Rescue of the Danish Jews

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The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark during World War II. On October 1, 1943 Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered Danish Jews to be arrested and deported. Despite great personal risk, the Danish resistance movement, with the assistance of many ordinary Danish citizens, managed to evacuate 7,220 of Denmark's 7,800 Jews, plus 686 non-Jewish spouses, by sea to nearby neutral Sweden.[1]

The rescue allowed the vast majority of Denmark's Jewish population to avoid capture by the Nazis and is considered to be one of the largest actions of collective resistance to repression in the countries occupied by Nazi Germany. As a result of the rescue, and the following Danish intercession on behalf of the 464 Danish Jews who were captured and deported to Theresienstadt transit camp in Bohemia, over 99% of Denmark's Jewish population survived the Holocaust.[1]

Memorial in "Denmark Square", Jerusalem

The "model protectorate" (1940–1943)[edit]

On April 9, 1940, Denmark and Norway were invaded by Nazi Germany. Realizing that successful armed resistance was impossible and to avoid civilian casualties, the Danish government surrendered after a few token skirmishes on the morning of the invasion.

The Nazi German government stated that its occupation was against the Allies and that Germany did not intend to disturb the political independence of Denmark.[2] Because the Danish government promised "loyal cooperation" with the Germans, the occupation of Denmark was thus relatively mild at first. German propaganda even referred to Denmark as the "model protectorate".[3] King Christian X retained his throne, and the Danish government, the Rigsdag (parliament) and the national courts continued to function. Even censorship of radio and the press was administered by the Danish government, rather than by the occupying German civil and military authorities.

During the early years of the occupation, Danish officials repeatedly insisted to the German occupation authorities that there was no "Jewish problem" in Denmark. The Germans recognized that discussion of the "Jewish question" in Denmark was a possibly explosive issue, which had the potential to destroy the "model" relationship between Denmark and Germany and, in turn, cause political and economic consequences for Germany. In addition, the German Reich relied substantially upon Danish agriculture, which supplied meat and butter to 3.6 million Germans in 1942 alone.[4] As a result, when officials in Berlin recommended instituting anti-Jewish measures in Denmark, even ideologically committed Nazis, such as Reich Plenipotentiary Werner Best, followed a strategy of avoiding and deferring any discussion of Denmark's Jews.

In late 1941, upon the visit of the Danish foreign minister, Erik Scavenius, to Berlin, German authorities there (including Hermann Göring) insisted that Denmark choose not to avoid its "Jewish problem". A Danish anti-Semitic newspaper used these statements as an opportunity for a slanderous attack on the country's Jews; shortly thereafter, arsonists attempted to start a fire at the Great Synagogue in Copenhagen. The Danish state responded robustly; the courts imposed stiff fines and jail sentences on the editors and would-be arsonists, and the government took further administrative action. Denmark's punishment of anti-Semitic crimes during the occupation were interpreted by the German authorities in Denmark as signaling the Danish view toward any future measures that might be taken against Denmark's Jews by the occupiers.

In mid-1943, Danes saw the German defeats in the Battle of Stalingrad and North Africa as an indication that having to live under German rule was no longer a long-term certainty, as it had seemed in 1940. At the same time, the Danish resistance movement was becoming more vocal in its underground press and its increased sabotage activities. During the summer, several nationwide strikes led to armed confrontations between Danes and German troops. In the wake of increased resistance activities and riots, the German occupation authorities presented the Danish government with an ultimatum on August 28, 1943; they demanded a ban on strikes, a curfew, and the punishment of sabotage with the death penalty. Deeming these terms unacceptable and a violation of national sovereignty, the Danish government declared a state of emergency. Some 100 prominent Danes were taken hostage, including the Chief Rabbi Dr. Max Friediger and a dozen other Jews. In response, the Danish government resigned on August 29, 1943. The result was direct administration of Denmark by the German authorities; this direct form of rule meant that the "model protectorate" had come to an end—and with it, the protection the Danish government had provided for the country's Jews.

