Research stations in Antarctica

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Research stations of Antarctica)
Jump to: navigation, search
Map shows the location of permanent Antarctic research stations

A number of governments maintain permanent research stations in Antarctica and these bases are widely distributed. Unlike the bases set up in the Arctic (see Drifting ice station), the research stations of the Antarctic are constructed either on rock or on ice that is (for practical purposes) fixed in place.

Many of the stations are staffed around the year. A total of 30 countries (as of October 2006), all signatories to the Antarctic Treaty, operate seasonal (summer) and year-round research stations on the continent. The population of people performing and supporting scientific research on the continent and nearby islands varies from approximately 4,000 during the summer season to 1,000 during winter (June).[citation needed] In addition to these permanent stations, approximately 30 field camps are established each summer to support specific projects.[1][dubious ]

History[edit]

First base[edit]

"Omond House", the first permanent base, built in 1903 by the Scottish National Antarctic Expedition.

During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration in the early 20th century, the first bases on the continent were established. In 1903, Dr William S. Bruce's Scottish National Antarctic Expedition set off to Antarctica, with one of its aims to establish a meteorological station in the area.

After the expedition failed to find land, Bruce decided to head back to the South Orkneys and find an anchorage there.[2] The islands were well-situated as a site for a meteorological station, and their relative proximity to the South American mainland allowed a permanent station to be established.[3] Bruce instituted a comprehensive programme of work, involving meteorological readings, trawling for marine samples, botanical excursions, and the collection of biological and geological specimens.[2]

The major task completed during this time was the construction of a stone building, christened "Omond House".[4] This was to act as living accommodation for the parties that would remain on Laurie Island to operate the proposed meteorological laboratory. The building was constructed from local materials using the dry stone method, with a roof improvised from wood and canvas sheeting. The completed house was 20 feet square (6m × 6m), with two windows, fitted as quarters for six people. Rudmose Brown wrote: "Considering that we had no mortar and no masons' tools it is a wonderfully fine house and very lasting. I should think it will be standing a century hence ..."[5]

Bruce later offered to Argentina the transfer of the station and instruments on the condition that the government committed itself to the continuation of the scientific mission.[6] Bruce informed the British officer William Haggard of his intentions in December 1903, and Haggard ratified the terms of Bruce proposition.[7]

The Scotia sailed back for Laurie Island on 14 January 1904 carrying on board Argentinean officials from the Ministry of Agriculture, National Meteorological Office, Ministry of Livestock and National Postal and Telegraphs Office. In 1906, Argentina communicated to the international community the establishment of a permanent base on South Orkney Islands.

WWII and postwar expansion[edit]

Little happened for the following forty years until the Second World War, when the British launched Operation Tabarin in 1943, to establish a presence on the continent. The chief reason was to establish solid British claims to various uninhabited islands and parts of Antarctica, reinforced by Argentine sympathies toward Germany.

View of Chile's Captain Arturo Prat Base, established in 1947.

Prior to the start of the war, German aircraft had dropped markers with swastikas across Queen Maud Land in an attempt to create a territorial claim, see New Swabia.[8] Led by Lieutenant James Marr, the 14-strong team left the Falkland Islands in two ships, HMS William Scoresby (a minesweeping trawler) and Fitzroy, on Saturday January 29, 1944. Marr had accompanied the British explorer Ernest Shackleton on his Antarctic expeditions in the 1920s.

Bases were established during February near the abandoned Norwegian whaling station on Deception Island, where the Union Flag was hoisted in place of Argentine flags, and at Port Lockroy (on February 11) on the coast of Graham Land. A further base was founded at Hope Bay on February 13, 1945, after a failed attempt to unload stores on February 7, 1944. These bases were the first ever to be constructed on the mainland Antarctica.[9]

The Operation provoked a massive expansion in international activity after the war. Chile organized its First Chilean Antarctic Expedition in 1947–48. Among other accomplishments, it brought the Chilean president Gabriel González Videla to personally inaugurate one of its bases, thereby becoming the first head of state to set foot on the continent.[10] Signy Research Station (UK) was established in 1947, Dumont d'Urville Station was the first French station in 1956. In the same year McMurdo Station was built by the United States and the Mirny Station was established by the Soviet Union.

