||An automated process has detected links on this page on the local or global blacklist.|
الله، الوَطَن، الثَورة، الوَحدة (Arabic)
"Allāh, al-Waṭan, aṯ-Ṯhawrah, al-Waḥdah"
"God, Country, Revolution, Unity"
نشيد اليمن الوطني (Arabic)
Nashīd al-Yaman al-waṭanī
and largest city
|Government||Unitary semi-presidential republic|
|-||President||Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi|
|-||Prime Minister||Mohammed Basindawa|
|Legislature||House of Representatives|
|-||North Yemen independence from the Ottoman Empirea||
1 November 1918
|-||South Yemen independenceb||
30 November 1967
|-||Unification||22 May 1990|
|-||Total||527,829 km2 (50th)
203,796 sq mi
|-||2011 estimate||23,833,000 (96th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2012 estimate|
|GDP (nominal)||2012 estimate|
|HDI (2011)|| 0.462
low · 160th
|Currency||Yemeni rial (
|Drives on the||right|
|ISO 3166 code||YE|
|Internet TLD||.ye, اليمن.|
|a.||From the Ottoman Empire.|
|b.||From the United Kingdom.|
Yemen i// (Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman), officially known as the Yemeni Republic (Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab country located in Western Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula. Yemen is the second largest country in the Arabian peninsula occupying 527,970 km2 The coastline stretches for about 2,000 km It is bordered by Saudi Arabia to the north, the Red Sea to the west, the Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea to the south, and Oman to the east.
Yemen is one of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East. Its capital and largest city is Sana'a. Yemen's territory includes more than 200 islands, the largest of which is Socotra, about 354 km (220 mi) to the south of mainland Yemen. It is the only state in the Arabian Peninsula to have a purely republican form of government. Yemen was the first country in the Arabian peninsula to grant women the right to vote. Yemeni unification took place on 22 May 1990, when North Yemen was united with South Yemen, forming the Republic of Yemen.
The majority of Yemen's population live in rural or tribal areas, and it is one of the least developed countries in the world  Yemen is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. Ali Abdullah Saleh was the first elected president of the reunified Yemen. Throughout its modern history, the country has undergone a long period of conflicts and civil wars, the last being the 2011 Yemeni uprising. Since the 1990s, the Houthis (an armed Zaydi Shia group) have launched an armed rebellion against the government coinciding with an Al-Qaeda insurgency and another separatist campaign in the south.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Politics
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Culture
- 8 Education
- 9 Health
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 External links
One etymology derives Yemen from yamin, meaning "on the right side", as the south is on the right when facing the sunrise. Another derives Yemen from yumn, meaning "felicity", as the region is fertile. The Romans called it Arabia Felix (Happy Arabia) as opposed to Arabia Deserta (Deserted Arabia). Yemen was mentioned in Old South Arabian inscriptions as Yamnat  `In Arabic literature, the term Al-Yaman includes much greater territory than that of the republic of Yemen, it stretches from northern Asir to Dhofar 
Yemen has long existed at the crossroads of cultures. It linked some of the oldest centers of civilization in the Near East by virtue of its location in the Arabian peninsula. Large settlements existed in the mountain of northern Yemen As early as 5000 BC  Little is known about ancient Yemen and how exactly the transition from bronze age civilizations to the ancient caravan kingdoms. This may be largely due to the official discouragement of research into pre-islamic civilizations in Arabia 
The Sabaean Kingdom came to existence from at least the eleventh century BC  There were four major kingdoms or tribal confederations in South Arabia; Saba,Hadramout,Qataban and Ma'in. Saba is believed to be biblical Sheba and was the most prominent federation  The Sabaean rulers adopted the title Mukarrib generally thought to mean “unifier”  Or a “priest-king”  The role of the Mukarrib was to bring the various tribes under the kingdom and preside over them all  The Sabaens built the Great Dam of Marib around 940 BC  The dam was built to withstand the seasonal flash floods surging down the valley.
Between 700 - 680 BC, The Kingdom of Awsan was dominating Aden and its surroundings, Sabaean Mukarrib Karib'il Watar I changed his ruling title to that of a king  and conquered the entire realm of Awsan expanding Sabaean rule and territory to include much of South Arabia  Lack of water in the Arabian peninsula prevented the Sabaeans from unifying the entire peninsula; instead, they established various colonies to control trade routes  Evidence of Sabaean influence is found in northern Ethiopia, where the South Arabian alphabet religion and pantheon, and the South Arabian style of art and architecture was introduced. The Sabaean created a sense of identity through their religion. They worshiped El-Maqah and believed themselves to be his children. For centuries, the Sabaeans controlled outbound trade across the Bab-el-Mandeb, a strait separating the Arabian peninsula from the Horn of Africa and the Red sea from the Indian Ocean 
By the 3rd century BC, Qataban, Hadramout and Ma'in became independent from Saba and established themselves in the Yemeni arena. Minaeans rule stretched as far as Dedan their capital was Baraqish. The Sabaeans regained their control over Ma'in after the collapse of Qataban in 50 BCE. By the time of The Roman expedition to Arabia Felix in 25 BC, the Sabaeans were once again the dominating power in Southern Arabia  Aelius Gallus was ordered to lead a military campaign to establish Roman dominance among the Sabaeans  The Romans had a vague and contradictory geographical knowledge about Arabia Felix or Yemen. The Roman army of ten thousand men was annihilated before Marib  Strabo's close relationship with Aelius Gallus led him to attempt to justify his friend's defeat in his writings, it took the Romans six months to reach Marib and sixty days to return to Egypt. The Romans blamed their Nabataean guide and executed him for treachery  No direct mention in Sabaean inscriptions of the Roman expedition has been found yet.
After the Roman expedition and perhaps earlier, the country fell into chaos and two clans namely Hamdan and Himyar claimed kingship assuming the title King of Sheba and Dhu Raydan  Dhu Raydan (i.e. Himyarites) allied themselves with Aksum in Ethiopia against the Sabaeans The chief of Bakil and king of Saba and Dhu Raydan Ilsharah Yahdub, launched successful campaigns against the Himyarites and Habashat (i.e. Aksum), Il-sharah took proud of his campaigns and added the title Yahdub to his name, which means suppressor , he used to kill his enemies by cutting them to pieces Sana'a came into prominence during his reign as he built the Ghumdan Palace to be his place of residence.
The Himyarite annexed Sana'a from Hamdan around 100 AD  Hashdi tribesmen rebelled against them however and regained Sana'a around 180 AD it was not until 275 AD when Shammar Yahri'sh conquered Hadramout and Najran and Tihama thus unifying Yemen and consolidating Himyarite rule  The Himyarites rejected polytheism and adhered a consensual form of monotheism called Rahmanism  In 354 AD, Roman Emperor Constantius II sent an embassy headed by Theophilos the Indian to convert the Himyarites to Christianity  According to Philostorgius, the mission was resisted by local Jews  Several inscriptions in Hebrew and Sabaean praising the ruling house in Jewish terms for helping and empowering the People of Israel 
According to Islamic traditions, King As'ad The Perfect mounted a military expedition to support the Jews of Yathrib  Abu Karib As'ad as known from the inscriptions, led a military campaign to central Arabia or Najd to support the vassal Kingdom of Kindah against the Lakhmids  However, no direct reference to Judaism or Yathrib was discovered from his lengthy reign. Abu Kariba died in 445 AD having reigned for almost 50 years 
By 515 AD, Himyar became increasingly divided along religious lines and a bitter conflict between different factions paved the way for an Aksumite intervention. The last Himyarite king Ma'adikarib Ya'fur was supported by Aksum against his Jewish rivals. Ma'adikarib was Christian and launched a campaign against the Lakhmids in Southern Iraq, with the support of other Arab allies of Byzantium  The Lakhmids were a Bulwark of Persia, which was intolerant to a proselytizing religion like Christianity 
After the death of Ma'adikarib Ya'fur around 521 AD, a Himyarite Jewish lord named Yousef Asar Yathar rose to power. His honorary title Yathar literary means to avenge . Yemenite Christians aided by Aksum and Byzantium, systematically persecuted Jews and burned down several synagogues across the land. Yousef avenged his people with great deal of cruelty  He marched toward the port city of Mocha killing 14,000 and capturing 11,000  Than settled a camp in Bab-el-Mandeb to prevent the flowing of aid from Aksum. At the same time, Yousef sent an army under the command of another Jewish warlord named Sharahil Yaqbul to Najran. Sharahil had reinforcements from Bedouins of the Kindah and Madh'hij tribes, eventually wiping out the Christian community in Najran  Yousef or Dhu Nuwas (The one with side-locks) as known in Arabic literature, believed that Christians in Yemen were a fifth column  Christian sources portray Yousef as a Jewish zealot and Islamic traditions on the other hand, say that he threw 20,000 Christian into pits filled with flaming oil  This history however is shrouded in legends  Yousef Asar left two inscriptions, none of them makes any reference to fiery pits. It is reported that Byzantium Emperor Justin I sent a letter to the Aksumite King Kaleb, pressuring him to attack the abominable Hebrew  Yousef was displaced around 525-527 AD and a client Christian king was installed on the Himyarite throne.