The deportation order and rescue[edit]

Without the recalcitrant Danish government to impede them, Denmark's German occupiers began planning the deportation to Nazi concentration camps of the 7,800 or so Jews in Denmark. The German diplomat Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz unsuccessfully attempted to assure safe harbor for the Danish Jews in Sweden—the Swedish government told Duckwitz they would accept the Danish Jews only if approved by the Nazis, who ignored the request for approval. On September 28, 1943, Duckwitz leaked word of the plans for the operation against Denmark's Jews to Hans Hedtoft, chairman of the Danish Social Democratic Party. Hedtoft contacted the Danish Resistance Movement and the head of the Jewish community, C.B. Henriques, who in turn alerted the acting chief rabbi, Dr. Marcus Melchior. At the early morning services, on September 29, the day prior to the Rosh Hashanah services, Jews were promptly warned by Rabbi Melchior of the German action and urged to go into hiding immediately and to spread the word to all their Jewish friends and relatives.

The early phases of the rescue were improvisational. When Danish civil servants at several levels in different ministries learned of the German plan to round up all Danish Jews, they independently pursued various measures to find the Jews and hide them. Some simply phoned friends and asked them to go through telephone books and warn those with Jewish-sounding names to go into hiding. Most Jews hid for several days or weeks, uncertain of their fate.

Although the majority of the Danish Jews were in hiding, they would eventually have been caught if safe passage to Sweden could not be secured. Sweden had earlier been receiving Norwegian Jews, having some sort of Swedish connection. But the actions to save the Norwegians were not entirely efficient, due to the lack of experience how to deal with the German authorities. When the martial laws were introduced in Denmark on August 29, the Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs (UD) realised from the beginning that the Danish Jews were in immediate danger. In a letter dated August 31, the Swedish ambassador in Copenhagen was given clearance by the Chief Legal Officer Gösta Engzell to issue Swedish passports in order to "rescue Danish Jews and bringing them here".[5] On October 2, the Swedish government announced in an official statement that Sweden was prepared to accept all Danish Jews in Sweden, It was a message parallel to an earlier unofficial statement made to the German authorities in Norway.[6]

Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist whose mother was Jewish, made a determined stand for his fellow countrymen in his personal appeal to the Swedish King and government ministers. [7] He was spirited off to Sweden, whose government provided for him transport without delay to the United States to work on the then top-secret Manhattan Project. When Bohr touched Swedish soil, the governmental representatives told him he had to board a plane immediately for the United States. Bohr refused. He told the officials, and eventually the king, that until they announced over their air waves and through their press that their borders would be open to receive the Danish Jews, he wasn't going anywhere. Bohr wrote of these events himself.[8] As related by the historian Richard Rhodes,[7] on September 30 Bohr persuaded King Gustaf of Sweden to make public Sweden’s willingness to provide asylum, and on October 2 Swedish radio broadcast that Sweden was ready to receive the Jewish refugees. Historians Richard Rhodes and others[7] interpret Bohr’s actions in Sweden as being a necessary precursor without which that mass rescue could not have occurred. According to Paul A. Levine however, who does not mention the Bohr factor at all, the Swedish MFA acted based on clear instructions given much earlier by the Prime Minister Hansson and the Foreign Minister Günther, following a policy already established in 1942. Even if Bohr's efforts in Sweden might have been superfluous, he did all that he could for his fellow countrymen.[9]

The Jews were smuggled out of Denmark over the Øresund strait from Zealand to Sweden—a passage of varying time depending on the specific route and the weather, but averaging under an hour on the choppy winter sea. Some were transported in large fishing boats of up to 20 tons, but others were carried to freedom in rowboats or kayaks. The ketch Albatros was one of the ships used to smuggle Jews to Sweden. Some refugees were smuggled inside freight cars on the regular ferries between Denmark and Sweden, this route being suited for the very young or old who were too weak to endure a rough sea passage. The underground had broken into empty freight cars sealed by the Germans after inspection, helped refugees onto the cars, and then resealed the cars with forged or stolen German seals to forestall further inspection.

