Max Planck Society
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|Formation||1948 / 1911 (foundation of Kaiser Wilhelm Society)|
|€1.53 billion (2013)|
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science (German: Max-Planck-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der Wissenschaften e. V.; abbreviated MPG) is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany. It is named in honor of its former president, theoretical physicist Max Planck.
The 83 research institutes of the Max Planck Society (as of June 2014) conduct basic research in the interest of the general public in the natural sciences, life sciences, social sciences, and the arts and humanities. They have a total staff of approximately 17,000 permanent employees, including 5,470 scientists, plus around 4,500 non-tenured scientists and guests. Their budget for 2013 was about €1.53 billion, with 80% from state and federal funds.
The Max Planck Institutes focus on excellence in research. The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization, with 33 Nobel Prizes awarded to their scientists, and are generally regarded as the foremost basic research organization in Europe and the world. In 2013, the Nature Publishing Index placed the Max Planck institutes fifth worldwide in terms of research published in Nature journals (after Harvard, MIT, Stanford and the US NIH). In terms of total research volume (unweighted by citations or impact), the Max Planck Society is only outranked by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Russian Academy of Sciences and Harvard University. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the Max Planck Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and the Argonne National Laboratory in the United States).
Other notable networks of publicly funded research institutes in Germany are the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, performing applied research with a focus on industrial collaborations, the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres, a network of the national laboratories in Germany, and the Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Scientific Community, a loose network of institutes performing basic to applied research.
- 1 History
- 2 Organization
- 3 Discrimination controversy
- 4 Nobel Laureates
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 Sources
- 8 External links
The organization was established in 1911 as the Kaiser Wilhelm Society, or Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft (KWG), a non-governmental research organisation named for the then German emperor. The KWG was one of the world's leading research organisations; its board of directors included scientists like Walther Bothe, Peter Debye, Albert Einstein, and Fritz Haber. In 1946, Otto Hahn assumed the position of President of KWG, and in 1948, the society was renamed the Max Planck Society (MPG) after its former President (1930–37) Max Planck, who died in 1947.
The Max Planck Society has a world-leading reputation as a science and technology research organization. In 2006, the Times Higher Education Supplement rankings of non-university research institutions (based on international peer review by academics) placed the Max Planck Society as No.1 in the world for science research, and No.3 in technology research (behind AT&T Corporation and the Argonne National Laboratory in the United States).
List of presidents of the KWG and the MPG
- Adolf von Harnack (1911–1930)
- Max Planck (1930–1937)
- Carl Bosch (1937–1940)
- Albert Vögler (1941–1945)
- Max Planck (16 May 1945 - 31 March 1946)
- Otto Hahn (as President of the KWG 1946 and then as Founder and President of the MPG 1948-1960)
- Adolf Butenandt (1960–1972)
- Reimar Lüst (1972–1984)
- Heinz Staab (1984–1990)
- Hans F. Zacher (1990–1996)
- Hubert Markl (1996–2002)
- Peter Gruss (2002-2014)
- Martin Stratmann (2014-current)
The Max Planck Society is formally an eingetragener Verein, a registered association with the institute directors as scientific members having equal voting rights. The society has its registered seat in Berlin, while the administrative headquarters are located in Munich. In 2002 the cell biologist Peter Gruss assumed the office of President of the MPG. The materials scientist Martin Stratmann has been President of the Max Planck Society since June 2014.
Funding is provided predominantly from federal and state sources, but also from research and license fees and donations. One of the larger donations was the castle Schloss Ringberg near Kreuth in Bavaria. The castle was pledged by Luitpold Emanuel in Bayern (Duke in Bavaria); it passed to the Max Planck Society after the death of the duke in 1973 and is now used for conferences.
Max Planck Institutes and Research Groups
The Max Planck Society consists of over 80 research institutes. In addition, the society funds a number of Max Planck Research Groups (MPRG) and International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS). The purpose of establishing independent research groups at various universities is to strengthen the required networking between universities and institutes of the Max Planck Society.
The research units are located all over Germany and in other European countries. The society established its first non-European centre, with an institute on the Jupiter campus of Florida Atlantic University focusing on neuroscience.
The Max Planck Institutes operate independently from, though in close cooperation with, the universities, and focus on innovative research which does not fit into the university structure due to their interdisciplinary or transdisciplinary nature or which require resources that cannot be met by the state universities.