Esimiphaios was a local Christian lord, mentioned in an inscription celebrating the burning of an ancient Sabaean palace in Marib to build a church on its ruins  Three new churches were built in Najran alone Many tribes did not recognize Esimiphaios's authority. Esimiphaios was displaced in 531 AD by a warrior named Abraha who refused to leave Yemen and declared himself an independent king of Himyar. Emperor Justinian I sent an embassy to Yemen, he wanted the officially Christian Himyarites to use their influence on the tribes in inner Arabia to launch military operations against Persia, Justinian I bestowed the dignity of king to the Arab sheikhs of Kindah and Ghassan in central and north Arabia  From early on, Roman and Byzantine policy was to develop narrow links with the powers of the coast of the Red Sea. They were successful in converting Aksum and influence their culture, the results with Yemen were rather disappointing 
A Kendite prince called Yazid bin Kabshat rebelled against Abraha and his Arab Christian allies, a truce was reached once The Great Dam of Marib suffered a breach  Abraha died around 555-565 and no reliable sources regarding his death are available. The Sasanid empire annexed Aden around 570 AD, most of Yemen enjoyed great autonomy except for Aden and Sana'a. This era marked the collapse of ancient South Arabian civilization as the greater part of the country was under several independent clans until the arrival of Islam in 630 AD 
|This section requires expansion. (January 2013)|
Mohammed sent his cousin Ali to Sana'a and its surroudnings around 630 AD, the Banu Hamdan confederation were among the first to accept Islam. Mohammed was briefed, so he prostrated then raised his head and said ; Peace be upon Hamdan, Peace be upon Hamdan  Mohammed sent Muadh ibn Jabal as well to Al-Janad in present day Taiz, and letters to various tribal leaders, the reason behind this was the division among the tribes and the absence of a strong central authority in Yemen during the days of the prophet 
Major tribes including Himyar sent delegations to Medina during the Year of delegations around 630-631 AD. Several Yemenis accepted Islam before year 630 like Ammar ibn Yasir, Al-Ala'a Al-Hadrami, Miqdad ibn Aswad, Abu Musa Ashaari, Sharhabeel ibn Hasana and others. A man named 'Abhala ibn Ka'ab Al-Ansi expelled the remaining Persians and claimed to be a prophet of Rahman. He was assassinated by a Yemeni of Persian origin called Fayruz al-Daylami.Christians who were mainly in Najran along with Jews agreed to pay Jizya, although some Jews converted to Islam like Wahb ibn Munabbih and Ka'ab al-Ahbar.
The country was stable during the Rashidun Caliphate, Yemeni tribes played a pivotal role in the Islamic conquests of Egypt, Iraq, Persia the Levant, Anatolia, North Africa, Sicily and Andalusia  Yemeni tribes that settled in Syria, contributed significantly to the solidification of Umayyad's rule especially during the reign of Marwan I, powerful Yemenite tribes like Kindah were on his side during Battle of Marj Rahit  Several Yemenite emirates were established in North Africa and Andalusia.
Effective control over entire Yemen was not achieved by the Umayyad Caliphate, imam Abdullah ibn Yahya Al-Kindi was elected In 745 AD to lead the Ibāḍī movement in Hadramout and Oman. He expelled the Umayyad governor from Sana'a and captured Mecca and Medina in 746 AD Al-Kindi, known by his nickname Talib AL-Haq (Seeker of truth), established the first Ibadi state in the history of Islam but was killed in Taif around 749 AD  Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Ziyad founded the Ziyadid dynasty in Tihama around 818 AD, the state stretched from Hali to Aden. They nominally recognized the Abbasid Caliphate but were in fact ruling independently from their capital in Zabid  The history of this dynasty is obscure, they never exercised control over the highlands and Hadramout, controlled no more than a coastal strip of the Yemen (Tihama) bordering the Red Sea  A Himyarite clan called the Yufirids established their rule over the highlands from Saada to Taiz, while Hadramout was an Ibadi stronghold and rejected all allegiance to the Abbasids in Baghdad  By virtue of its location, the Ziyadid dynasty developed a special relationship with Abyssinia, large numbers of Ethiopian slaves were exported through Dahlak to Yemen, which explains the generally dark complexion of the Tihama population 
The first Zaydi imam arrived to Yemen in 893 AD, the founder of the Zaydi immamate was known as Yahya ibn Al-Hussain. He was a religious cleric and judge invited to Saada from Medina to arbitrate a tribal dispute  He persuaded local tribesmen to follow his teachings. The sect slowly spread across the highlands as the tribes of Hashid and Bakil later known as the twin wings of the imamate, accepted his authority  Yahya established his influence in Saada and Najran, tried to capture Sana'a from the Yufirids in 901 AD but failed miserably. in 904, Qarmatians invaded Sana'a, emir As'ad ibn Ibrahim retreated to Al-Jawf and between 904 and 913, Sana'a was conquered no less than 20 times by Qarmatians and Yufirids As'ad ibn Ibrahim regained Sana'a in 915. The country was in turmoil as Sana'a became a battlefield for the three dynasties as well as independent tribes. Yufirids emir Abdullah ibn Qahtan attacked and burned Zabid in 989 putting an end to the Ziyadid dynasty  The Ziyadid monarchs lost effective power after 989 and perhaps earlier while a succession of black slaves held real power in the Tihama from Hali to Aden eventually establishing the Najahid dynasty in 1022.
The country was never unified since the advent of Islam to Yemen until a Hashidi named Ali ibn Mohammed Al-Sulayhi Al-Hashidi founded the Sulayhid dynasty around 1047 in the highlands. The Sulayhids were Ismaili Shia affiliated with Fatimid Egypt. in 1060, Ali ibn Mohammed Al-Sulayhi conquered Zabid killing its ruler Al-Najah, founder of the Najahid dynasty forcing his sons to flee to Dahlak by 1063, Ali had subjugated Greater Yemen  then marched toward Hejaz and occupied Makkah  Ali was Married to Asma bint Shihab who governed Yemen with her husband  The Khutba during Friday prayers was proclaimed in her husband's and her name, no other Arab woman had this honor since the advent of islam Ali al-Sulayhi was succeed by his son Ahmed Al-Mukarram in 1084. Al-Mukaram installed the Zurayids to govern Aden. Ahmed Al-Mukarram, who had been afflicted with facial paralysis resulting from war injuries, retired in 1097 and handed over power to his wife Arwa al-Sulayhi  Queen Arwa moved the seat of the Sulayhid dynasty from Sana'a to Jibla, a small town in central Yemen near Ibb. Jibla was strategically located near the Sulayhid dynasty source of wealth, the agricultural central highlands and was within easy reach of the southern portion of the country especially Aden.She sent Ismaili missionaries to India where a significant Ismail community was formed that exists to this day  Queen Arwa continued to rule securely until her death in 1138  Although the Sulayhids were Ismaili Shia, they never tried to impose their beliefs on the public 
Shortly after queen Arwa's death, the country was split between a number of competing petty dynasties along religious lines. The Ayyubid dynasty, based in Egypt, took control of Yemen in 1180. Following the Ayyubid conquest, Yemen was held by the dynasty until a deputy governor proclaimed his independence from them in 1229 establishing the Rasulid Dynasty . In 1538, the Ottoman Empire absorbed Aden and Yemen, and between 1547 and 1548 Sana'a and Tihama were reconquered from the Portuguese, until the Ottomans were expelled in 1630. In 1839, Aden came under British rule. When the Suez Canal opened in 1869, Aden served as a major refuelling port. The Ottoman Turks tried to regain control of Yemen in 1849 but failed. The Ottomans returned in 1872 and took over the northern half of the country. However, the Ottomans were constantly harassed by the Zaydi tribes led by Imam Yahya, until a consensus was reached. Upon the Italian assault on Yemen from Eritrea, Imam Yahya recognised the political authority of the Ottomans in return for his recognition as the religious Imam of Yemen in 1911.