At first, a few "bad apples" among the fishermen assisting in the rescue charged an excessive sum of money to transport Jews to Sweden, but most took just a modest payments from those who could pay for the passage or were helped by funds supplied by the organizers. The Danish underground took an active role in organizing the rescue and providing financing, mostly from wealthy Danes who donated large sums of money to the endeavor.

During the first days of the rescue action, Jews moved into the many fishing harbors on the Danish coast for rescue, but the Gestapo became suspicious of activity around harbors (and on the night of October 6, about 80 Jews were caught hiding in the loft of the church at Gilleleje, their hiding place having been betrayed by a Danish girl who was in love with a German soldier).[10] Subsequent rescues had to take place from isolated points along the coast. While waiting their turn, the Jews took refuge in the woods and in cottages away from the coast, out of sight of the Gestapo.

Some of the refugees never made it to Sweden; a few chose to commit suicide, some were captured by the Gestapo en route to their point of embarkation, some 23 were lost at sea when vessels of poor seaworthiness capsized, and still others were intercepted at sea by German patrol boats. Danish harbor police and civil police often cooperated with the rescue effort. During the early stages, the Gestapo was undermanned and the German army and navy were called in to reinforce the Gestapo in its effort to prevent transportation taking place; but by and large they proved less than enthusiastic in the operation and frequently turned a blind eye to escapees. The local Germans in command, for their own political calculations and through their own inactivity, may have actually facilitated the escape.[11][12]

Arrests and deportations[edit]

In Copenhagen the deportation order was carried out on the Jewish New Year, the night of October 1–2, when the Germans assumed all Jews would be gathered at home. The roundup was organized by the SS who used two police battalions and about 50 Danish volunteer members of the Waffen SS chosen for their familiarity with Copenhagen and northern Zealand. The SS organized themselves in five-man teams, each with a Dane, a vehicle, and a list of addresses to check. Most teams found no one, but one team found four Jews on the fifth address checked. There a bribe of 15,000 kroner was rejected and the cash destroyed. The arrested Jews were allowed to bring two blankets, food for 3–4 days, and a small suitcase. They were transported to the harbour, Langelinie, where a couple of large ships awaited them. One of the Danish Waffen-SS members believed the Jews were being sent to Danzig.[13]

On October 2, some arrested Danish communists witnessed the deportation of about 200 Jews from Langelinie via the ship Wartheland. Of these, a young married couple were able to convince the Germans that they were not Jewish, and set free. The remainder included mothers with infants, the sick and elderly, chief rabbi Max Friediger, and the other Jewish hostages mentioned above, who had been placed in the Danish internment camp, Horserød, on August 28–29. They were driven below deck without their luggage while being screamed at, kicked and beaten. The Germans then took anything of value from the luggage. Their unloading the next day in Swinemunde was even more inhumane, though without fatalities. There the Jews were driven into two cattle cars, about one hundred per car. During the night, while still locked in the cattle cars, a Jewish mother cried that her child had died. For comparison the Danish communists were packed into cars with "only" fifty people in each; nevertheless, they quickly began to suffer from heat, thirst and lack of ventilation; furthermore, on October 5, shortly before being unloaded in Danzig, they received filthy water for the first time since they had left Copenhagen.[14]

Only some 580 Danish Jews failed to escape to Sweden. Some of these remained hidden in Denmark to the end of the war, a few died of accidents or committed suicide, and a handful had special permission to stay. The vast majority, however, 464 of the 580, were captured and sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in German occupied Czechoslovakia.[1] After these Jews' deportation, leading Danish civil servants persuaded the Germans to accept packages of food and medicine for the prisoners; furthermore, Denmark persuaded the Germans not to deport the Danish Jews to extermination camps. This was achieved by Danish political pressure, using the Danish Red Cross to frequently monitor the condition of the Danish Jews at Theresienstadt. Some 51 Danish Jews—mostly elderly—died of disease at Theresienstadt, but in April 1945, as the war drew to a close, 425 surviving Danish Jews (whereof a few born in the camp) were turned over by the Germans to Folke Bernadotte of the Swedish Red Cross and transported to Sweden (see White Buses).[1] The casualties among Danish Jews during the Holocaust were among the lowest of the occupied countries of Europe. Yad Vashem records only 102 Jews from Denmark who died in the Shoah.