Research stations[edit]

Base Open Countries Established Operator Situation Coordinates Time zone
Aboa Summer Finland Finland 1989 Finnish Antarctic Research Program Queen Maud Land 73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Aboa (Finland))
Almirante Brown Antarctic Base Summer Argentina Argentina 1951 Argentine Antarctic Institute Antarctic Peninsula 64°53′42.4″S 62°52′16.8″W / 64.895111°S 62.871333°W / -64.895111; -62.871333 (Almirante Brown Antarctic Base (Argentina)) iUTC-3
Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station Permanent United States United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Geographical South Pole 90°S 0°E / 90°S 0°E / -90; 0 (Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (USA)) xUTC+12*
Artigas Base Permanent Uruguay Uruguay 1984 Uruguayan Antarctic Institute King George Island 62°11′3.4″S 58°54′11.9″W / 62.184278°S 58.903306°W / -62.184278; -58.903306 (Artigas Base (Uruguay)) iUTC-3
Asuka Station Summer Japan Japan 1985 National Institute of Polar Research
unmanned observation
Queen Maud Land 71°31′34″S 24°08′17″E / 71.52611°S 24.13806°E / -71.52611; 24.13806 (Asuka Station (Japan))
Belgrano II Permanent Argentina Argentina 1979 Argentine Antarctic Institute Coats Land 77°52′27.8″S 34°37′14.9″W / 77.874389°S 34.620806°W / -77.874389; -34.620806 (General Belgrano II (Argentina)) iUTC-3
Bellingshausen Station Permanent Russia Russia 1968 Russian Antarctic Expedition King George Island 62°11′47″S 58°57′39″W / 62.19639°S 58.96083°W / -62.19639; -58.96083 (Bellingshausen Station (Russia))
Bernardo O'Higgins Station Permanent Chile Chile 1948 Chilean Army
Logistics
Antarctic Peninsula 63°19′15″S 57°53′56.2″W / 63.32083°S 57.898944°W / -63.32083; -57.898944 (Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme Station (Chile)) hUTC-4*
Bharati Permanent India India 2012 Indian Antarctic Program Larsemann Hills 69°24′28″S 76°11′14″E / 69.40778°S 76.18722°E / -69.40778; 76.18722 (Bharathi Station (India))
Byrd Station Summer United States United States 1957 United States Antarctic Program Marie Byrd Land 80°01′00″S 119°32′00″W / 80.01667°S 119.53333°W / -80.01667; -119.53333 (Byrd Station (USA))
Captain Arturo Prat Base Permanent Chile Chile 1947 Chilean Navy Greenwich Island 62°28′45″S 59°39′51″W / 62.47917°S 59.66417°W / -62.47917; -59.66417 (Captain Arturo Prat Base (Chile)) hUTC-4*
Casey Station Permanent Australia Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Vincennes Bay 66°16′55.6″S 110°31′31.9″E / 66.282111°S 110.525528°E / -66.282111; 110.525528 (Casey Station (Australia)) tUTC+8
Comandante Ferraz Antarctic Station Permanent Brazil Brazil 1984 Brazilian Antarctic Program King George Island 62°05′00″S 58°23′28.2″W / 62.08333°S 58.391167°W / -62.08333; -58.391167 (Comandante Ferraz Brazilian Antarctic Base (Brazil)) iUTC-3
Concordia Station Permanent Italy Italy
France France
2005 Concordia Station is a joint French-Italian research facility, managed by PNRA (National Antarctic Research Program of Italy) and IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor)

