Australian Football League reserves affiliations

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The Australian Football League stages the highest-level senior Australian rules football competition in the country. However, since the late 1980s, when the former Victorian Football League expanded interstate to become the modern Australian Football League, there has not been a league-wide reserves competition; and, since 2000, there has been no dedicated reserves competition of any kind. As a result, AFL-listed players who are not selected in their senior teams are made eligible to play in one of the second-tier state leagues: the Victorian Football League, South Australian National Football League, West Australian Football League, or North East Australian Football League. The system used to accommodate AFL-listed players within these leagues varies considerably from state to state.

Current affiliations[edit]

In the 2014 season, the eighteen Australian Football League clubs have the following reserves arrangements.

AFL club Reserves arrangement Affiliated club Affiliated league
Adelaide Stand-alone reserves team Adelaide SANFL
Brisbane Lions Stand-alone reserves team Brisbane Lions NEAFL
Carlton Club affiliation Northern Blues VFL
Collingwood Stand-alone reserves team Collingwood VFL
Essendon Stand-alone reserves team Essendon VFL
Fremantle Club affiliation Peel Thunder WAFL
Geelong Stand-alone reserves team Geelong VFL
Gold Coast Stand-alone reserves team Gold Coast Suns NEAFL
Greater Western Sydney Stand-alone reserves team UWS Giants NEAFL
Hawthorn Club affiliation Box Hill VFL
Melbourne Club affiliation Casey Scorpions VFL
North Melbourne Club affiliation (split) North Ballarat
Werribee
VFL
Port Adelaide Reserves team Port Adelaide Magpies SANFL
Richmond Stand-alone reserves team Richmond VFL
St Kilda Club affiliation Sandringham VFL
Sydney Stand-alone reserves team Sydney Swans NEAFL
West Coast Club affiliation East Perth WAFL
Western Bulldogs Stand-alone reserves team Footscray VFL

Victorian clubs[edit]

Dedicated Reserves Competition (1919–1999)[edit]

During the 20th century, up the to 1980s, the Victorian Football League was based solely in the state of Victoria, and operated three grades of competition: seniors, reserves (established in 1919), and under-19s (established in 1946).[1] Local players were primarily recruited via the league's metropolitan and country zoning rules, and the clubs had full ability to develop its players through its junior and reserves teams. This same basic structure was used consistently across all of Australia's major state leagues (VFL, SANFL, WAFL and TANFL).

Two factors in the late 1980s and early 1990s led to the end of this traditional arrangement in Victoria. Firstly, the Victorian Football League expanded interstate to become the Australian Football League, and some of the clubs from interstate were unwilling to participate in the minor grades. Secondly, the AFL Draft (first held in 1986) was gradually replacing zoning as the primary means of recruitment to the national league, so the developmental continuity between the under-19, reserves and senior grades had lost its purpose. As a result, the AFL relinquished direct control of the Victorian reserves and junior grades at the end of 1991. The change for the under-19s grade was significant: it was replaced by the TAC Cup, and the AFL clubs' under-19s teams were discarded entirely in favour of new, independent, zone-based under-18s clubs. The change to the reserves league was mostly cosmetic: it became known as and was governed by the Victorian State Football League, but it was otherwise identical to the former VFL/AFL reserves and is considered a direct continuation.

The VFL/AFL reserves and the VSFL were contested by all twelve Victorian clubs. The Sydney Swans continued to participate after South Melbourne relocated in 1982,[2] and the Brisbane Bears participated for a few years,[3] but none of the South Australian or Western Australian clubs were ever involved.

Combination with the VFL (since 2000)[edit]

Following the 1999 season, the VSFL merged into Victoria's second-tier senior football league, the Victorian Football League (known until 1995 as the Victorian Football Association, and with a history dating back to 1877). Such a merger had first been proposed as early as 1980, but had taken a further twenty years to be effected.[4] Since the merger, the VFL has served as both a distinct second-tier senior competition and a reserves competition for AFL clubs.

Since the merger, there have been three types of club participating in the VFL:

  • VFL/AFL club affiliations—in these cases, an AFL club enters into an agreement with a single VFL club (or, in the unique case of North Melbourne, two VFL clubs). Any players listed at the AFL club are permitted to play with the VFL club on weekends when not selected for an AFL game. The VFL club maintains its own, separate playing list, and its weekly team is composed of a mixture of VFL-listed and AFL-listed players. The exact nature of the organisational relationship between the VFL and AFL club varies on a case-by-case basis, with some VFL sides enjoying reasonable autonomy, and others being heavily influenced by their AFL-affiliates. These clubs generally field teams in both the VFL seniors and the VFL reserves, and AFL-listed players may be selected for either, although most will play seniors.
  • Stand-alone AFL reserves teams—in these cases, the AFL club fields its own team in the VFL. Naturally, the AFL club has complete autonomy over the operation of its VFL team. Because the AFL list is not large enough to field two complete teams, the club must also maintain a separate list of "top-up players", who are eligible only for VFL games. The licence fee for an AFL club fielding a stand-alone reserves team is much higher than the cost of entering into an affiliation. None of the AFL clubs with a stand-alone team in the VFL seniors is involved in the VFL reserves.
  • Stand-alone VFL senior teams—in these cases, the VFL club has no affiliation with any AFL club. It takes complete responsibility for maintaining its own list of players from outside the AFL. As for affiliated VFL clubs, these clubs generally compete in both the VFL seniors and VFL reserves, although there is no requirement for them to field a reserves team.