Imam Yahya stayed loyal to the Ottomans during World War I and did not join the Arab revolt that started in 1916 through British instigation. As a result of the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in World War I and the signing of the Armistice of Mudros, the Ottomans surrendered their remaining garrisons and retreated from Yemen in November 1918. Imam Yahya entered Sana'a on 17 November 1918 and declared his independence.
|This section requires expansion. (January 2013)|
In 1918, the Ottoman Empire retreated and northern Yemen gained full independence under Imam Yahya. Between 1918 and 1962, Yemen was ruled by the Hamidaddin family. Imam Yahya was assassinated during the revolution of 1947–48. However, his son Imam Ahmad bin Yahya, beat off the opponents of feudal rule and succeeded his father. Imam Ahmad died in 1962. He was succeeded by his son, but army officers attempted to seize power, sparking the North Yemen Civil War. The Hamidaddin royalists were supported by Saudi Arabia, Britain, and Jordan, whilst the republicans were backed by Egypt. After six years of civil war, the republicans were victorious (February 1968) and formed the Yemen Arab Republic.
The revolution in the north coincided with the Aden Emergency, which hastened the end of British rule in the south. On 30 November 1967, the state of South Yemen was formed, comprising Aden and the former Protectorate of South Arabia. This socialist state was later officially known as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen and a programme of nationalisation was begun.
Relations between the two Yemeni states remained relatively friendly, although sometimes strained. In 1972, a small border conflict was resolved with a ceasefire and negotiations brokered by the Arab League, where it was declared that unification would eventually occur. In 1978, Ali Abdallah Saleh was named as president of the Yemen Arab Republic. Fresh fighting between the two states resumed in 1979 and there were renewed efforts to bring about unification. Thousands were killed in the South Yemen Civil War of 1986. President Ali Nasser Muhammad fled to the north and a new government was formed.
In 1990, the two governments reached a full agreement on the joint governing of Yemen, and the countries were merged on 22 May 1990 with Saleh as President. The President of South Yemen, Ali Salim al-Beidh, became Vice-President. A unified parliament was formed and a unity constitution was agreed upon. In the 1993 parliamentary election, the first held after unification, the General People's Congress won 122 of 301 seats.:309
After the invasion of Kuwait crisis in 1990, Yemen's President opposed military intervention from non-Arab states. As a member of the United Nations Security Council for 1990 and 1991, Yemen abstained on a number of UNSC resolutions concerning Iraq and Kuwait and voted against the "use of force resolution". The vote outraged the US. Saudi Arabia expelled 800,000 Yemenis in 1990 and 1991 to punish Yemen for its opposition to the war.
Following food riots in major towns in 1992, a new coalition government made up of the ruling parties from both the former Yemeni states was formed in 1993. However, Vice-President al-Beidh withdrew to Aden in August 1993 and said he would not return to the government until his grievances were addressed. These included northern violence against his Yemeni Socialist Party, as well as the economic marginalization of the south. Negotiations to end the political deadlock dragged on into 1994. The government of Prime Minister Haydar Abu Bakr Al-Attas became ineffective due to political infighting.
An accord between northern and southern leaders was signed in Amman, Jordan on 20 February 1994, but this could not stop the civil war. During these tensions, both the northern and southern armies (which had never integrated) gathered on their respective frontiers. The May–July 1994 civil war in Yemen resulted in the defeat of the southern armed forces and the flight into exile of many Yemeni Socialist Party leaders and other southern secessionists. Saudi Arabia actively aided the south during the 1994 civil war.
Saleh became Yemen's first directly-elected president in the 1999 presidential election, winning 96.2% of the vote.:310 The only other candidate, Najeeb Qahtan Al-Sha'abi, was the son of Qahtan Muhammad al-Shaabi, a former President of South Yemen. Though a member of Saleh's General People's Congress (GPC) party, Najeeb ran as an independent.
In October 2000, the US naval vessel USS Cole was damaged in a suicide attack in Aden which was subsequently blamed on al-Qaeda. Seventeen US personnel were killed. After the September 11 attacks on the United States, President Saleh assured U.S. President George W. Bush that Yemen was a partner in his War on Terror. In 2001, there was violence surrounding a referendum which apparently supported extending Saleh's rule and powers.
The Shia insurgency in Yemen began in June 2004 when dissident cleric Hussein Badreddin al-Houthi, head of the Shia Zaidiyyah sect, launched an uprising against the Yemeni government. The Yemeni government alleged that the Houthis were seeking to overthrow it and to implement Shī'a religious law. The rebels counter that they are "defending their community against discrimination" and government aggression.
In 2005, at least 36 people were killed in clashes across the country between police and protesters over rising fuel prices.
In the 2006 presidential election, held on 20 September Saleh won with 77.2% of the vote. His main rival, Faisal bin Shamlan, received 21.8%. Saleh was sworn in for another term on 27 September.
A suicide bomber killed eight Spanish tourists and two Yemenis in the province of Marib in July 2007. There was a series of bomb attacks on police, official, diplomatic, foreign business and tourism targets in 2008. Car bombings outside the US embassy in Sana'a killed 18 people, including six of the assailants in September 2008. In 2008, an opposition rally in Sana'a demanding electoral reform was met with police gunfire.
In January 2009, the Saudi and Yemeni al-Qaeda branches merged to form Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP). Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula is based in Yemen, and many of its members were Saudi nationals who had been released from Guantanamo Bay. Saleh released 176 al-Qaeda suspects on condition of good behaviour, but terrorist activities continued.
The Yemeni army launched a fresh offensive against the Shia insurgents in 2009, assisted by Saudi forces. Tens of thousands of people were displaced by the fighting. A new ceasefire was agreed upon in February 2010. However, by the end of the year, Yemen claimed that 3,000 soldiers had been killed in renewed fighting. The Shiite rebels accused Saudi Arabia of providing support to salafi groups to suppress Zaydism in Yemen. Saleh's government used Al-Qaeda in its wars against Hothis.
Some news reports have suggested that, on orders from US President Barack Obama, US warplanes fired cruise missiles at what officials in Washington claimed were Al Qaeda training camps in the provinces of Sana’a and Abyan on 17 December 2009. Instead of hitting Al-Qaeda operatives, it hit a village killing 55 civilians. Officials in Yemen said that the attacks claimed the lives of more than 60 civilians, 28 of them children. Another airstrike was carried out on 24 December.
The US launched a series of drone attacks in Yemen to curb a perceived growing terror threat due to political chaos in Yemen. Since December 2009, U.S. strikes in Yemen have been carried out by the U.S. military with intelligence support from CIA. The drone strikes are protested by human-rights groups who say they kill innocent civilians and that the US military and CIA drone strikes lack sufficient congressional oversight, including the choice of human targets suspected of being threats to America. Controversy over U.S. policy for drone attacks mushroomed after a September 2011 drone strike in Yemen killed Anwar al-Awlaki and Samir Khan, both U.S. citizens. In 2010 the Obama administration policy allowed targeting of people whose names are not known. The US government increased military aid to $140 million in 2010.
Revolution and aftermath
The 2011 Yemeni revolution followed other Arab Spring mass protests in early 2011. The uprising was initially against unemployment, economic conditions, and corruption, as well as against the government's proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen so that Saleh's son could inherit the presidency.
In March 2011, police snipers opened fire on the pro-democracy camp in Sana'a, killing more than 50 people. In May, dozens were killed in clashes between troops and tribal fighters in Sana'a. By this point, Saleh began to lose international support. In October 2011, Yemeni human rights activist Tawakul Karman won the Nobel Peace Prize and the UN Security Council condemned the violence and called for a transfer of power. On 23 November 2011, Saleh flew to Riyadh, in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, to sign the Gulf Co-operation Council plan for political transition, which he had previously spurned. Upon signing the document, he agreed to legally transfer the office and powers of the presidency to his deputy, Vice President Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi.
Hadi took office for a two-year term upon winning the uncontested presidential elections in February 2012, in which he was the only candidate standing. A unity government – including a prime minister from the opposition – was formed. Al-Hadi will oversee the drafting of a new constitution, followed by parliamentary and presidential elections in 2014. Saleh returned in February 2012. In the face of objections from thousands of street protesters, parliament granted him full immunity from prosecution. Saleh's son, General Ahmed Ali Abdullah Saleh continues to exercise a strong hold on sections of the military and security forces.
AQAP claimed responsibility for the February 2012 suicide attack on the presidential palace which killed 26 Republican Guards on the day that President Hadi was sworn in. AQAP was also behind the suicide bombing which killed 96 soldiers in Sana'a three months later. In September 2012, a car bomb attack in Sana'a killed 11 people, a day after a local al-Qaeda leader Said al-Shihri was reported killed in the south.
By 2012, there has been a "small contingent of U.S. special-operations troops" — in addition to CIA and "unofficially acknowledged" U.S. military presence — in response to increasing terror attacks by AQAP on Yemeni citizens. Many analysts have pointed out the former Yemeni government role in cultivating terrorist activity in the country. Following the election of new president Abd Rabbuh Mansur Hadi, the Yemeni military was able push Ansar al-Sharia back and recapture the Shabwah Governorate.