research topics: human biology, geomagnetic observations, geodesy, glaciology, meteorological observations, astronomy, seismology and environmental monitoring [11][12][13][14]
Dome C, Antarctic Plateau 75°06′00″S 123°20′00″E / 75.10000°S 123.33333°E / -75.10000; 123.33333 (Concordia Station (Italy-France)) sUTC+10
Davis Station Permanent Australia Australia 1957 Australian Antarctic Division Princess Elizabeth Land 68°34′35.3″S 77°58′9.2″E / 68.576472°S 77.969222°E / -68.576472; 77.969222 (Davis Station (Australia)) sUTC+7
Dome Fuji Station Summer Japan Japan 1995 National Institute of Polar Research Queen Maud Land 77°19′01″S 39°42′12″E / 77.31694°S 39.70333°E / -77.31694; 39.70333 (Dome Fuji Station (Japan))
Dumont d'Urville Station Permanent France France 1956 IPEV (Institut Polaire Français Paul Émile Victor) Adélie Land 66°39′47.3″S 140°00′5.3″E / 66.663139°S 140.001472°E / -66.663139; 140.001472 (Dumont d'Urville Station (France)) vUTC+10
Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva and Villa Las Estrellas Permanent Chile Chile 1969 Chilean Air Force King George Island 62°11.7′S 58°58.7′W / 62.1950°S 58.9783°W / -62.1950; -58.9783 (Base Presidente Eduardo Frei Montalva (Chile)) hUTC-4*
Esperanza Base Permanent Argentina Argentina 1975 Argentine Antarctic Institute Hope Bay 63°23′50.3″S 56°59′49.3″W / 63.397306°S 56.997028°W / -63.397306; -56.997028 (Esperanza Base (Argentina)) iUTC-3
Gabriel de Castilla Station Summer Spain Spain 1989 CSIC
Marine biology [15]
Deception Island 62°58′40.5″S 60°33′38.4″W / 62.977917°S 60.560667°W / -62.977917; -60.560667 (Gabriel de Castilla Spanish Antarctic Station (Spain))
Gonzalez Videla Station Summer Chile Chile 1951 Chilean Air Force Paradise Bay, Water Boat Point. 64°49′24″S 62°51′29″W / 64.82333°S 62.85806°W / -64.82333; -62.85806 (Gonzalez Videla Station (Chile))
Great Wall Station Permanent China China 1985 Polar Research Institute of China King George Island 62°13′02″S 58°57′41.5″W / 62.21722°S 58.961528°W / -62.21722; -58.961528 (Great Wall Station (China))
Halley Research Station Permanent United Kingdom United Kingdom 1956 British Antarctic Survey [16] Brunt Ice Shelf 75°35′00″S 26°34′00″W / 75.58333°S 26.56667°W / -75.58333; -26.56667 (Halley Research Station (UK))
Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station Permanent Poland Poland 1977 Polish Academy of Sciences King George Island 62°09′0.14″S 058°28′2.1″W / 62.1500389°S 58.467250°W / -62.1500389; -58.467250 (Henryk Arctowski Polish Antarctic Station (Poland))
Jang Bogo Station Permanent South Korea South Korea 2014 Korea Antarctic Research Program Terra Nova Bay 74°37′0″S 164°12′5″E / 74.61667°S 164.20139°E / -74.61667; 164.20139 (Jang Bogo Sceince Station (South Korea)) UTC+11
Jinnah Antarctic Station Summer Pakistan Pakistan 1991 Pakistan Antarctic Programme Sør Rondane Mountains, Queen Maud Land 70°24′S 25°45′E / 70.400°S 25.750°E / -70.400; 25.750 (Jinnah Antarctic Station (Pakistan))
Juan Carlos I Station Summer Spain Spain 1988 CSIC
Laboratory, investigation and meteorogical station.[17]
South Bay, Livingston Island 62°39′45.9″S 60°23′25.3″W / 62.662750°S 60.390361°W / -62.662750; -60.390361 (Juan Carlos I Base (Spain))
Jubany Permanent Argentina Argentina 1953 Argentine Antarctic Institute King George Island 62°14′16.7″S 58°40′0.2″W / 62.237972°S 58.666722°W / -62.237972; -58.666722 (Jubany (Argentina)) iUTC-3
King Sejong Station Permanent South Korea South Korea 1988 Korea Antarctic Research Program King George Island 62°13′23.2″S 58°47′13.4″W / 62.223111°S 58.787056°W / -62.223111; -58.787056 (King Sejong Station (South Korea)) UTC-3
Kohnen-Station Summer Germany Germany 2001 Alfred Wegener Institute Queen Maud Land 75°00′S 00°04′E / 75.000°S 0.067°E / -75.000; 0.067 (Kohnen-Station (Germany))
Kunlun Station Summer China China 2009 Polar Research Institute of China Dome A 80°25′01″S 77°06′58″E / 80.41694°S 77.11611°E / -80.41694; 77.11611 (Kunlun Station (China))
Law-Racoviţă Station Permanent Romania Romania 1986 Romanian Polar Research Institute Larsemann Hills, Princess Elizabeth Land 69°23′18.9″S 76°22′50.75″E / 69.388583°S 76.3807639°E / -69.388583; 76.3807639 (Law-Racoviţă Station (Romania))
Leningradskaya Station Summer Russia Russia 1971-1991
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic Expedition Oates Coast, Victoria Land 69°30′00″S 159°23′00″E / 69.50000°S 159.38333°E / -69.50000; 159.38333 (Leningradskaya Station (Russia))
Machu Picchu Research Station Summer Peru Peru 1989 Peruvian Antarctic Institute (INANPE) [18] Admiralty Bay, King George Island 62°05′29.9″S 58°28′15.4″W / 62.091639°S 58.470944°W / -62.091639; -58.470944 (Machu Picchu Research Station (Peru))
Maitri Station Permanent India India 1989 Indian Antarctic Program Schirmacher Oasis 70°45′57.7″S 11°43′56.2″E / 70.766028°S 11.732278°E / -70.766028; 11.732278 (Maitri Station (India))
Maldonado Base Summer Ecuador Ecuador 1990 Ecuadorian Antarctic Institute Greenwich Island 62°26′56.6″S 59°44′29″W / 62.449056°S 59.74139°W / -62.449056; -59.74139 (Maldonado Base (Ecuador))
Marambio Base Permanent Argentina Argentina 1969 Argentine Antarctic Institute Seymour-Marambio Island 64°14′27.1″S 56°37′26.7″W / 64.240861°S 56.624083°W / -64.240861; -56.624083 (Marambio Base (Argentina)) iUTC-3
Mario Zucchelli Station Permanent Italy Italy 1986 National Antarctic Research Program (PNRA)
with the collaboration of ENEA and CNR