The myth of the Danes and the yellow star[edit]

It has been popularly reported that the Nazis ordered Danish Jews to wear an identifying yellow star, as elsewhere in Nazi controlled territories. In some versions of the myth, King Christian X opted to wear such a star himself and the Danish people followed his example, thus making the order unenforceable.

However, the story is a myth.[15][16] In fact the story about the King and the Star and other similar myths originated in the offices of the National Denmark America Association (NDAA) where a handful of Danish nationals opened a propaganda unit called "Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy", which published a bulletin called The Danish Listening Post. This group hired Edward L. Bernays, "The father of Public Relation and Spin" as a consultant.[17][18][19] Whether Bernays was the inventor of the story about the King and the yellow star, is not known.

Although the Danish authorities cooperated with the German occupation forces, they and most Danes strongly opposed the isolation of any group within the population, especially the well-integrated Jewish community. The German action to deport Danish Jews prompted the Danish state church and all political parties except the pro-Nazi National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (NSWPD) immediately to denounce the action and to pledge solidarity with the Jewish fellow citizens. For the first time, they openly opposed the occupation. At once the Danish bishops issued a hyrdebrev—a pastoral letter to all citizens. The letter was distributed to all Danish ministers, to be read out in every church on the following Sunday. This was in itself very unusual since the Danish church is decentralized, apolitical, and without a central leadership.

The unsuccessful German deportation attempt and the actions to save the Jews were important steps in linking the resistance movement to broader anti-Nazi sentiments in Denmark. In many ways October 1943 and the rescuing of the Jews marked a change in most people's perception of the war and the occupation thereby giving a "subjective-psychological" foundation for the myth.

A few days after the roundup, a small news item in the New York Daily News reported the myth about the wearing of the Star of David. Later, the story gained its popularity in Leon Uris' novel Exodus and in its movie adaptation. It persists to the present, but it is unfounded.

"Righteous among the nations"[edit]

At their initial insistence, the Danish resistance movement wished to be honored only as a collective effort by Yad Vashem in Israel as being part of the "Righteous Among the Nations";[20] only a handful are individually named for that honor. Instead, the rescue of the Jews of Denmark is represented at Yad Vashem by a tree planting to the King and the Danish Resistance movement—and by an authentic fishing boat from the Danish village of Gilleleje.[21] Similarly, the US Holocaust Museum in Washington D.C. has on permanent exhibit an authentic rescue boat used in several crossings in the rescue of some 1400 Jews.

Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz, the German official who leaked word of the round-up, is also on the Yad Vashem list.[22][23]

A partial list of Danish rescuers[edit]

While only a few Danes, mostly non-resistance members who happened to be known by the Jew he or she helped, made the Yad Vashem list, there were several hundreds, if not a few thousands, of ordinary Danes who took part in the rescue efforts. They most often worked within small spontaneously organized groups and "under cover". Known only by their fictitious names they could generally not be identified by those who were helped and thus not meet the Yad Vashem criteria for the "Righteous Among Nations" honor. Below is a partial list of some of the more significant rescuers, both within and outside the formal resistance movement, whose names have surfaced over the years:[24][25][26][27][28]

  • Fanny Arnskov
  • Ellen Marie Christensen
  • Aage and Gerda Bertelsen
  • Richard and Vibeke Ege
  • Jørgen Gersfelt
  • Ejler Haubirk
  • Ole Helwig
  • Leif B. Hendil
  • Erik Husfeldt
  • Signe (Mogensen) Jansen
  • Robert Jensen
  • Jørgen Kieler
  • Elsebeth Kieler
  • Erling Kiær
  • Karl Henrik Køster
  • Thormod Larsen
  • Steffen Lund
  • Ebba Lund
  • Ellen W. Nielsen
  • Robert Petersen
  • Paul Kristian Brandt Rehberg
  • Ole Secher
  • Svenn Seehusen
  • Erik Stærmose
  • Henny Sunding
  • Laust Sørensen
  • Henry Thomsen
  • Henry Rasmussen
  • Børge Rønne
  • Mogens Staffeldt
  • Ellen W. Nielsen

