Rescue of the Danish Jews
The rescue of the Danish Jews occurred during Nazi Germany's occupation of Denmark during World War II. On October 1, 1943 Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ordered Danish Jews to be arrested and deported. Despite great personal risk, the Danish resistance movement with the assistance of many ordinary Danish citizens took part in a collective effort to evacuate about 8,000 Jews of Denmark by sea to nearby neutral Sweden.
The rescue allowed the vast majority of Denmark's Jewish population to avoid capture by the Nazis and is considered to be one of the largest actions of collective resistance to repression in the countries occupied by Nazi Germany. As a result of the rescue and Danish intercession on behalf of the 5% of Danish Jews who were deported to Theresienstadt transit camp in Bohemia, over 99% of Denmark's Jewish population survived the Holocaust.
The "model protectorate" (1940–1943) 
On April 9, 1940, Denmark and Norway were invaded by Nazi Germany. Realizing that successful armed resistance was impossible and to avoid civilian casualties, the Danish government surrendered after a few token skirmishes on the morning of the invasion.
The Nazi German government stated that its occupation was against the Allies and that Germany did not intend to disturb the political independence of Denmark. Because the Danish government promised "loyal cooperation" with the Germans, the occupation of Denmark was thus relatively mild at first. German propaganda even referred to Denmark as the "model protectorate". King Christian X retained his throne, and the Danish government, the Rigsdag (parliament) and the national courts continued to function. Even censorship of radio and the press was administered by the Danish government, rather than by the occupying German civil and military authorities.
During the early years of the occupation, Danish officials repeatedly insisted to the German occupation authorities that there was no "Jewish problem" in Denmark. The Germans recognized that discussion of the Jewish question in Denmark was a possibly explosive issue, which had the potential to destroy the "model" relationship between Denmark and Germany and, in turn, cause political and economic consequences for Germany. In addition, the German Reich relied substantially upon Danish agriculture, which supplied meat and butter to 3.6 million Germans in 1942 alone. As a result, when officials in Berlin recommended instituting anti-Jewish measures in Denmark, even ideologically committed Nazis, such as Reich Plenipotentiary Werner Best, followed a strategy of avoiding and deferring any discussion of Denmark's Jews.
In late 1941, upon the visit of the Danish foreign minister, Erik Scavenius, to Berlin, German authorities there (including Hermann Göring) insisted that Denmark choose not to avoid its "Jewish problem". A Danish anti-Semitic newspaper used these statements as an opportunity for a slanderous attack on the country's Jews; shortly thereafter, arsonists attempted to start a fire at the Great Synagogue in Copenhagen. The Danish state responded robustly; the courts imposed stiff fines and jail sentences on the editors and would-be arsonists, and the government took further administrative action. Denmark's punishment of anti-Semitic crimes during the occupation were interpreted by the German authorities in Denmark as signaling the Danish view toward any future measures that might be taken against Denmark's Jews by the occupiers.
In mid-1943, Danes saw the German defeats in the Battle of Stalingrad and North Africa as an indication that having to live under German rule was no longer a long-term certainty, as it had seemed in 1940. At the same time, the Danish resistance movement was becoming more vocal in its underground press and its increased sabotage activities. During the summer, several nationwide strikes led to armed confrontations between Danes and German troops. In the wake of increased resistance activities and riots, the German occupation authorities presented the Danish government with an ultimatum on August 28, 1943; they demanded a ban on strikes, a curfew, and the punishment of sabotage with the death penalty. Deeming these terms unacceptable and a violation of national sovereignty, the Danish government declared a state of emergency. Some 100 prominent Danes were taken hostage, including the Chief Rabbi Dr. Max Friediger and a dozen other Jews. In response, the Danish government resigned on August 29, 1943. The result was direct administration of Denmark by the German authorities; this direct form of rule meant that the "model protectorate" had come to an end—and with it, the protection the Danish government had provided for the country's Jews.