research topics: offshore marine biology, terrestrial biology, oceanography, geomagnetic observations, geodesy, onshore geology, glaciology, meteorological observations, ionospheric/auroral observations, cosmic ray observations, seismology and environmental monitoring [19][20][21]
Terra Nova Bay, Ross Sea 74°41′39.9″S 164°06′46.5″E / 74.694417°S 164.112917°E / -74.694417; 164.112917 (Mario Zucchelli Station (Italy)) xUTC+12
Mawson Station Permanent Australia Australia 1954 Australian Antarctic Division Mac Robertson Land 67°36′10.1″S 62°52′22.8″E / 67.602806°S 62.873000°E / -67.602806; 62.873000 (Mawson Station (Australia)) rUTC+6
McMurdo Station Permanent United States United States 1956 United States Antarctic Program Ross Island 77°50′43.4″S 166°40′11.2″E / 77.845389°S 166.669778°E / -77.845389; 166.669778 (McMurdo Station (USA)) xUTC+12*
Mendel Polar Station Summer Czech Republic Czech Republic 2006 Masaryk University
biological, geological and climate research
James Ross Island 63°48′6.5″S 57°53′7.9″W / 63.801806°S 57.885528°W / -63.801806; -57.885528 (Mendel Polar Station (Czech Republic))
Mirny Station Permanent Russia Russia 1956 Russian Antarctic Expedition
glaciology, seismology, meteorology, polar lights, cosmic radiation, and marine biology
Davis Sea 66°33′10.4″S 93°00′34.8″E / 66.552889°S 93.009667°E / -66.552889; 93.009667 (Mirny Station (Russia))
Mizuho Station Summer Japan Japan 1970 National Institute of Polar Research
Transshipment station
- 70°41′53″S 44°19′54″E / 70.69806°S 44.33167°E / -70.69806; 44.33167 (Mizuho Station (Japan))
Molodyozhnaya Station Summer Russia Russia
Belarus Belarus
1962-1990
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic Expedition
Meteorology [22]
67°39′57.0″S 45°50′33.2″E / 67.665833°S 45.842556°E / -67.665833; 45.842556 (Molodyozhnaya Station (Russia))
Neumayer-Station III Permanent Germany Germany 2009 Alfred Wegener Institute Atka Bay 70°40′8″S 08°16′1.95″W / 70.66889°S 8.2672083°W / -70.66889; -8.2672083 (Neumayer-Station III (Germany)) lUTC
Novolazarevskaya Station Permanent Russia Russia 1961 Russian Antarctic Expedition Queen Maud Land 70°49′21.1″S 11°38′40.1″E / 70.822528°S 11.644472°E / -70.822528; 11.644472 (Novolazarevskaya Station (Russia))
Orcadas Base Permanent Argentina Argentina 1904 Argentine Antarctic Institute, Argentine Navy Laurie Island, South Orkney Islands 60°44′15.5″S 44°44′22″W / 60.737639°S 44.73944°W / -60.737639; -44.73944 (Orcadas Base (Argentina)) iUTC-3
Palmer Station Permanent United States United States 1968 United States Antarctic Program
Science labs, a dock and a helicopter pad.
Anvers Island 64°46′27.1″S 64°03′11″W / 64.774194°S 64.05306°W / -64.774194; -64.05306 (Palmer Station (USA)) hUTC-4
Princess Elisabeth Base Permanent Belgium Belgium 2007 Belgium Polar Secretariat
Energy-passive research station.
Queen Maud Land 71°34′12″S 23°12′00″E / 71.57000°S 23.20000°E / -71.57000; 23.20000 (Princess Elisabeth Base (Belgium))
