation. Mr. Toribiong said, "The fund for the payout came from the balance of Palau government's loan from Taiwan." From a total of $1 million USD, which originally was for assisting Palau's development, $955,000 USD was left at the time of bankruptcy. Toribiong requested the Taiwanese government use the balance to repay its loans. Taiwan agreed to the request. The compensation would include those who held less than $4,000 USD in an account.
The population of Palau is approximately 21,000, of whom 70% are native Palauans of mixed Melanesian, Micronesian, and Austronesian descent. Many Palauans also have some Asian ancestry, from intermarriage between settlers and Palauans beginning in the 19th and 20th centuries. Palauans with mixed Japanese ancestry accounted for the largest group. Some also had some Chinese or Korean ancestry. Filipinos form the second largest ethnic group.
The official languages of Palau are Palauan and English, except for two states (Sonsorol and Hatohobei) where the local language, along with Palauan, is official. Japanese is spoken widely amongst older Palauans and is an official language in the State of Angaur. Tagalog is not official in Palau, but is the fourth-largest spoken language.
The German and Japanese occupations of Palau both subsidized missionaries to follow the Spanish. Three quarters of the population are Christians (mainly Roman Catholics and Protestants), while Modekngei (a combination of Christianity, traditional Palauan religion and fortune telling) and the ancient Palauan religion are commonly observed. Japanese rule brought Mahayana Buddhism and Shinto to Palau, which were the majority religions among Japanese settlers. However, following Japan's World War II defeat, the remaining Japanese largely converted to Christianity, while the remainder continued to observe Buddhism, but stopped practicing Shinto rites. According to the 2005 census 49.4% of the population is Roman Catholic, 21.3% Protestant, 8.7% Modekngei and 5.3% Seventh-day Adventist. Only 1% of the population was estimated to be Buddhist in 2010, with the Chinese community also practicing Chinese folk religion as well. The small Jewish community in 2009 sent 3 members to the 18th Maccabiah Games. There are also approximately 400 Bengali Muslims in Palau.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
Palauan society, much like the island's language, has always been unique to the islands. Palauan society follows a very strict matrilineal system. Matrilineal practices are seen in nearly every aspect of Palauan traditions, especially in funeral, marriage, inheritance and the passing of traditional titles.
The cuisine includes local foods such as cassava, taro, yam, potato, fish and pork. Western cuisine is favored among young Palauans and the locals are joined by foreign tourists. Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza and pasta. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken. The rest of Micronesia is similar with much less tourism, leading to fewer restaurants. Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on such islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree; the drink made from the roots of the kava; and the chewing of betel nuts. The Filipino presence in the islands supports the presence of that cuisine.
The Palauan people respect their traditions. The traditional government system still influences the nation's affairs, leading the federal government to repeatedly attempt to limit its power. Many of these attempts took the form of amendments to the constitution that were supported by the corporate sector to protect what they deemed should be free economic zones. One such example occurred in early 2010, where the Idid clan, the ruling clan of the Southern Federation, under the leadership of Bilung, the Southern Federation's queen, raised a civil suit against the Koror State Public Lands Authority (KSPLA). The Idid clan laid claim over Malakal Island, a major economic zone and Palau's most important port, citing documents from the German Era. The verdict held that the Island belonged to the KSPLA.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
The present day "traditional" government of Palau is a continuation of its ancestor, composed of practices that span thousands of years. Traditionally, Palau was organized hierarchically. The lowest level is the village or hamlet, then the chiefdom (now politically referred to as a state) and finally alliances of chiefdoms. In ancient times, numerous federations divided power, but upon the 17th century introduction of firearms by the British, an imbalance of power occurred. Palau became divided into northern and southern federations. The Northern Federation is headed by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling clan Uudes of Melekeok state, the Reklai and Ebilreklai. They are commonly referred to as the king and queen of the Northern Federation. This northern federation comprises the state of Kayangel, Ngerchelong, Ngardmau, Ngiwal, Ngaraard, Ngatpang, Ngeremlengui, Melekok, Aimeliik, Ngchesar and Airai. The Southern Federation is likewise represented by the high chief and chiefess of the ruling Idid of Koror state. The Southern Federation comprises the states of Koror, Peleliu and Angaur. However, fewer and fewer Palauans have knowledge of the concept of federations, and the term is slowly dying out. Federations were established as a way of safeguarding states and hamlets who shared economic, social, and political interests, but with the advent a federal government, safeguards are less meaningful. It is interesting to note however, that in international relations, the king of Palau is synonymous with the Ibedul of Koror. This is because Koror is the industrial capital of the nation, elevating his position over the Reklai of Melekeok.
It is a misconception that the king and queen of Palau, or any chief and his female counterpart for that matter are married. Traditional leaders and their female counterparts have always been related and unmarried (marrying relatives was a traditional taboo). Usually, a chief and his female counterpart are brother and sister, or close cousins, and have their own spouses.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
Baseball is a popular sport in Palau after its introduction by the Japanese in the 1920s. The Palau national baseball team won the gold medal at the 1990, 1998 and 2010 Micronesian Games, as well as at the 2007 Pacific Games.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2011)|
Some fields of study are available at Palau Community College. For professional and graduate programs, students must travel to a larger institution.
|Wikinews has related news: Bones of "small-bodied humans" found in cave|
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (March 2009)|
Restaurants on the main island of Koror consist mainly of Korean food, as well as Chinese, burgers, pizza, pasta, etc. Indigenous cuisine consists mainly of root vegetables, fish, pigs and chicken.
The rest of Micronesia has a similar cuisine except that the rest of Micronesia has less tourism and fewer restaurants. Tourists eat mainly at their hotels on less visited islands. Some local foods include an alcoholic drink made from coconut on the tree, the drink made from the roots of the Kava Plant, and the chewing of betel nuts.
Filipino immigrants added their cuisine to Palau's mixture.
Palau International Airport provides scheduled direct flights to Guam, Manila, Seoul and Taipei and since December 2010, Tokyo-Narita. In addition, the states of Angaur and Peleliu have regular service to international destinations.
Freight, military and cruise ships often call at Malakal Harbor, on Malakal Island outside Koror. The country has no railways, and of the 61 km or 38 mi of highways, only 36 km or 22 mi are paved. Driving is on the right and the speed limit is 40 km/h (25 mph). Taxis are available in Koror. They are not metered and fares are negotiable. Only Koror offers bus service. Transportation between islands mostly relies on private boats and domestic air services.
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- Palau entry at The World Factbook
- Palau from the University of Colorado at Boulder Libraries (USA) – Government Publications.
- Australian library online, subscription, or membership via institutional access, is required.
- Palau at DMOZ
- Palau profile from the BBC News
- Palau Encyclopædia Britannica entry
- Wikimedia Atlas of Palau
- NOAA's National Weather Service – Palau
- The Interesting History of Prince Lee Boo, Brought to England from the Pelew Islands From the Collections at the Library of Congress
- Official Site of the Republic of Palau
- Official Site of the Consulate of the Republic of Palau to United Kingdom
- Official Site of the Consulate of the Republic of Palau to Belgium
- Chief of State and Cabinet Members