The deportation order and rescue 
Without the recalcitrant Danish government to impede them, Denmark's German occupiers began planning the deportation to Nazi concentration camps of the 8,000 or so Jews in Denmark. The German diplomat Georg Ferdinand Duckwitz unsuccessfully attempted to assure safe harbor for the Danish Jews in Sweden—the Swedish government told Duckwitz they would accept the Danish Jews only if approved by the Nazis, who ignored the request for approval. On September 28, 1943, he leaked word of the plans for the operation against Denmark's Jews to Hans Hedtoft, chairman of the Danish Social Democratic Party. Hedtoft contacted the Danish Resistance Movement and the head of the Jewish community, C.B. Henriques, who in turn alerted the acting chief rabbi, Dr. Marcus Melchior. (The official chief rabbi, Dr. Max Friediger, had already been detained as a "hostage" on the night of August 29, 1943, along with some 100 prominent Danes, including a dozen Jews, in a camp near Copenhagen.) At the early morning services, on September 29, the day prior to the Rosh Hashanah services, Jews were promptly warned by Rabbi Melchior of the German action and urged to go into hiding immediately and to spread the word to all their Jewish friends and relatives.
The early phases of the rescue were improvisational. When Danish civil servants at several levels in different ministries learned of the German plan to round up all Danish Jews, they independently pursued various measures to find the Jews and hide them. Some simply phoned friends and asked them to go through telephone books and warn those with Jewish-sounding names to go into hiding. Most Jews hid for several days or weeks, uncertain of their fate.
Although the majority of the Danish Jews were in hiding, they would eventually have been caught if safe passage to Sweden could not be secured. Sweden had earlier turned away the Norwegian Jews to their certain deaths and they were determined to do the same to the Danish Jews. Fortunately, Niels Bohr, the Danish physicist, made a determined stand for his fellow countrymen. He was spirited off to Sweden, whose government was under strict orders to get him to the United States without delay to work on the then top-secret Manhattan Project. When Bohr reached the shores of Sweden they told him he had to board a plane immediately for the United States. Bohr refused. He told the Swedish officials, and eventually the king, that until they announced over their air waves and through their press that their borders would be open to receive the Danish Jews, he wasn't going anywhere. Bohr wrote of these events himself. As related by the historian Richard Rhodes, on 30 September 1943 Bohr persuaded King Gustaf of Sweden to make public Sweden’s willingness to provide asylum, and on 2 October 1943 Swedish radio broadcast that Sweden was ready to offer asylum. Historians Richard Rhodes and others interpret Bohr’s actions in Sweden as being a necessary precursor without which that mass rescue could not have occurred. Whether or not the mass rescue of the Danish Jews could have happened without Bohr’s political activity in Sweden, there is no doubt that he did all that he could for his countrymen.
The Jews were smuggled out of Denmark over the Øresund strait from Zealand to Sweden—a passage of varying time depending on the specific route and the weather, but averaging under an hour on the choppy winter sea, as noted by Preben Munch-Nielsen in an interview with the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Some were transported in large fishing boats of up to 20 tons, but others were carried to freedom in rowboats or kayaks. The ketch Albatros was one of the ships used to smuggle Jews to Sweden. Some refugees were smuggled inside freight cars on the regular ferries between Denmark and Sweden, this route being suited for the very young or old who were too weak to endure a rough sea passage. The underground had broken into empty freight cars sealed by the Germans after inspection, helped refugees onto the cars, and then resealed the cars with forged or stolen German seals to forestall further inspection.
Some of the fishermen assisting in the rescue charged money to transport Jews to Sweden, while others took payments only from those who could afford passage. The Danish underground took an active role in organizing the rescue and providing financing, mostly from wealthy Danes who donated large sums of money to the endeavour.
During the first days of the rescue action, Jews moved into the many fishing harbours on the Danish coast for rescue, but the Gestapo became suspicious of activity around harbours (and on the night of October 6, about 80 Jews were caught hiding in the loft of the church at Gilleleje, their hiding place having been betrayed by a Danish girl who was in love with a German soldier). Subsequent rescues had to take place from isolated points along the coast. While waiting their turn, the Jews took refuge in the woods and in cottages away from the coast, out of sight of the Gestapo.
Some of the refugees never made it to Sweden; a few chose to commit suicide, some were captured by the Gestapo en route to their point of embarkation, others were lost at sea when vessels of poor seaworthiness capsized, and still others were intercepted at sea by German patrol boats. Danish harbour police and civil police often cooperated with the rescue effort. During the early stages, the Gestapo was undermanned and the German army and navy were called in to reinforce the Gestapo in its effort to prevent transportation taking place; but by and large they proved less than enthusiastic in the operation and frequently turned a blind eye to escapees.