Yemen is located in Western Asia, in the southern half of the Arabian Peninsula, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and the Red Sea. It lies south of Saudi Arabia and west of Oman, between latitudes 12° and 19° N and longitudes 42° and 55° E.
A number of Red Sea islands, including the Hanish Islands, Kamaran, and Perim, as well as Socotra in the Arabian Sea, belong to Yemen. Many of the islands are volcanic; for example Jabal al-Tair had a volcanic eruption in 2007 and before that in 1883.
The country can be divided geographically into four main regions: the coastal plains in the west, the western highlands, the eastern highlands, and the Rub al Khali in the east.
The Tihamah ("hot lands" or "hot earth") form a very arid and flat coastal plain along Yemen's entire Red Sea coastline. Despite the aridity, the presence of many lagoons makes this region very marshy and a suitable breeding ground for malaria mosquitoes. There are extensive crescent-shaped sand dunes. The evaporation in the Tihamah is so great that streams from the highlands never reach the sea, but they do contribute to extensive groundwater reserves. Today, these are heavily exploited for agricultural use. Near the village of Madar about 48 km (30 mi) north of Sana'a, dinosaur footprints were found, indicating that the area was once a muddy flat.
The Tihamah ends abruptly at the escarpment of the western highlands. This area, now heavily terraced to meet the demand for food, receives the highest rainfall in Arabia, rapidly increasing from 100 mm (3.9 in) per year to about 760 mm (29.9 in) in Ta'izz and over 1,000 mm (39.4 in) in Ibb.
Temperatures are hot in the day but fall dramatically at night. There are perennial streams in the highlands but these never reach the sea because of high evaporation in the Tihamah.
The central highlands are an extensive high plateau over 2,000 metres (6,562 ft) in elevation. This area is drier than the western highlands because of rain-shadow influences but still receives sufficient rain in wet years for extensive cropping. Water storage allows for irrigation and the growing of wheat and barley. Sana'a is located in this region. The highest point in Yemen is Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb, at 3,666 metres (12,028 ft).
Yemen's portion of the Rub al Khali desert in the east is much lower, generally below 1,000 metres (3,281 ft), and receives almost no rain. It is populated only by Bedouin herders of camels. The growing scarcity of water is a source of increasing international concern. See Water supply and sanitation in Yemen.
As a result of the Yemeni revolution, the constitution of Yemen is expected to be rewritten, and then new elections held in 2014. The national government administers the capital and largest cities, but some other regions are outside of its grasp, governed by armed militant groups which expanded their control during the chaos of the 2011–12 uprising. The two major groups are Ansar al-Sharia (a branch or affiliate of Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula), which has declared several "Islamic emirates" in the southern provinces of Abyan and Shabwah, and the Houthis, a Shiite rebel group centered in Sa'dah province.
Yemen is a republic with a bicameral legislature. Under the 1991 constitution, an elected President, an elected 301-seat Assembly of Representatives, and an appointed 111-member Shura Council share power. The President is the head of state, and the Prime Minister is the head of government.
The 1991 constitution provides that the president be elected by popular vote from at least two candidates endorsed by at least fifteen members of the Parliament. The prime minister, in turn, is appointed by the president and must be approved by two thirds of the Parliament. The presidential term of office is seven years, and the parliamentary term of elected office is six years. Suffrage is universal for people age 18 and older, but only Muslims may hold elected office.
President Ali Abdullah Saleh became the first elected President in reunified Yemen in 1999 (though he had been President of unified Yemen since 1990 and President of North Yemen since 1978). He was re-elected to office in September 2006. Saleh's victory was marked by an election that international observers judged to be "partly free", though the election was accompanied by violence, violations of press freedoms, and allegations of fraud. Parliamentary elections were held in April 2003, and the General People's Congress (GPC) maintained an absolute majority. Saleh remained almost uncontested in his seat of power until 2011, when local frustration at his refusal to hold another round of elections, as combined with the impact of the 2011 Arab Spring, resulted in mass protests. In 2012, he was forced to resign from power, though he remains an important actor in Yemeni politics.
The constitution calls for an independent judiciary. The former northern and southern legal codes have been unified. The legal system includes separate commercial courts and a Supreme Court based in Sana'a. Sharia is the main source of laws, with many court cases being debated according to the religious basis of law and many judges being religious scholars as well as legal authorities.
The geography and ruling Imams of North Yemen kept the country isolated from foreign influence before 1962. The country's relations with Saudi Arabia were defined by the Taif Agreement of 1934, which delineated the northernmost part of the border between the two kingdoms and set the framework for commercial and other intercourse. The Taif Agreement has been renewed periodically in 20-year increments, and its validity was reaffirmed in 1995. Relations with the British colonial authorities in Aden and the south were usually tense.
The Soviet and Chinese Aid Missions established in 1958 and 1959 were the first important non-Muslim presence in North Yemen. Following the September 1962 revolution, the Yemen Arab Republic became closely allied with and heavily dependent upon Egypt. Saudi Arabia aided the royalists in their attempt to defeat the Republicans and did not recognize the Yemen Arab Republic until 1970. At the same time, Saudi Arabia maintained direct contact with Yemeni tribes, which sometimes strained its official relations with the Yemeni Government. Saudi Arabia remained hostile to any form of political and social reform in Yemen and continued to provide financial support for tribal elites.
In February 1989, North Yemen joined Iraq, Jordan, and Egypt in forming the Arab Cooperation Council (ACC), an organization created partly in response to the founding of the Gulf Cooperation Council and intended to foster closer economic cooperation and integration among its members. After unification, the Republic of Yemen was accepted as a member of the ACC in place of its YAR predecessor. In the wake of the Persian Gulf crisis, the ACC has remained inactive. Yemen is not a member of the Gulf Cooperation Council mainly for its republican government.
Yemen is a member of the United Nations, the Arab League, and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, and also participates in the nonaligned movement. The Republic of Yemen accepted responsibility for all treaties and debts of its predecessors, the YAR and the PDRY. Yemen has acceded to the nuclear nonproliferation treaty.
Since the end of the 1994 civil war, tangible progress has been made on the diplomatic front in restoring normal relations with Yemen's neighbors. In the summer of 2000, Yemen and Saudi Arabia signed an International Border Treaty settling a 50-year old dispute over the location of the border between the two countries. Until the signing of the Yemen-Saudi Arabia peace treaty in July 2000, Yemen's northern border was undefined; the Arabian Desert prevented any human habitation there. Yemen settled its dispute with Eritrea over the Hanish Islands in 1998. The Saudi–Yemen barrier was constructed by Saudi Arabia against an influx of illegal immigrants and against the smuggling of drugs and weapons. The Independent headed an article with "Saudi Arabia, one of the most vocal critics in the Arab world of Israel's "security fence" in the West Bank, is quietly emulating the Israeli example by erecting a barrier along its porous border with Yemen".
The government and its security forces, often considered to suffer from rampant corruption, have been responsible for torture, inhumane treatment, and extrajudicial executions. There are arbitrary arrests of citizens, especially in the south, as well as arbitrary searches of homes. Prolonged pretrial detention is a serious problem, and judicial corruption, inefficiency, and executive interference undermine due process. Freedom of speech, the press, and religion are all restricted. Journalists who tend to be critical of the government are often harassed and threatened by the police.
Since the start of the Sa'dah insurgency many people accused of supporting Al-Houthi have been arrested and held without charge or trial. According to the U.S. State Department International Religious Freedom Report 2007, "Some Zaydis reported harassment and discrimination by the Government because they were suspected of sympathizing with the al-Houthis. However, it appears the Government's actions against the group were probably politically, not religiously, motivated".
The U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants reported several violations of refugee and asylum seekers' rights in the organization's 2008 World Refugee Survey. Yemeni authorities reportedly deported numerous foreigners without giving them access to the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, despite the UN’s repeated requests. Refugees further reported violence directed against them by Yemeni authorities while living in refugee camps. Yemeni officials reportedly raped and beat camp-based refugees with impunity in 2007.
Yemen is ranked last of 135 countries in the 2012 Global Gender Gap Report. Human Rights Watch reported on discrimination and violence against women as well as on the abolition of the minimum marriage age of fifteen for women. The onset of puberty (interpreted by some to be as low as the age of nine) was set as a requirement for marriage instead. Publicity about the case of ten-year-old Yemeni divorcee Nujood Ali brought the child marriage issue to the fore not only in Yemen but also worldwide.
The United States Department of State 2013 Trafficking in Persons report classified Yemen as a Tier 3 country, meaning that its government does not fully comply with the minimum standards against human trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so.