In popular culture[edit]

In literature
  • The Newbery Medal-winning book Number the Stars (1989) by Lois Lowry is a fictional account of the rescue of a Danish Jewish family.
  • Carol Matas's book Lisa's War and "Jasper" are fictional accounts of a Jewish girl and her brother's involvement in Denmark's resistance movement.
  • Elliot Arnold's popular novel A Night of Watching (1967) supplies a fictionalized account of the events surrounding the rescue. Some of the actual German officers who were involved, such as Werner Best and Adolf Eichmann, are integrated into the story.
  • Sandi Toksvig's novel Hitler's Canary is set in Denmark during the German occupation, and the story centres around a family involved in the underground resistance movement.
  • Leon Uris refers to the myth about the Danish king and the yellow star in his novel Exodus (1958) (a reference that was deleted in the Danish version), as did the film of the same name.
In film and TV
  • The 1970 Danish film The Only Way, starring Jane Seymour and shot in English, takes place in October 1943, fictionalizing one Jewish family's escape with the help of Danish civil servants and heroes of the resistance.
  • The 1991 Danish film A Day in October, also shot in English with an international cast, tells the story of a Danish resistance fighter's sabotage activities and his dramatic involvement in helping a Jewish family's escape to Sweden.
  • The 1998 film Miracle at Midnight tells the story of the Denmark Jewish rescue from the point of view of a doctor and his family, who live in Copenhagen and end up hiding a family of Jews.
  • In the celebrated Danish TV series Matador (1978–1982), which takes place in a fictional Danish town between 1929 to 1947 and presents the Nazi occupation of Denmark, a sub-plot follows the troubles of the Jewish banker Mr. Stein, who is also forced to flee the country in 1943. His rescue is assisted by individuals from two rival families key to the story line in the series, thus cooperating regardless of strong feuds between them.
In music
  • Fred Small's album I Will Stand Fast contains the song "Denmark 1943".[29]
  • Peter S. Beagle mentions the myth about the Danish king and the yellow star in his song "Ballad of King Christian X".

Explanations[edit]

Different explanations have been advanced to explain the success of efforts to protect the Danish Jewish population in light of less success at similar operations elsewhere in Nazi-occupied Europe:[30]