Arrests and deportations 
In Copenhagen the deportation order was carried out on the Jewish New Year, the night of October 1–2, when the Germans assumed all Jews would be gathered at home. The roundup was organized by the SS who used two police battalions and about 50 Danish volunteer members of the Waffen SS chosen for their familiarity with Copenhagen and northern Zealand. The SS organized themselves in five-man teams, each with a Dane, a vehicle and a list of addresses to check. Most teams found no one, but one team found four Jews on the fifth address checked. There a bribe of 15,000 kroner was rejected and the cash destroyed. The arrested Jews were allowed to bring two blankets, food for 3–4 days, and a small suitcase. They were transported to the harbour, Langelinie, where a couple of large ships awaited them. One of the Danish Waffen-SS members believed the Jews were being sent to Danzig.
On October 2, some arrested Danish communists witnessed the deportation of about 200 Jews from Langelinie via the ship Wartheland. Of these, a young married couple were able to convince the Germans that they were not Jewish, and set free. The remainder included mothers with infants, the sick and elderly, and also chief rabbi Max Friediger and the other Jewish hostages mentioned above, who had been placed in the Danish internment camp, Horserød, on August 28–29. They were driven below deck without their luggage while being screamed at, kicked and beaten. The Germans then took anything of value from the luggage. Their unloading the next day in Swinemunde was even more inhumane, though without fatalities. There the Jews were driven into two cattle cars, about one hundred per car. During the night, while still locked in the cattle cars, a Jewish mother cried that her child had died. For comparison the Danish communists were packed into cars with "only" fifty people in each; nevertheless, they quickly began to suffer from heat, thirst and lack of ventilation; furthermore, on October 5, shortly before being unloaded in Danzig, they received (filthy) water for the first time since they had left Copenhagen.
Only around 450 Danish Jews were captured by the Germans, and most of these were sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp in German occupied Czechoslovakia. After these Jews' deportation, leading Danish civil servants persuaded the Germans to accept packages of food and medicine for the prisoners; furthermore, Denmark persuaded the Germans not to deport the Danish Jews to extermination camps. This was achieved by Danish political pressure, using the Danish Red Cross to monitor frequently the condition of the Danish Jews at Theresienstadt. Some 51 Danish Jews—mostly elderly—died of disease at Theresienstadt, but in April 1945, as the war drew to a close, the 400 or so surviving Danish Jews were turned over by the Germans to Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg of the Swedish Red Cross (see White Buses). The casualties among Danish Jews during the Holocaust were among the lowest of the occupied countries of Europe.
The myth of the Danes and the yellow star 
It has been popularly reported that the Nazis ordered Danish Jews to wear an identifying yellow star, as elsewhere in Nazi controlled territories. In some versions of the myth, King Christian X opted to wear such a star himself and the Danish people followed his example, thus making the order unenforceable.
However, the story is a myth. In fact the story about the King and the Star and other similar myths originated in the offices of the National Denmark America Association (NDAA) where a handful of Danish nationals opened a propaganda unit called "Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy", which published a bulletin called The Danish Listening Post. This group hired Edward L. Bernays, "The father of Public Relation and Spin" as a consultant. Whether Bernays was the inventor of the story about the King and the yellow star, is not known.
Although the Danish authorities cooperated with the German occupation forces, they and most Danes strongly opposed the isolation of any group within the population, especially the well-integrated Jewish community. The German action to deport Danish Jews prompted the Danish state church and all political parties except the pro-Nazi National Socialist Workers’ Party of Denmark (NSWPD) immediately to denounce the action and to pledge solidarity with the Jewish fellow citizens. For the first time, they openly opposed the occupation. At once the Danish bishops issued a hyrdebrev—a pastoral letter to all citizens. The letter was distributed to all Danish priests, to be read out in every church on the following Sunday. This was in itself very controversial since the Danish church is decentralized, apolitical, and without a central leadership.