Professor Julio Escudero Base Permanent Chile Chile 1994 Chilean Antarctic Institute King George Island 62°12′4.2″S 58°57′45.3″W / 62.201167°S 58.962583°W / -62.201167; -58.962583 (Professor Julio Escudero Base (Chile)) hUTC-4*
Progress Station Summer Russia Russia 1988 Russian Antarctic Expedition Prydz Bay 69°22′48.2″S 76°23′19.1″E / 69.380056°S 76.388639°E / -69.380056; 76.388639 (Progress Station (Russia))
Rothera Research Station Permanent United Kingdom United Kingdom 1975 British Antarctic Survey Adelaide Island 67°34′08.3″S 68°07′29.1″W / 67.568972°S 68.124750°W / -67.568972; -68.124750 (Rothera Research Station (UK))
Russkaya Station Summer Russia Russia 1980-1990
(re-opening in 2007-2008)
Russian Antarctic Expedition Marie Byrd Land 74°46′00″S 136°52′00″W / 74.76667°S 136.86667°W / -74.76667; -136.86667 (Russkaya Station (Russia)) fUTC-6[23]
San Martín Base Permanent Argentina Argentina 1951 Argentine Antarctic Institute Barry Island 68°07′48.9″S 67°06′7.2″W / 68.130250°S 67.102000°W / -68.130250; -67.102000 (San Martín Base (Argentina)) iUTC-3
SANAE IV (South African National Antarctic Expedition) Permanent South Africa South Africa 1962
(SANAE I)
South African National Antarctic Programme Vesleskarvet in Queen Maud Land 71°40′21.9″S 2°50′24.9″W / 71.672750°S 2.840250°W / -71.672750; -2.840250 (SANAE IV (South Africa)) iUTC+2
St. Kliment Ohridski Base Permanent Bulgaria Bulgaria 1988 Bulgarian Antarctic Institute
Biological research, laboratorial and meteorological measurements. First Eastern Orthodox chapel, St. Ivan Rilski
Emona Anchorage, Livingston Island 62°38′29″S 60°21′53″W / 62.64139°S 60.36472°W / -62.64139; -60.36472 (St. Kliment Ohridski Base (Bulgaria))
Scott Base Permanent New Zealand New Zealand 1957 Antarctica New Zealand
Antarctic physical environments, Southern Ocean and Antarctic ecosystems.
Ross Island 77°50′58.5″S 166°46′5.9″E / 77.849583°S 166.768306°E / -77.849583; 166.768306 (Scott Base (New Zealand)) xUTC+12
Showa Station Permanent Japan Japan 1957 National Institute of Polar Research East Ongul Island 69°00′15.6″S 39°34′48.9″E / 69.004333°S 39.580250°E / -69.004333; 39.580250 (Showa Station (Japan)) oUTC+3
Signy Research Station Summer (Permanent 1947-1995) United Kingdom United Kingdom 1947 British Antarctic Survey Signy Island, South Orkney Islands 60°43′S 45°36′W / 60.717°S 45.600°W / -60.717; -45.600 (Signy Research Station (UK))
Svea Research Station Summer Sweden Sweden 1988 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land 74°34′34″S 11°13′31″W / 74.57611°S 11.22528°W / -74.57611; -11.22528 (Svea (Sweden))
Taishan Station[24] Summer China China 2014 Polar Research Institute of China Princess Elizabeth Land 73°51′S 76°58′E / 73.850°S 76.967°E / -73.850; 76.967 (Taishan Station (China))
Tor Station Summer Norway Norway 1993 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land 71°53′20″S 05°09′30″E / 71.88889°S 5.15833°E / -71.88889; 5.15833 (Tor Station (Norway))