  • The German Reich plenipotentiary of Denmark, Werner Best, while he was the one who actually instigated the roundup by a telegram he sent to Hitler on October 8, 1943, apparently got cold feet. He was aware of the efforts by Duckwitz to have the roundup cancelled and obviously also knew about the potential escape of the Jews to Sweden, but he essentially looked the other way, as did the Wehrmacht (which was guarding the Danish coast), in order to preserve Germany's relationship with Denmark.[31]
  • Logistically, the operation was relatively easy. Denmark's Jewish population was small, both in relative and absolute terms, and most of Denmark's Jews lived in or near Copenhagen, only a short sea voyage from neutral Sweden (typically 5 to 10 km over sea). Although hazardous, the boat ride was relatively short and its covert nature was easier to conceal than a comparable land journey.
  • Since the mid-19th century, a particular brand of romantic nationalism had evolved in Denmark. The traits of this nationalism included emphasis on the importance of "smallness", close-knit communities, and traditions—this nationalism being largely a response to Denmark's failure to assert itself as a great power and its losses in the Gunboat War and the Second War of Schleswig. Some historians, such as Leni Yahil (The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy, 1969), believe that the Danish form of non-aggressive nationalism, influenced by Danish spiritual leader N. F. S. Grundtvig, encouraged the Danes to identify with the plight of the Jews, even though small-scale anti-Semitism had been present in Denmark long before the German invasion.[32]
  • Denmark's Jewish population had long been almost completely integrated into Danish society, and some members of the small Jewish community had risen to prominence. Consequently, most Danes perceived the Nazis' action against Denmark's Jews as an affront to all Danes, and rallied to the protection of their country's citizens.
  • The deportation of Jews in Denmark came one year after the deportations of Jews in Norway. That created an outrage in all of Scandinavia, alerted the Danish Jews, and pushed the Swedish government to declare that it would receive all Jews who managed to escape the Nazis.[33]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Leo Goldberger: The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress, NYU Press, 1987, preface pages XX-XXI Linked 2014-04-29
  2. ^ Goldberger, Leo (ed.) (1987). The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3010-8. 
  3. ^ Shirer, William L. (1956). The Challenge of Scandinavia. London: Robert Hale. 
  4. ^ Yahil, Leni (1969) The rescue of Danish Jewry: test of a democracy. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, p.118
  5. ^ Levine, Paul A From Indifference to Activism – Swedish Diplomacy and the Holocaust: 1938–1944, Uppsala 1996.
  6. ^ Levine.
  7. ^ a b c Each of these citations describe the political activity of Bohr in the Nazi era. Each is accessible on Google books.
    • Niels Bohr: Collected Works. The Political Arena (1934–1961), Page 14, Niels Bohr, Léon Rosenfeld, Finn Aaserud, Elsevier, 2005.
    • The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage under Stress, page 10, Leo Goldberger, NYU Press, 1987.
    • The Destruction of the European Jews. Volume 2, page 596, Raul Hilberg, Yale University Press, 2003.
    • Niels Bohr's Times, in Physics, Philosophy, and Polity. page 488. Abraham Pais, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1991
    • "Resistance Fighter: A Personal History of the Danish Resistance. Pages 91–93, Jørgen Kieler, Gefen Publishing House Ltd, 2001
  8. ^ Bohr, Niels; Aaserud, Finn (2005). The Political Arena (1934-1961). Elsevier. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-444-51336-6. Retrieved 27 May 2011. 
  9. ^ first=Leo (1987). The Rescue of the Danish Jews: moral courage under stress. NYU Press. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8147-3011-9. Retrieved 27 May 2011. 
  10. ^ Christian Tortzen, Gilleleje Oktober 1943, Copenhagen: Fremad, 1970
  11. ^ Gunnar S. Paulssen (1995). "The bridge over the Oeresund: The historiography on the expulsion of Jews from Nazi-occupied Denmark," J.contemp. Hist., vol 30, 431–464
  12. ^ Hans Kirschhoff (1995). "A light in the darkness of the Holocaust." A reply to Gunnar S. Paulsson. J. Contemp. Hist., 30:465–479
  13. ^ Christensen, C. B.; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S., Under hagekors og Dannebrog: danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45, p. 254–257, Aschehoug, 2006 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6). (Danish)
  14. ^ Nielsen, Martin, Rapport fra Stutthof, p. 26–36, Gyldendal, 1947. (Danish)
  15. ^ Vilhjálmsson, V. Ö. ”The King and the Star”. In Bastholm Jensen, Mette & Jensen, Steven B. (Ed) Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2003, pp. 102–117
  16. ^ Vilhjálmsson, V. Ö. "Christian X og jøderne: Hovedrolleindehavere i dansk krigspropaganda”. Rambam 19 (2010), 68-85. (An English summary at the rear of the article)
  17. ^ Bernays, Edward L. (1965). Biography of an Idea: Memoirs of Public Relations Counsel. Simon and Schuster. p. 606. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "I offered to help organize the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy, made up for the most part of Americans of Danish ..." 
  18. ^ Hasselriis, Caspar Henrik Wolffsen (1959). Helligdag: erindringer (in Danish). Udgivet af Dansk samvirke hos E. Munksgaard. p. 143. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "... at han vilde engagere den kendte Public Relations Ekspert Edward L. Bernays til at være Raadgiver. ... Resultatet blev Dannelsen af »American Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy«, et Navn f oreslaaet af Mr. Bernays, som mente, ..." 
  19. ^ Jensen, Mette Bastholm; Jensen, Steven L. B. (2003). Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. ISBN 978-87-989305-1-8. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "The "Father of Public Relations and Spin" and nephew of Sigmund Freud Edward L. Bernays (1890–1995), was also hired by the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy as a ..." 
  20. ^ The Rescue of Denmark's Jews: Historical Background
  21. ^ The Holocaust History Museum – Gallery 7
  22. ^ Germany — Duckwitz, Georg Ferdinand
  23. ^ For an alternative interpretation of George Ferdinand Duckwitz' role in the rescue of the Danish Jews, see: [1] Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Ö. "Ich weiss, was ich zu tun habe" RAMBAM 15:2006
  24. ^ Flender, Harold { "Rescue in Denmark"}, London: W.H. Allen, 1963
  25. ^ Goldberger, Leo{"The Rescue of the Danish Jews"}, NYU Press, 1987
  26. ^ Dethlefsen, Henrik.{"De Illegale Svergiesruter"}Odense Universitetsforlag, Odense, Denmark,1993
  27. ^ Werner, Emmy E.{"A Conspiracy of Decency"}.Westview Press, 2002
  28. ^ http://modstand.natmus.dk//
  29. ^ "Denmark 1943"
  30. ^ Leni Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry,Test of a Democracy, 1966; Joergen Haestrup, Til Landets bedste, 1966; Leo Goldberger (ed.) The Rescue of the Danish Jews, 1987; Hans Kirchhoff, A Light in the Darkness of the Holocaust? A Reply to Gunnar S. Paulsson. Journal of contemporary history, 30, 3, 1995, pp. 465–479.
  31. ^ Dansk Jødisk Museum
  32. ^ Buckser, Andrew. "Rescue and Cultural Context During the Holocaust: Grundtvigian Nationalism and the Rescue of the Danish Jews." Shofar 19(2), 2001.
  33. ^ Judiska Museet i Stockholm