The unsuccessful German deportation attempt and the actions to save the Jews were important steps in linking the resistance movement to broader anti-Nazi sentiments in Denmark. In many ways October 1943 and the rescuing of the Jews marked a change in most people's perception of the war and the occupation thereby giving a "subjective-psychological" foundation for the myth.
A few days after the roundup, a small news item in the New York Daily News reported the myth about the wearing of the Star of David. Later, the story gained its popularity in Leon Uris' novel Exodus and in its movie adaptation. It persists to the present, but it is unfounded.
"Righteous among the nations" 
The Danish resistance movement as a collective effort, rather than as individuals, has been honoured at Yad Vashem in Israel as being part of the "Righteous Among the Nations". The rescue of the Jews of Denmark is represented in Yad Vashem's Holocaust History Museum by an authentic fishing boat from the Danish village of Gilleleje that was used to rescue Jews.
In popular culture 
- Fred Small's album I Will Stand Fast contains the song "Denmark 1943".
- The Newbery Medal-winning book Number the Stars (1989) by Lois Lowry is a fictional account of the rescue of a Danish Jewish family.
- Carol Matas's book Lisa's War and "Jasper" are fictional accounts of a Jewish girl and her brother's involvement in Denmark's resistance movement.
- Peter S. Beagle mentions the myth of the Danes and the yellow star in his song "Ballad of King Christian X".
- Leon Uris also refers to the myth in his novel Exodus (1958), as did the film of the same name.
- Elliot Arnold's popular novel A Night of Watching (1967) supplies a fictionalized account of the events surrounding the rescue. Some of the actual German officers who were involved, such as Werner Best and Adolf Eichmann, are integrated into the story.
- In the celebrated Danish TV series Matador, which takes place in a fictional Danish town between 1929 to 1947 and presents the Nazi occupation of Denmark, a sub-plot follows the troubles of the Jewish banker Mr. Stein, who is also forced to flee the country in 1943. His rescue is assisted by individuals from two rival families key to the story line in the series, thus cooperating regardless of strong feuds between them.
- The 1993 film A Day in October tells the story of a Danish resistance fighter's sabotage activities and his dramatic involvement in helping a Jewish family's escape to Sweden.
- The 1998 film Miracle at Midnight tells the story of the Denmark Jewish rescue from the point of view of a doctor and his family, who live in Copenhagen and end up hiding a family of Jews.
- Sandi Toksvig's novel Hitler's Canary is set in Denmark during the German occupation, and the story centres around a family involved in the underground resistance movement.
- The 1970 film The Only Way, starring Jane Seymour, takes place in October 1943, fictionalizing one Jewish family's escape with the help of Danish civil servants and heroes of the resistance.
Different explanations have been advanced to explain the success of efforts to protect the Danish Jewish population in light of less success at similar operations elsewhere in Nazi-occupied Europe:
- The German Reich plenipotentiary of Denmark, Werner Best, while he was the one who actually instigated the roundup by a telegram he sent to Hitler on October 8, 1943, apparently got cold feet. He was aware of the efforts by Duckwitz to have the roundup cancelled and obviously also knew about the potential escape of the Jews to Sweden, but he essentially looked the other way, as did the Wehrmacht (which was guarding the Danish coast), in order to preserve Germany's relationship with Denmark.
- Logistically, the operation was relatively easy. Denmark's Jewish population was small, both in relative and absolute terms, and most of Denmark's Jews lived in or near Copenhagen, only a short sea voyage from neutral Sweden (typically 5 to 10 km over sea). Although hazardous, the boat ride was relatively short and its covert nature was easier to conceal than a comparable land journey.
- Since the mid-19th century, a particular brand of romantic nationalism had evolved in Denmark. The traits of this nationalism included emphasis on the importance of "smallness", close-knit communities, and traditions—this nationalism being largely a response to Denmark's failure to assert itself as a great power and its losses in the Gunboat War and the Second War of Schleswig. Some historians, such as Leni Yahil (The Rescue of Danish Jewry: Test of a Democracy, 1969), believe that the Danish form of non-aggressive nationalism, influenced by Danish spiritual leader Nikolaj Frederik Severin Grundtvig, encouraged the Danes to identify with the plight of the Jews, even though small-scale anti-Semitism had been present in Denmark long before the German invasion.