Internally, Max Planck Institutes are organized into research departments headed by directors such that each MPI has several directors, a position roughly comparable to anything from full professor to department head at a university.
In addition, there are several associated institutes:
|Center of Advanced European Studies and Research||Bonn||Germany||Biology & Medicine|
|Ernst Strüngmann Institute||Frankfurt am Main||Germany||Biology & Medicine|
Max Planck Society also has a collaborative center with Princeton University—Max Planck Princeton Research Center for Plasma Physics—located in Princeton, New Jersey, the U.S.
International Max Planck Research Schools
Together with the Association of Universities and other Education Institutions in Germany, the Max Planck Society established numerous International Max Planck Research Schools (IMPRS) to promote junior scientists:
- Cologne Graduate School of Ageing Research, Cologne
- International Max Planck Research School on Adapting Behavior in a Fundamentally Uncertain World (Uncertainty School), at the Max Planck Institutes for Economics, for Human Development, and/or Research on Collective Goods.
- International Max Planck Research School for Analysis, Design and Optimization in Chemical and Biochemical Process Engineering , Magdeburg
- International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Cosmic Physics, Heidelberg at the MPI for Astronomy
- International Max Planck Research School for Astrophysics, Garching at the MPI for Astrophysics
- International Max Planck Research School for Complex Surfaces in Material Sciences , Berlin
- International Max Planck Research School for Computer Science , Saarbrücken
- International Max Planck Research School for Earth System Modeling , Hamburg
- International Max Planck Research School for Elementary Particle Physics , Munich, at the MPI for Physics
- International Max Planck Research School for Environmental, Cellular and Molecular Microbiology, Marburg at the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology
- International Max Planck Research School for Evolutionary Biology , Plön at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology
- International Max Planck Research School for Global Biogeochemical Cycles , Jena
- International Max Planck Research School on Gravitational Wave Astronomy , Hannover and Potsdam MPI for Gravitational Physics
- International Max Planck Research School for Heart and Lung Research , Bad Nauheim at the Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research
- International Max Planck Research School for Language Sciences , Nijmegen
- International Max Planck Research School for Neurosciences , Göttingen
- International Max Planck Research School for Neural & Behavioural Sciences , Tübingen
- International Max Planck Research School for Marine Microbiology (MarMic) , joint program of the Max Planck Institute for Marine Microbiology in Bremen, the University of Bremen, the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research in Bremerhaven, and the Jacobs University Bremen
- International Max Planck Research School for Maritime Affairs , Hamburg
- International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Biology, Freiburg
- International Max Planck Research School for Molecular and Cellular Life Sciences , Munich
- International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Biology , Göttingen
- International Max Planck Research School for Molecular Cell Biology and Bioengineering , Dresden
- International Max Planck Research School Molecular Biomedicine , program combined with the 'Graduate Programm Cell Dynamics And Disease' at the University of Münster and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine
- International Max Planck Research School for Organismal Biology, at the University of Konstanz and the Max Planck Institute for Ornithology
- International Max Planck Research School on Physical Processes in the Solar System and Beyond, Katlenburg-Lindau at the MPI for Solar System Research
- International Max Planck Research School for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Bonn at the MPI for Radio Astronomy, formerly known as the International Max Planck Research School for Radio and Infrared Astronomy
- International Max Planck Research School for the Social and Political Constitution of the Economy , Cologne
- International Max Planck Research School for Surface and Interface Engineering in Advanced Materials, Düsseldorf at Max Planck Institute for Iron Research GmbH
- International Max Planck Research School for Ultrafast Imaging and Structural Dynamics , Hamburg
- The Max Planck Centre for Attosecond Science (MPC-AS), POSTECH Pohang
- The Max Planck POSTECH Center for Complex Phase Materials, POSTECH Pohang
- Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in 2004
- Max Planck Institute for Biology in Tübingen was closed in 2005
- Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology in Ladenburg b. Heidelberg was closed 2003
- Max Planck Institute for Ionospheric Research in Katlenburg-Lindau was renamed to Max Planck Institute for Aeronomics in 1958
- Max Planck Institute for Metals Research, Stuttgart
- Max Planck Institute of Oceanic Biology in Wilhelmshaven renamed to Max Planck Institute of Cell Biology in 1968 and moved to Ladenburg 1977
- Max Planck Institute for Psychological Research in München merged into the Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences in 2004
- Max Planck Institute for Protein and Leather Research in Regensburg moved to Munich 1957 and was united with the Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry in 1977
- Max Planck Institute for Virus Research in Tübingen since 1985 Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology
- Max Planck Institute for the Study of the Scientific-Technical World in Starnberg (from 1970 until 1981 (closed)) directed by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker and Jürgen Habermas
In 2004 there was a controversy regarding the employment of foreign workers. Allegedly, foreign PhD students were systematically granted worse contracts than Germans were. The case was brought to the European Civil Court by Andrea Raccanelli and is well documented on his website. The court ruled that the MPG must observe the principle of non-discrimination in relation to workers. Recent developments on the issue include an article in the German newspaper Der Spiegel denouncing unfair working conditions, the reply by the MPS supporting the working conditions offered to PhD students, and a complaint in Parliament by the German left-wing party Die Linke.