References[edit]

  • Bak, Sofie Lene: Nothing to speak of. Wartime Experiences of the Danish Jews. U. of Chicago (Museum Tuscalum Press 2010), ISBN 978 87 635 3958 6.
  • Bertelsen, Aage. October '43. New York: Putnam, 1954.
  • Buckser, Andrew. "Rescue and Cultural Context During the Holocaust: Grundtvigian Nationalism and the Rescue of the Danish Jews". Shofar 19(2), 2001.
  • Goldberger, Leo (ed.) (1987). The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3010-8. 
  • Herbert, Ulrich: Best. Biographische Studien über Radikalismus, Weltanschauung und Vernunft 1903–1989. Habilitationsschrift. Dietz, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-8012-5030-X.
  • Kieler, Jørgen. Hvorfor gjorde vi det. [Why did we do it?]. Copenhagen, Denmark, Gyldendal, 1993.
  • Levine, Paul A, From Indifference to Activism Swedish Diplomacy and the Holocaust 1938-1944, Uppsla 1996.
  • Lampe, David (1957). The Danish Resistance. New York: Ballantine Books. 
  • Lampe, David (1957). The Savage Canary: The Story of the Resistance in Denmark. London: Cassell. 
  • Pundik, Herbert: Die Flucht der dänischen Juden 1943 nach Schweden. Husum, 1995. ISBN 3-88042-734-8.
  • Pundik, Herbert (1998). In Denmark It Could Not Happen: The Flight of the Jews to Sweden in 1943. Hewlett, N.Y.: Gefen. 
  • Stræde, Therkel (1993). October 1943: The Rescue of the Danish Jews From Annihilation. with H. Rovsing Olsen. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Museum of Danish Resistance 1940–1945. 
  • Werner, Emmy E. (2002). Conspiracy of Decency: The Rescue of the Danish Jews during World War II. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. 
  • Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Örn (2006)[2] "Ich weiss, was ich zu tun habe" Rambam 15:2006 (English abstract at the end of the article).
  • Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Örn & Blüdnikow, Bent. Rescue, "Expulsion, and Collaboration: Denmark's Difficulties with its World War II Past". Jewish Political Studies Review 18:3–4 (Fall 2006).
  • Yahil, Leni (1969). Rescue of Danish Jewry; Test of a Democracy. Morris Gradel (tr.). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America. 

External links[edit]