The armed forces of Yemen include the Yemen Army (includes Republican Guard), Navy (includes Marines), Yemeni Air Force (Al Quwwat al Jawwiya al Yamaniya; includes Air Defense Force). A major reorganization of the armed forces continues. The unified air forces and air defenses are now under one command. The navy has concentration in Aden. Total armed forces manning numbers about 401,000 active personnel, including moreover especially conscripts. The Yemen Arab Republic and The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen joined to form the Republic of Yemen on 22 May 1990. The supreme commander of the armed forces is Field Marshal, Abd Rabbuh Mansur Al-Hadi, the President of the Republic of Yemen.
The number of military personnel in Yemen is relatively high; in sum, Yemen has the second largest military force on the Arabian Peninsula after Saudi Arabia. In 2012 total active troops were estimated as follows: army, 390,000; navy, 7,000; and air force, 5,000. In September 2007, the government announced the reinstatement of compulsory military service. Yemen’s defense budget, which in 2006 represented approximately 40 percent of the total government budget, is expected to remain high for the near term, as the military draft takes effect and internal security threats continue to escalate. By 2012 Yemen now has 401,000 active personnel.
As of February 2004, Yemen is divided into twenty governorates (muhafazat) and one municipality called "Amanat Al-Asemah" (the latter containing the capital, Sana'a).[unreliable source?] The governorates are subdivided into 333 districts (muderiah), which are subdivided into 2,210 sub-districts, and then into 38,284 villages (as of 2001).
Yemen is one of the poorest and least developed countries in the Arab World, with a formal 35% employment rate, dwindling natural resources, a young population and increasing population growth. Yemen's economy is weak compared to most countries in the Middle-East, mainly because Yemen has very small oil reserves. Yemen's economy depends heavily on the oil it produces, and its government receives the vast majority of its revenue from oil taxes. But Yemen's oil reserves are expected to be depleted by 2017, possibly bringing on economic collapse. Yemen does have large proven reserves of natural gas. Yemen's first liquified natural gas (LNG) plant began production in October 2009.
Rampant corruption is a prime obstacle to development in the country, limiting local reinvestments and driving away regional and international capital. Foreign investments remain largely concentrated around the nation's hydrocarbon industry.
Beginning in the mid-1950s, the Soviet Union and China provided large-scale assistance. For example, China and the United States are involved with the expansion of the Sana'a International Airport. In the south, pre-independence economic activity was overwhelmingly concentrated in the port city of Aden. The seaborne transit trade, which the port relied upon, collapsed with the closure of the Suez Canal and Britain's withdrawal from Aden in 1967.
Since unification in 1990, the government has worked to integrate two relatively disparate economic systems. However, severe shocks, including the return in 1990 of approximately 850,000 Yemenis from the Persian Gulf states, a subsequent major reduction of aid flows, and internal political disputes culminating in the 1994 civil war hampered economic growth.
Since the conclusion of the war, the government made an agreement with the International Monetary Fund (IMF) to implement a structural adjustment program. Phase one of the program included major financial and monetary reforms, including floating the currency, reducing the budget deficit, and cutting subsidies. Phase two will address structural issues such as civil service reform.
In early 1995, the government of Yemen launched an economic, financial, and administrative reform program (EFARP) with the support of the World Bank and the IMF, as well as international donors. These programs had a positive impact on Yemen’s economy and led to the reduction of the budget deficit to less than 3% of gross domestic product (GDP) during the period 1995–1999 and the correction of macro-financial imbalances. The real growth rate in the non-oil sector rose by 5.6% from 1995 to 1997.
The population of Yemen was about 24 million according to June 2011 estimates, with 46% of the population being under 15 years old and 2.7% above 65 years. In 1950, it was 4.3 million. By 2050, the population is estimated to increase to about 60 million.
Yemenis are mainly of Arab origin. When the former states of north and south Yemen were established, most resident minority groups departed. Yemen is still a largely tribal society. In the northern mountainous parts of the country live some 400 Zaydi tribes. There are also hereditary caste groups in urban areas such as Al-Akhdam.
Yemen officially abolished slavery in 1962. Turks arrived in the region during the Ottoman colonization process; today, there are between 10,000–30,000 people of Turkish origin still living in the country. In addition, Yemenite Jews once formed a sizable Jewish minority in Yemen with a distinct culture from other Jewish communities in the world Most emigrated to Israel in the mid-20th century, following the Jewish exodus from Arab lands and Operation Magic Carpet.
Most of the prominent Indonesians, Malaysians, and Singaporeans of Arab descent are Hadhrami people with origins in southern Yemen in the Hadramawt coastal region. Today there are almost 10,000 Hadramis in Singapore. The Hadramis emigrated not only to Southeast Asia but also to East Africa and the Indian subcontinent.[dead link] Maqil were a collection of Arab Bedouin tribes of Yemeni origin who migrated westwards via Egypt. Several groups of Yemeni Arabs turned south to Mauritania, and by the end of the 17th century, they dominated the entire country. They can also be found throughout Morocco and in Algeria as well as in other North African Countries.
According to the US Committee for Refugees and Immigrants, Yemen hosted a population of refugees and asylum seekers numbering approximately 124,600 in 2007. Refugees and asylum seekers living in Yemen were predominantly from Somalia (110,600), Iraq, Ethiopia (2,000), and Syria. There are about 70,000 Iraqis presently living in Yemen. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) estimates that in 2008 more than 50,000 Somalis reached Yemen. Yemen's civil war has forced at least 175,000 Yemenis to flee their homes.
The Yemeni diaspora is largely concentrated in Saudi Arabia, where between 800,000 and 1 million Yemenis reside, and the United Kingdom, home to between 70,000 and 80,000 Yemenis; just over 15,000 to 20,000 Yemenis reside in the United States, and 2,000 live in France.
Religion in Yemen consists primarily of two principal Islamic religious groups; 55% of the Muslim population is Sunni and 45% is Shiite according to the UNHCR. Sunnis are primarily Shafi'i but also include significant groups of Malikis and Hanbalis. Shi'is are primarily Zaydi and also have significant minorities of Twelver Shias and Musta'ali Western Isma'ili Shias.
The Sunnis are predominantly in the south and southeast. The Zaydis are predominantly in the north and northwest whilst the Ismailis are in the main centers such as Sana'a and Ma'rib. There are mixed communities in the larger cities. About 1 percent of Yemenis are non-Muslim, adhering to Christianity, Judaism, Hinduism, or atheism.
An estimated 100,000 people of Indian origin are concentrated in the southern part of the country, around Aden, Mukalla, Shihr, Lahaj, Mokha and Hodeidah.
Arabic is the official language, although English is increasingly understood by citizens in major cities. In the Mahra area (the extreme east) and the island Soqotra, several ancient south-Arabic Semitic languages are spoken.
Yemen is one of the main homelands of the South Semitic family of languages. Mehri is the largest South Semitic language in Yemen with more than 70,000 speakers. The ethnic group itself is called Mahra. Soqotri is another South Semitic language, with speakers on the island of Socotra isolated from the pressures of Arabic on the Yemeni mainland. According to the 1990 census in Yemen, the number of speakers there was 57,000 .
Ancient Himyaritic, which today is extinct, is another South Semitic language that once was spoken in Yemen.
Foreign languages in public schools are taught from grade seven onwards, though the quality of public school instruction is low. Private schools using a British or American system teach English and produce proficient speakers, but Arabic is the dominant language of communication. The number of English speakers in Yemen is small compared to other Arab countries such as Egypt, Lebanon, the UAE, and Saudi Arabia.
There is a significant number of Russian speakers, originating from Yemeni-Russian cross-marriages occurring mainly in the 1970s and 1980s. A small Cham-speaking community is found in the capital city of Sana'a, originating from refugees expatriated from Vietnam after the Vietnam War in the 1970s.
A small yet rising number of ethnic Chinese in Sana'a brought the Chinese language to the country, a byproduct of historic Chinese immigration. Also there are South Asian languages spoken by the small South Asian community, most notably Hindi, Urdu, Malayalam and Marathi languages.
Yemen is a culturally rich country with influence from many civilizations, such as the early civilization of Sheba.
Radio broadcasting in Yemen began in the 1940s when it was still divided into South by the British and North by Imami ruling system. After the unity of Yemen in 1990, Yemeni government reformed its corporations and founded some additional radio channels which can broadcast locally. However it drew back after 1994 due to destroyed infrastructures by the civil war.
Television is the most significant media platform in Yemen. Given the low literacy rate in the country, television is the main source of news for Yemenis. There are six free-to-air channels currently headquartered in Yemen, of which four are state-owned.