- Denmark's Jewish population had long been almost completely integrated into Danish society, and some members of the small Jewish community had risen to prominence. Consequently, most Danes perceived the Nazis' action against Denmark's Jews as an affront to all Danes, and rallied to the protection of their country's citizens.
- The deportation of Jews in Denmark came one year after the deportations of Jews in Norway. That created an outrage in all of Scandinavia, alerted the Danish Jews, and pushed the Swedish government to declare that it would receive all Jews who managed to escape the Nazis.
- Goldberger ]], Leo (ed.) (1987). The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3010-8.
- Shirer, William L. (1956). The Challenge of Scandinavia. London: Robert Hale.
- Yahil, Leni (1969) The rescue of Danish Jewry: test of a democracy. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America, p.118
- Each of these citations describe the political activity of Bohr in the Nazi era. Each is accessible on Google books.
- "Niels Bohr: collected works. The political arena (1934-1961)", Page14, Niels Bohr, Léon Rosenfeld, Finn Aaserud, Elsevier, 2005.
- "The making of the atomic bomb." pages 483-484, Richard Rhodes, Simon and Schuster, 1986.
- "Darkness over Denmark: the Danish resistance and the rescue of the Jews." Ellen Levine, Holiday House, 2000.
- "The Rescue of the Danish Jews: moral courage under stress." page 10, Leo Goldberger, NYU Press, 1987.
- "Blank Spots on the Map: The Dark Geography of the Pentagon's Secret World", Trevor Paglen, Penguin, Penguin, 2010.
- "The destruction of the European Jews." Volume 2, page 596, Raul Hilberg, Yale University Press, 2003.
- "The Holocaust: A History of Courage and Resistance." page 136, Bea Stadtler, Morrison David Beal, David Stone Martin, Behrman House, Inc, 1995.
- "Resistance fighter: a personal history of the Danish resistance." Pages 91-93, Jørgen Kieler, Gefen Publishing House Ltd, 2007
- "Niels Bohr: His life and work as seen by his friends and colleagues.", page 168, Stefan Rozental, North-Holland, 1967.
- "Heisenberg's war: the secret history of the German bomb." page 235, Thomas Powers, Da Capo Press , 2000.
- Bohr, Niels; Aaserud, Finn (2005). The Political Arena (1934-1961). Elsevier. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-444-51336-6. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- The Rescue of the Danish Jews: moral courage under stress. NYU Press. 1987. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-8147-3011-9. Retrieved 27 May 2011. Text "first=Leo" ignored (help)
- Christian Tortzen, Gilleleje Oktober 1943, Copenhagen: Fremad, 1970
- Christensen, C. B.; Poulsen, N. B.; Smith, P. S., Under hagekors og Dannebrog: danskere i Waffen SS 1940–45, p. 254–257, Aschehoug, 2006 (Hardcover, ISBN 978-87-11-11843-6). (Danish)
- Nielsen, Martin, Rapport fra Stutthof, p. 26–36, Gyldendal, 1947. (Danish)
- Vilhjálmsson, V. Ö. ”The King and the Star”. In Bastholm Jensen, Mette & Jensen, Steven B. (Ed) Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies 2003, pp. 102–117
- Vilhjálmsson, V. Ö. "Christian X og jøderne: Hovedrolleindehavere i dansk krigspropaganda”. Rambam 19 (2010), 68-85. (An English summary at the rear of the article
- Bernays, Edward L. (1965). Biography of an idea: memoirs of public relations counsel. Simon and Schuster. p. 606. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "I offered to help organize the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy, made up for the most part of Americans of Danish ..."
- Hasselriis, Caspar Henrik Wolffsen (1959). Helligdag: erindringer (in Danish). Udgivet af Dansk samvirke hos E. Munksgaard. p. 143. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "... at han vilde engagere den kendte Public Relations Ekspert Edward L. Bernays til at være Raadgiver. ... Resultatet blev Dannelsen af »American Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy«, et Navn f oreslaaet af Mr. Bernays, som mente, ..."
- Jensen, Mette Bastholm; Jensen, Steven L. B. (2003). Denmark and the Holocaust. Institute for International Studies, Department for Holocaust and Genocide Studies. ISBN 978-87-989305-1-8. Retrieved 23 May 2011. "The "Father of Public Relations and Spin" and nephew of Sigmund Freud Edward L. Bernays (1890-1995), was also hired by the Friends of Danish Freedom and Democracy as a ..."