Max-Planck-Society (since 1948)
- Stefan W. Hell, Nobel prize chemistry 2014
- Gerhard Ertl, Nobel prize chemistry 2007
- Theodor W. Hänsch, Nobel prize physics 2005
- Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard, Nobel prize medicine 1995
- Paul Crutzen, Nobel prize chemistry 1995
- Erwin Neher, Nobel prize medicine 1991
- Bert Sakmann, Nobel prize medicine 1991
- Robert Huber, Nobel prize chemistry 1988
- Hartmut Michel, Nobel prize chemistry 1988
- Johann Deisenhofer, Nobel prize chemistry 1988
- Ernst Ruska, Nobel prize physics 1986
- Klaus von Klitzing, Nobel prize physics 1985
- Georges Köhler, Nobel prize medicine 1984
- Konrad Lorenz, Nobel prize medicine 1973
- Manfred Eigen, Nobel prize chemistry 1967
- Feodor Lynen, Nobel prize medicine 1964
- Karl Ziegler, Nobel prize chemistry 1963
- Walter Bothe, Nobel prize physics 1954
- Otto Hahn, Nobel prize chemistry 1944
- Adolf Butenandt, Nobel prize chemistry 1939
- Richard Kuhn, Nobel prize chemistry 1938
- Peter J. W. Debye, Nobel prize chemistry 1936
- Hans Spemann, Nobel prize medicine 1935
- Werner Heisenberg, Nobel prize physics 1932
- Otto Heinrich Warburg, Nobel prize medicine 1931
- Carl Bosch, Nobel prize chemistry 1931
- James Franck, Nobel prize physics 1925
- Otto Meyerhof, Nobel prize medicine 1922
- Albert Einstein, Nobel prize physics 1921
- Max Planck, Nobel prize physics 1918
- Fritz Haber, Nobel prize chemistry 1918
- Richard Willstätter, Nobel prize chemistry 1915
- Max von Laue, Nobel prize physics 1914
- "MPG Facts and Figures". Retrieved 2013-11-28.
- Nature Publishing Index - 2013 Global Top 200, Nature Publishing Group
- The titans: Institutional rankings by output and citations, Times Higher Education, 17 September 2009.
- "Top non-university institutions in science". Times Higher Education Supplement. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Top non-university institutions in science". Times Higher Education Supplement. Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "Max Planck Society attracts almost 2m visitors online yearly". Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- "MPG Organization". Retrieved 2009-03-01.
- see Homepage of Martin Stratmann at www.mpg.de
- "Institute - Max-Planck-Institute". Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- Check, Erika (20 September 2007). "Florida courts German life-sciences institute". Nature 449 (7160): 264–265. Bibcode:2007Natur.449..264C. doi:10.1038/449264b. PMID 17882174.
- "Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience Website".
- "International - Max Planck Center / Partnerinstitute - Max Planck-Princeton Research Center for Plasma Physics". Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 2015. Retrieved 26 March 2015.
- "Documentary of the Lawsuit". Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "Summary of the Judgment". Retrieved 2012-12-05.
- "German article about PhD working conditions in the MPS". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- "Official MPS position on the issue of PhD funding". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- "Recording of the intervention". Retrieved 2013-02-23.
- Alison Abbott: German science starts facing up to its historical amnesia, in: Nature Vol 403 (2000), S.474f. (article about the Commission for the history of the Kaiser-Wilhelm-Gesellschaft under National Socialism)
- Gretchen Vogel: Aufbau Ost: Max Planck's East German Experiment, in: Science Vol. 326, 6. November 2009 (about the new institutes in the eastern part of Germany)