The Yemeni film industry is in its early stages; only two Yemeni films have been released as of 2008.
Football is the most popular sport in Yemen. The Yemen Football Association is a member of FIFA and the Asian Football Confederation, and the national team participates in . The country also hosts many football clubs that compete in the national or international leagues.
Yemen's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports, such as biking, rock climbing, hill climbing, hiking, mountain jumping, and more challenging mountain climbing. Mountain climbing and hiking tours to the Sarawat Mountains and the Jabal an Nabi Shu'ayb, including the 5,000 m peaks in the region, are seasonally organized by local and international alpine agencies.
The coast of Yemen and Socotra island also provide many opportunities for water sports, such as surfing, bodyboarding, sailing, swimming, and scuba diving. Socotra island is home to one of the best surfing destinations in the world.
Camel jumping is popular among the Zaraniq tribe on the west coast of Yemen on the desert plain by the Red Sea. Camels are rounded up and placed side to side. Athletes jump from a running start to achieve height and length in the air. The jumpers train year round for competitions. Tribesmen tuck their robes around their waists to reduce impediment while running and leaping.
Yemen's biggest sports event was hosting the 2010 Gulf Cup of Nations in Aden and Abyan in the southern part of the country on 22 November 2010. Yemen was thought to be the strongest competitor, but was defeated in the first three matches of the tournament.
The Yemeni national team has never won a championship, though it includes many renowned Arab players.
World Heritage sites
Among Yemen’s natural and cultural attractions are four World Heritage sites.
The Old Walled City of Shibam in Wadi Hadhramaut, inscribed by UNESCO in 1982, two years after Yemen joined the World Heritage Committee, is nicknamed "Manhattan of the Desert" because of its "skyscrapers." Surrounded by a fortified wall made of mud and straw, the 16th-century city is one of the oldest examples of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction.
The ancient Old City of Sana’a, at an altitude of more than 7,000 feet (2,100 m), has been inhabited for over two and a half millennia and was inscribed in 1986. Sana’a became a major Islamic centre in the 7th century, and the 103 mosques, 14 hammams (traditional bath houses), and more than 6,000 houses that survive all date from before the 11th century.
Close to the Red Sea Coast, the Historic Town of Zabid, inscribed in 1993, was Yemen’s capital from the 13th to the 15th century, and is an archaeological and historical site. It played an important role for many centuries because of its university, which was a center of learning for the whole Arab and Islamic world. Algebra is said to have been invented there in the early 9th century by the little-known scholar Al-Jazari.
The latest addition to Yemen’s list of World Heritage Sites is the Socotra Archipelago. Mentioned by Marco Polo in the 13th century, this remote and isolated archipelago consists of four islands and two rocky islets delineating the southern limit of the Gulf of Aden. The site has a rich biodiversity. Nowhere else in the world do 37% of Socotra’s 825 plants, 90% of its reptiles and 95% of its snails occur. It is home to 192 bird species, 253 species of coral, 730 species of coastal fish, and 300 species of crab and lobster, as well as a range of Aloes and the Dragon’s Blood Tree (Dracaena cinnabari). The cultural heritage of Socotra includes the unique Soqotri language.
The adult literacy rate in 2010 was 63.9%. The government has committed to reduce illiteracy to less than 10% by 2025. Although Yemen’s government provides for universal, compulsory, free education for children ages six through 15, the U.S. Department of State reports that compulsory attendance is not enforced. The government developed the National Basic Education Development Strategy in 2003 that aimed at providing education to 95% of Yemeni children between the ages of six and 14 years and also at decreasing the gap between males and females in urban and rural areas.
A seven-year project to improve gender equity and the quality and efficiency of secondary education, focusing on girls in rural areas, was approved by the World Bank in March 2008. Following this, Yemen has increased its education spending from 4.5% of GDP in 1995 to 9.6% in 2005.
According to the Webometrics Ranking of World Universities, the top-ranking universities in the country are the Yemeni University of Science & Technology (6532nd worldwide), Al Ahgaff University (8930th) and Sanaa University (11043rd).
According to 2009 estimates, life expectancy in Yemen is 63.27 years. Despite the significant progress Yemen has made to expand and improve its health care system over the past decade, the system remains severely underdeveloped. Total expenditures on health care in 2004 constituted 5% of gross domestic product. In that same year, the per capita expenditure for health care was very low compared with other Middle Eastern countries—US$34 per capita according to the World Health Organization.
According to the World Bank, the number of doctors in Yemen rose by an average of more than 7% between 1995 and 2000, but as of 2004 there were still only three doctors per 10,000 people. In 2005 Yemen had only 6.1 hospital beds available per 10,000 persons. Health care services are particularly scarce in rural areas; only 25% of rural areas are covered by health services, compared with 80% of urban areas. Most childhood deaths are caused by illnesses for which vaccines exist or that are otherwise preventable.
Sana'a may be the first capital city in the world to run out of drinking water.
- Outline of Yemen
- List of Yemen-related topics
- List of newspapers in Yemen
- List of Yemenis
- List of cities in Yemen
- "Statistical Yearbook 2011". Central Statistical Organisation. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- "Yemen". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- "Human Development Report 2011". The United Nations. Retrieved 18 October 2011.
- "Yemen". International News Safety Institute. Retrieved 14 October 2009.
- Daniel McLaughlin Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide p.3
- Arabian Peninsula, 1000 B.C.–1 A.D. | Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art
- "Yemen – Facts and History: Yemeni Government". About.com. 24 January 2013. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Women Suffrage". Ipu.org. 23 May 1997. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Yemen: World Bank Projects To Promote Water Conservation, Enhance Access To Infrastructure And Services For Poor World Bank last retrieved Nov 26 2013
- Fast Facts about Yemen. CNN. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Jawad Ali. الـمـفـصـّل في تـاريـخ العـرب قبـل الإسـلام [Detailed history of Arabs before Islam] (in Arabic) 1. p. 171.
- Robert D. Burrowes Historical Dictionary of Yemen p.145 Rowman & Littlefield, 2010 ISBN 0810855283
- Daniel McLaughlin Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide p.4
- David Hatcher Childress Lost Cities & Ancient Mysteries of Africa & Arabia p.223 Adventures Unlimited Press, 1989 ISBN 0932813062
- Kenneth Anderson Kitchen On the Reliability of the Old Testament p.594 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2003 ISBN 0802849601
- Geoffrey W. Bromiley The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia Volume 4 p.254 ISBN 0802837840
- Nicholas Clapp Sheba: Through the Desert in Search of the Legendary Queen p.204 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2002 ISBN 0618219269
- P. M. Holt, Peter Malcolm Holt, Ann K. S. Lambton, Bernard Lewis The Cambridge History of Islam p.7 Cambridge University Press, 21 April 1977
- Daniel McLaughlin Yemen: The Bradt Travel Guide p.5 2007
- Jerry R. Rogers, Glenn Owen Brown, Jürgen Garbrecht Water Resources and Environmental History p.36 ASCE Publications, 1 January 2004 ISBN 0784475504
- Werner Daum Yemen: 3000 Years of Art and Civilization in Arabia Felix p.73 Pinguin-Verlag, 1987 ISBN 3701622922
- The kingdoms of ancient South Arabia
- Jawad Ali. الـمـفـصـّل في تـاريـخ العـرب قبـل الإسـلام [Detailed history of Arabs before Islam] (in Arabic) 2. p. 19.
- George Hatke Aksum and Nubia: Warfare, Commerce, and Political Fictions in Ancient Northeast Africa p.19 NYU Press, 2013 SBN 0814762832
- Teshale Tibebu The making of modern Ethiopia : 1896-1974 p.xvii Lawrenceville, NJ : Red Sea Press, 1995 ISBN 1569020019
- Peter R. Schmidt Historical Archaeology in Africa: Representation, Social Memory, and Oral Traditions p.281 Rowman Altamira, 2006 ISBN 0759114153
- Ali Aldosari Middle East, Western Asia, and Northern Africa p.24 Marshall Cavendish, 2007 ISBN 0761475710
- A Companion to the Archaeology of the Ancient Near East p.1047 John Wiley & Sons ISBN 1405189886
- Avraham Negev, Shimon Gibson Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land p.137 Continuum, 2005 ISBN 0826485715
- Lionel Casson The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary p.150 Princeton University Press, 2012 ISBN 1400843200
- Peter Richardson Herod: King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans p.230 Continuum, 1999 ISBN 0567086755
- Hârun Yahya Perished Nations p.115 Global Yayincilik, 1999 ISBN 1897940874
- Jan Retso The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads p.402 Routledge 2013 ISBN 1136872825
- Clifford Edmund Bosworth The Encyclopedia of Islam, Volume 6, Fascicules 107-108 p.561 Brill Archive, 1989 ISBN 9004090827
- Stuart Munro-Hay Ethiopia, the Unknown Land: A Cultural and Historical Guide p.236 I.B.Tauris, 2002 ISBN 1860647448
- G. Johannes Botterweck, Helmer Ringgren Theological Dictionary of the Old Testament, Volume 3 p.448 Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1979 ISBN 0802823270
- Jawad Ali. الـمـفـصـّل في تـاريـخ العـرب قبـل الإسـلام [Detailed history of Arabs before Islam] (in Arabic) 2. p. 482.