Troll Station Permanent Norway Norway 1990 Norwegian Polar Institute Queen Maud Land 72°00′43.5″S 2°31′56″E / 72.012083°S 2.53222°E / -72.012083; 2.53222 (Troll Station (Norway))
WAIS Divide Camp Summer United States United States 2005 United States Antarctic Program
Collect a deep ice core
West Antarctic Ice Sheet 79°28′S 112°04′W / 79.467°S 112.067°W / -79.467; -112.067 (WAIS Divide Camp)
Wasa Research Station Summer Sweden Sweden 1989 Swedish Polar Research Secretariat Queen Maud Land 73°03′S 13°25′W / 73.050°S 13.417°W / -73.050; -13.417 (Wasa Station (Sweden))
Vernadsky Research Base Permanent Ukraine Ukraine 1994 National Antarctic Scientific Center Galindez Island 65°14′44.6″S 64°15′26″W / 65.245722°S 64.25722°W / -65.245722; -64.25722 (Vernadsky Research Base (Ukraine)) iUTC-3
Vostok Station Permanent Russia Russia 1957 Russian Antarctic Expedition Antarctic Ice Sheet 78°27′51.8″S 106°50′14″E / 78.464389°S 106.83722°E / -78.464389; 106.83722 (Vostok Station (Russia)) rUTC+6
Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) Station Permanent China China 1989 Polar Research Institute of China Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay 69°22′24″S 76°22′12″E / 69.37333°S 76.37000°E / -69.37333; 76.37000 (Zhongshan (Sun Yat-Sen) Station (China))
* Observes daylight saving time.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ 4.0 Antarctica - Past and Present
  2. ^ a b Rudmose Brown, R. N.; Pirie, J. H.; Mossman, R. C. (2002). The Voyage of the Scotia. Edinburgh: Mercat Press. pp. 34–57. ISBN 1-84183-044-5. 
  3. ^ Rudmose Brown, p. 57.
  4. ^ "Voyage of the Scotia 1902–04: The Antarctic". Glasgow Digital Library. Retrieved 2008-06-30. 
  5. ^ Speak, Peter (2003). William Speirs Bruce: Polar Explorer and Scottish Nationalist. Edinburgh: NMS Publishing. p. 85. ISBN 1-901663-71-X. 
  6. ^ Escude, Carlos; Cisneros, Andres. "Historia General de las Relaciones Exteriores de la Republica Argentina" (in Spanish). Retrieved July 6, 2012. 
  7. ^ Moneta, Jose Manuel (1954). Cuatro Años en las Orcadas del Sur (9th ed.). Ediciones Peuser. 
  8. ^ HMS Carnarvon Castle 1943
  9. ^ "Spirit of Scott 2012: Britain’s polar interests lie under a cloud". The Daily Telegraph. 
  10. ^ Antarctica and the Arctic: the complete encyclopedia, Volume 1, by David McGonigal, Lynn Woodworth, page 98
  11. ^ Concordia Station (English Text - Polar Network-Cnr)
  12. ^ Concordia Station (English Text pdf - PNRA)
  13. ^ Chronicles from Concordia Station (English Text - ESA)
  14. ^ Concordia Station structure (IPEV)
  15. ^ BAE Gabriel de Castilla
  16. ^ Halley VI Antarctic Research Station
  17. ^ SAS Juan Carlos I
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ Mario Zucchelli Station on Polar Network - Cnr
  20. ^ A window on Antarctica (Italiantartide)
  21. ^ Mario Zucchelli Station on National Antarctic Programs
  22. ^ http://www.tvr.by/eng/news.asp?id=15751&date=17.03.2006%2019:31:00#1
  23. ^ http://www.french-polar-team.fr/R1_Russkaya_Station_Antarctica.php
  24. ^ "中国正式建成南极泰山科考站". 

External links[edit]