- The Rescue of Denmark's Jews: Historical Background
- The Holocaust History Museum – Gallery 7
- Germany — Duckwitz, Georg Ferdinand
- For an alternative interpretation of George Ferdinand Duckwitz' role in the rescue of the Danish Jews, see:  Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Ö. "Ich weiss, was ich zu tun habe" RAMBAM 15:2006 (See English summary at the end of the article)
- "Denmark 1943"
- Leni Yahil, The Rescue of Danish Jewry,Test of a Democracy, 1966; Joergen Haestrup, Til Landets bedste, 1966; Leo Goldberger (ed.) The Rescue of the Danish Jews, 1987; Hans Kirchhoff, A Light in the Darkness of the Holocaust? A Reply to Gunnar S. Paulsson. Journal of contemporary history, 30, 3, 1995, pp. 465–479.
- Dansk Jødisk Museum
- Buckser, Andrew. "Rescue and Cultural Context During the Holocaust: Grundtvigian Nationalism and the Rescue of the Danish Jews." Shofar 19(2), 2001.
- Judiska Museet i Stockholm
- Bak, Sofie Lene: Nothing to speak of. Wartime Experiences of the Danish Jews. With an afterword by Bjarke Følner. The Danish Jewish Museum, 2011
- Bertelsen, Aage. October '43. New York: Putnam, 1954.
- Buckser, Andrew. "Rescue and Cultural Context During the Holocaust: Grundtvigian Nationalism and the Rescue of the Danish Jews". Shofar 19(2), 2001.
- Goldberger, Leo (ed.) (1987). The Rescue of the Danish Jews: Moral Courage Under Stress. New York University Press. ISBN 0-8147-3010-8.
- Herbert, Ulrich: Best. Biographische Studien über Radikalismus, Weltanschauung und Vernunft 1903–1989. Habilitationsschrift. Dietz, Bonn 1996, ISBN 3-8012-5030-X.
- Kieler, Jørgen. Hvorfor gjorde vi det. [Why did we do it?]. Copenhagen, Denmark, Gyldendal, 1993.
- Lampe, David (1957). The Danish Resistance. New York: Ballantine Books.
- Lampe, David (1957). The Savage Canary: The Story of the Resistance in Denmark. London: Cassell.
- Pundik, Herbert: Die Flucht der dänischen Juden 1943 nach Schweden. Husum, 1995. ISBN 3-88042-734-8.
- Pundik, Herbert (1998). In Denmark It Could Not Happen: The Flight of the Jews to Sweden in 1943. Hewlett, N.Y.: Gefen.
- Stræde, Therkel (1993). October 1943: The Rescue of the Danish Jews From Annihilation. with H. Rovsing Olsen. Copenhagen: Royal Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs: Museum of Danish Resistance 1940–1945.
- Werner, Emmy E. (2002). Conspiracy of Decency: The Rescue of the Danish Jews during World War II. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
- Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Örn (2006) "Ich weiss, was ich zu tun habe" Rambam 15:2006 (English abstract at the end of the article).
- Vilhjálmsson, Vilhjálmur Örn & Blüdnikow, Bent. Rescue, "Expulsion, and Collaboration: Denmark's Difficulties with its World War II Past". Jewish Political Studies Review 18:3–4 (Fall 2006).
- Yahil, Leni (1969). Rescue of Danish Jewry; Test of a Democracy. Morris Gradel (tr.). Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.
- United States Holocaust Memorial Museum—Online Exhibition: The Rescue of the Jews of Denmark
- Rescuers during the Holocaust—This bibliography includes a number of books about the Danish rescue of Jews during the Nazi occupation of Denmark.
- "The Fate of the Danish Jews" A detailed article on the rescue of the Jews of Denmark.
- Denmark and the Holocaust - an article in Yad Vashem resource center, by Carol Rittner
- Rescue, Expulsion, and Collaboration:Denmark's Difficulties with its World War II Past. (By Vilhjálmur Örn Vilhjálmsson and Bent Blüdnikow)—This article includes information on recent research not available to the original authors of the Wikipedia article on the Rescue of the Danish Jews.