- Albert Jamme Inscriptions From Mahram Bilqis (Marib) p.392 Baltimore 1962
- Dieter Vogel, Susan James Yemen p.34 APA Publications, 1990
- Klaus Schippmann Ancient South Arabia: from the Queen of Sheba to the advent of Islam pp.52-53 Markus Wiener Publishers, 2001 ISBN 1558762361
- Francis E. Peters Muhammad and the Origins of Islam p.48 SUNY Press, 1994 ISBN 0791418758
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.265 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Shlomo Sand The Invention of the Jewish People p.193 London ; New York : Verso, 2010. ISBN 9781844676231
- Y. M. Abdallah, "The Inscription CIH 543: A New Reading Based On The Newly-Found Original" in C. Robin & M. Bafaqih (Eds.), Sayhadica: Recherches Sur Les Inscriptions De l’Arabie Préislamiques Offertes Par Ses Collègues Au Professeur A.F.L. Beeston, 1987, Librairie Orientaliste Paul Geuthner S.A.: Paris, pp. 4-5
- Raphael Patai, Jennifer Patai The Myth of the Jewish Race p.63 Wayne State University Press, 1989 ISBN 0814319483
- Uwidah Metaireek Al-Juhany Najd before the Salafi reform movement: social, political and religious conditions during the three centuries preceding the rise of the Saudi state p.171 Ithaca Press, 2002 ISBN 0863724019
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.266 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.282 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Irfan Shahîd Byzantium and the Arabs in the Fifth Century p.65 Dumbarton Oaks, 1989 ISBN 0884021521
- Ken Blady Jewish Communities in Exotic Places p.9 Jason Aronson, 2000 ISBN 146162908X
- Eric Maroney The Other Zions: The Lost Histories of Jewish Nations p.94 Rowman & Littlefield, 2010 ISBN 1442200456
- Joan Comay, Lavinia Cohn-Sherbok Who's who in Jewish history after the period of the Old Testament p.391 Oxford University Press, 2 November 1995 ISBN 0195210794
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.283 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Angelika Neuwirth, Nicolai Sinai, Michael Marx The Quran in Context: Historical and Literary Investigations Into the Quranic Milieu p.49 BRILL, 2010 ISBN 9004176888
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.293 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.285 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Scott Johnson The Oxford Handbook of Late Antiquity p.298 Oxford University Press, 1 November 2012 ISBN 0195336933
- Ṣafī al-Raḥmān Mubārakfūrī Ar-raheeq Al-makhtum p.535 Darussalam, 2002 ISBN 9960899551
- Abd al-Muhsin Madʼaj M. Madʼaj The Yemen in Early Islam (9-233/630-847): A Political History p.12 Ithaca Press, 1988 ISBN 0863721028
- Wilferd Madelung The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate p.199 Cambridge University Press, 15 October 1998 ISBN 0521646960
- Ṭabarī The History of al-Tabari Vol. 12: The Battle of al-Qadisiyyah and the Conquest of Syria and Palestine A.D. 635-637/A.H. 14-15 p.10-11 SUNY Press, 1992 ISBN 0791407330
- Idris El Hareir The Spread of Islam Throughout the World p.380 UNESCO, 2011 ISBN 9231041533
- Nejla M. Abu Izzeddin The Druzes: A New Study of Their History, Faith, and Society BRILL, 1993 ISBN 9004097058
- Hugh Kennedy The Armies of the Caliphs: Military and Society in the Early Islamic State p.33 Routledge, 17 June 2013 ISBN 1134531133
- Andrew Rippin The Islamic World p.237 Routledge, 23 October 2013 ISBN 1136803432
- Andrew Rippin The Islamic World p.237 Routledge, 23 October 2013 ISBN 1136803432
- Paul Wheatley The Places Where Men Pray Together: Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh Through the Tenth Centuries p.128 University of Chicago Press, 2001 ISBN 0226894282
- Kamal Suleiman Salibi A History of Arabia p.108 Caravan Books, 1980 OCLC Number: 164797251
- Paul Wheatley The Places Where Men Pray Together: Cities in Islamic Lands, Seventh Through the Tenth Centuries p.128 University of Chicago Press, 2001 ISBN 0226894282
- J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3 p.120 Cambridge University Press,1977 ISBN 0521209811
- Stephen W. Day Regionalism and Rebellion in Yemen: A Troubled National Union p.31 Cambridge University Press, 2012 ISBN 1107022150
- Gerhard Lichtenthäler Political Ecology and the Role of Water: Environment, Society and Economy in Northern Yemen p.55 Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 2003 ISBN 0754609081
- First Encyclopaedia of Islam: 1913-1936 p.145 BRILL, 1993 ISBN 9004097961
- E. J. Van Donzel Islamic Desk Reference p.492 BRILL, 1994 ISBN 9004097384
- J. D. Fage, Roland Anthony Oliver The Cambridge History of Africa, Volume 3 p.119 Cambridge University Press,1977 ISBN 0521209811
- Farhad Daftary Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies: A Historical Introduction to an Islamic Community p.92 I.B.Tauris, 2005 ISBN1845110919
- Farhad Daftary The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines p.199 Cambridge University Press, 2007 ISBN 1139465783
- Fatima Mernissi The Forgotten Queens of Islam p.14 U of Minnesota Press, 1997 ISBN 0816624399
- Fatima Mernissi The Forgotten Queens of Islam p.14 U of Minnesota Press, 1997 ISBN 0816624399
- Farhad Daftary Ismailis in Medieval Muslim Societies: A Historical Introduction to an Islamic Community p.93 I.B.Tauris, 2005 ISBN1845110919
- Steven C. Caton Yemen p.51 ABC-CLIO, 2013 ISBN 159884928X
- Steven C. Caton Yemen p.51 ABC-CLIO, 2013 ISBN 159884928X
- Mohammed Abdo Al-Sururi (1887). الحياة السياسية ومظاهر الحضارة في اليمن في عهد الدول المستقلة [political life and aspects of civilization in Yemen during the reign of Independent States] (in Arabic). University of Sana'a. p. 414.
- Tudor Parfitt (1996). The Road to Redemption: The Jews of the Yemen, 1900-1950. BRILL. p. 20. ISBN 978-90-04-10544-7. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Dresch, Paul, "A History of Modern Yemen", Cambridge (2000), s. 7-8
- F. Gregory Gause (1990). Saudi-Yemeni Relations: Domestic Structures and Foreign Influence. Columbia University Press. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-231-07044-7. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- F. Gregory Gause (1990). Saudi-Yemeni Relations: Domestic Structures and Foreign Influence. Columbia University Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-231-07044-7. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Dresch, Paul (2000). A History of Modern Yemen. Cambridge University Press. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-521-79482-4. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Slaves in impoverished Yemen dream of freedom". Al Arabiya. 21 July 2010.
- Schmitthoff, Clive Macmillan, Clive M. Schmitthoff's select essays on international trade lawp. 390
- "Yemen". Asia. History of Nations.
- Nohlen, Dieter; Grotz, Florian; Hartmann, Christof, eds. (2001). Elections in Asia: A data handbook, Volume I. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 309–310. ISBN 978-0-19-924958-9. Retrieved 7 April 2011.
- "Persian Gulf War, Desert Storm – War with Iraqi". Laughtergenealogy.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Country Profile: Yemen" (PDF). Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. August 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
- "Fighting al-Qaeda: The Role of Yemen's President Saleh". Realclearworld.com. 17 December 2009. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Hill, Ginny (1 April 2009). "Yemen's point of no return". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Civil war". Yca-sandwell.org.uk. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Yemen timeline". BBC News. 28 November 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- John Pike. "Yemeni Civil War (1990–1994)". Global Security. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "In eleventh-hour reversal, President Saleh announces candidacy". IRIN. 25 June 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- "Deadly blast strikes Yemen mosque". BBC News. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 23 May 2008.
- "President Ali Abdullah Saleh Web Site". Presidentsaleh.gov.ye. Archived from the original on 19 December 2010. Retrieved 18 November 2010.
- "Saleh re-elected president of Yemen". Al Jazeera. 23 September 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- "Yemeni president takes constitutional oath for his new term". Xinhua. 27 September 2006. Retrieved 14 December 2010.
- Daniel Cassman. "Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula". Stanford University. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Regime and Periphery in Northern Yemen: The Huthi Phenomenon". 17 September 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Yemen's Forever War: The Houthi Rebellion". Washington Institute. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Ross, Brian; Esposito, Richard; Cole, Matthew; et al. (18 December 2009). "Obama Ordered U.S. Military Strike on Yemen Terrorists". ABC News (New York).
- "Losing Yemen: How this forgotten corner of the Arabian Peninsula became the most dangerous country in the world". Foreign Policy (Washington DC). 5 November 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "In wake of airline incident: Drumbeat for US war in Yemen". The Intelligence Daily. 30 December 2009.
- Hakim Almasmari (31 January 2013). "US makes a drone attack a day in Yemen". The National (Abu Dhabi). Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Gorman, Siobhan (14 June 2011). "CIA Plans Drone Strikes in Yemen". The Wall Street Journal (New York). Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "U.S. Relaxes Drone Rules". The Wall Street Journal (New York). 26 April 2012.
- "Memo on Drone Strikes Draws Scrutiny". The Wall Street Journal (New York). 5 February 2013.
- Wheaton, Sarah (10 January 2010). "Obama Plays Down Military Role in Yemen". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- Lewis, Alexandra (May 2012). [1.pdf "Changing Seasons: The Arab Spring's Position Within the Political Evolution of the Yemeni State"]. Post-war Reconstruction and Development Unit Working Paper Series. 3.
- Ghosh, Bobby (17 September 2012). "The End of Al-Qaeda?". Time (New York). Retrieved 24 September 2012.
- "Whose Side Is Yemen On?". Foreign Policy (Washington DC). 29 August 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Yemen". State.gov. 8 November 2005. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- "Freedom in the World – Yemen (2007)". Freedomhouse.org. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- "Slaves in Saudi". Naeem Mohaiemen. The Daily Star. 27 July 2004.
- Bidwell, Robin (1983). The Two Yemens. Harlow: Longman and Westview Press. pp. 243–244. ISBN 978-0865312951.
- F. Gregory Gause. Saudi-Yemeni Relations: Domestic Structures and Foreign Influence. p.26
- F. Gregory Gause. Saudi-Yemeni Relations: Domestic Structures and Foreign Influence. Columbia University Press p.4
- "The Yemeni-Saudi Border Treaty". Theestimate.com. June 2000. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- al-Kibsi, Mohammed (12 January 2008). "Saudi authorities erect barriers on Yemeni border". Yemen Observer.
- Bradley, John (11 February 2004). "Saudi Arabia enrages Yemen with fence". The Independent (London). Retrieved 23 March 2007.
- Lewis, Alexandra (14 May 2013). "Violence in Yemen: Thinking About Violence in Fragile States Beyond the Confines of Conflict and Terrorism". Stability: International Journal of Security and Development 2 (1).
- "Human Rights in Yemen". Derechos. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "Yemen: International Religious Freedom Report 2007". US State Department. 14 September 2007. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "World Refugee Survey 2008". U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants. 19 June 2008.
- "The Global Gender Gap Report 2012". World Economic Forum.
- "World Report 2001 on Yemen". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Daragahi, Borzou (11 June 2008). "Yemeni bride, 10, says I won't". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
- Walt, Vivienne (3 February 2009). "A 10-Year-Old Divorcée Takes Paris". Time/CNN. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
- Madabish, Arafat (28 March 2009). "Sanaa's first woman lawyer". Asharq Alawsat English edition. Retrieved 16 February 2010.
- "Trafficking in Persons Report: Country Narratives T - Z and Special Case". US Department of State. 2013. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Tiers: Placement, Guide, and Penalties for Tier 3 Countries". US Department of State. 2011. Retrieved 19 August 2013.
- "Yemeni Military statistics". NationMaster. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Governorates of Yemen". Statoids.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Hill, Ginny (17 January 2007). "Somalis pin peace hopes on Yemen". BBC News. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Richard Fontaine and Andrew Exum (5 January 2010). "Yemen's coming disaster; Its oil is expected to run out in 2017, but Yemen hasn't planned for its young, poverty-ridden population's post-oil future". Los Angeles Times.
- "Yemen". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Republic of Yemen: Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper, December 2000" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "IMF". IMF. 5 March 1999. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "The General Census of Population 2004". Sabanews. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "The population explosion on Europe's doorstep". The Times (London). 18 May 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013. (subscription required)
- "Yemen: Government planning to curb population growth". IRIN Middle East. 14 July 2008. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Country Comparison: Total fertility rate". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 February 2013.
- "Sana'a Rising". Saudi Aramco World.
- "Yemen". CIA World Factbook.
- "U.S. Relations With Yemen". US Department of State. 28 August 2013.
- Flamand, Annasofie; Macleod, Hugh (5 December 2009). "The children of Yemen's tribal war". The Herald (Glasgow). Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Pike, John. "Zaydi Islam". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Lehmann, Hermann (1954). "Distribution of the sickle cell trait". Eugenics Review 46 (2): 101–121. PMC 2973326. PMID 21260667. Retrieved 5 August 2012.
- Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Cumhurbaşkanlığı. "Cumhurbaşkanı Gül, Türkiye-Yemen İş Forumu'nda". Retrieved 12 May 2011.
- "Yemen: Mecnun'u çöllere düşüren büyülü ülke". Star Gazete (in Turkish) (Istanbul). 30 May 2010. Archived from the original on 17 September 2011.
- "Yemen". Jewish Virtual Library. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "The Jews of Yemen". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "The world's successful diasporas". Management Today (London). 3 April 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Hadramis in Singapore, by Ameen Ali Talib". Al-bab.com. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "African connections in Yemeni music". Britannica.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Mauritania – Arab invasions". Countrystudies.us. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Poor and desperate, Syrian refugees beg on Yemen's streets". Reuters. 26 September 2013
- "Yemen: Iraqi migrants, refugees await brighter future". Irinnews.org. 1 July 2007. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Morris, Tim (11 October 2009). "Yemen's forgotten refugee crisis". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan (14 November 2009). "Yemen's fight with rebels a regional concern". The Washington Post. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Black, Ian (2 April 2013). "Saudi Arabia expels thousands of Yemeni workers". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 13 October 2013.
- "History of Islam in the UK". BBC. 7 September 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "Yemen: The conflict in Saada Governorate – analysis". UN High Commissioner for Refugees. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Merrick, Jane; Sengupta, Kim (20 September 2009). "Yemen: The land with more guns than people". The Independent (London). Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- Al-Zaidi, Hassan (22 October 2007). "The Twelve-Imam Shiite Sect". Yemen Times. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007.
- "Yemen". Institut MEDEA. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- "Indian Diaspora In Yemen". Indian Embassy in Sanaa. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
- Woodard, Roger D. (10 April 2008). The Ancient Languages of Asia and the Americas. Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-0-521-68494-1. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- "Ethnologue entry for South Arabian languages". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 21 March 2010.
- The media in Yemen, short introduction to media in Yemen including broadcasting. Last revised on 21 February 2006
- "Arab Media Outlook 2011-2015". 2012. p. 217.
- "The Sport of Camel Jumping". Smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- "Yemenis open up about the Gulf Cup". Yemen Today. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "National adult literacy rates (15+), youth literacy rates (15-24) and elderly literacy rates (65+)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics.
- "Republic of Yemen, Ministry of Education Report 2008. "The Development of Education in the Republic of Yemen."". 2008. p. 3.
- "Republic of Yemen, Ministry of Education Report 2008." The Development of Education in the Republic of Yemen."". 2008. p. 5.
- "Yemen". Ranking Web of Universities. Retrieved 26 February 2013.
- "Country Profile: Yemen, August 2008". Library of Congress. Retrieved 22 February 2013.
- Sweetland Edwards, Haley (11 October 2009). "Yemen water crisis builds". Los Angeles Times.
|Find more about Yemen at Wikipedia's sister projects|
|Definitions and translations from Wiktionary|
|Media from Commons|
|Learning resources from Wikiversity|
|Quotations from Wikiquote|
|Source texts from Wikisource|
|Textbooks from Wikibooks|
- Yemen Government official portal
- Yemen entry at The World Factbook
- Yemen web resources provided by GovPubs at the University of Colorado–Boulder Libraries
- Yemen at the Open Directory Project
- Yemen profile from the BBC News
- Wikimedia Atlas of Yemen
- Yemen travel guide from Wikivoyage
North Yemen concurrent with South Yemen
|Government of Yemen
1990 to date
|Djibouti||Gulf of Aden|