Currently, there are no limitations on how many AFL-listed players may play in a VFL team on any given weekend—except during finals, when only players who have played a certain number of VFL games during the season are eligible. There was previously a rule known as the 12–10 Rule, which stated that in a match between an affiliated VFL team and a stand-alone VFL senior team, the affiliated team could play of at most twelve AFL-listed players, with the other ten to be VFL-listed players; and, where the AFL club had more than twelve reserve players available, the extras would play in the VFL reserves. The rule was abolished in 2011.

Historical VFL/AFL affiliations by AFL club[edit]

For all clubs in this list, the club fielded a reserves team in the VFL/AFL reserves up to 1991, and then in the VSFL from 1992 until 1999; additionally, the Fitzroy Football Club fielded a reserves team in these competitions until the club merged with the Brisbane Bears at the end of 1996. This listing shows all reserves affiliations and arrangements since 2000.

Carlton
  • 2000–2002 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL
  • 2003–present – affiliated with the Northern Bullants/Blues
The Northern Bullants changed its nickname to Blues in the 2012 season[5]
Collingwood
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL
  • 2001–2007 – affiliated with the Williamstown Football Club
  • 2008–present – again fielded a stand-alone reserves team
Essendon
  • 2000–2002 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL
  • 2003–2012 – affiliated with the Bendigo Football Club
The team changed its name from Bendigo Diggers to Bendigo Bombers when the affiliation was established in 2003. The team then changed its name the Bendigo Gold from 2012 onwards.[6]
  • 2013–present – again fielded a stand-alone reserves team[7]
Geelong
  • 2000–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL
Hawthorn
Box Hill changed its nickname from Mustangs to Hawks when the affiliation was established
Melbourne
North Melbourne
Richmond
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL
  • 2001–2013 – affiliated with the Coburg Football Club
Coburg changed its nickname from Lions to Tigers when the affiliation was established
  • 2014–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the VFL[8]
St Kilda
The Springvale Scorpions became the Casey Scorpions in 2006

An affiliation deal with Sandringham is in place until the end of 2016; neither club currently intends to extend the agreement beyond then.[9]

Western Bulldogs

Historical VFL/AFL affiliations by VFL club[edit]

The following is a listing of all senior clubs which have competed in the VFL since it merged with the VSFL in 2000, indicating the affiliation status of the club as it has changed since.

Bendigo
  • 2000–2002 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
  • 2003–2012 – affiliated with the Essendon Football Club
Changed its name from Bendigo Diggers to Bendigo Bombers when the affiliation was established in 2003, then to Bendigo Gold in 2012.[6]
  • 2013–2014 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL[7]

Bendigo folded at the end of the 2014 season.[12]

Box Hill
Changed its nickname from Mustangs to Hawks when the affiliation was established
Casey
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
  • 2001–2008 – affiliated with the St Kilda Football Club
Changed its name from Springvale to Casey in 2006
Coburg
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL (as Coburg-Fitzroy, a partnership with the former Fitzroy Football Club, but not an affiliation in the sense described here)
  • 2001–2013 – affiliated with the Richmond Football Club
Changed its nickname from Lions to Tigers when the affiliation was established
  • 2014–present – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL[8]
Frankston
  • 2000–present – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
Murray

The Murray Bushrangers folded after the 2002 season.

North Ballarat
Northern Bullants/Blues
  • 2000–2002 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
  • 2003–present – affiliated with the Carlton Football Club
Changed its nickname from Bullants to Blues in 2012, the tenth year of the affiliation
Port Melbourne
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
  • 2001–2002 – partially affiliated with the Sydney Swans[2]
  • 2003–2005 – affiliated with the Kangaroos Football Club (North Melbourne).
  • 2006–present – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
Sandringham

An affiliation deal with St Kilda is in place until the end of 2016; neither club currently intends to extend the agreement beyond then.[9]

Tasmanian Devils
  • 2001–2005 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL
  • 2006–2007 – partially affiliated with the Kangaroos Football Club (North Melbourne).
  • 2008 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL

The Tasmanian Devils folded after the 2008 season.

Werribee
Williamstown

South Australian clubs[edit]

Historical arrangement[edit]

After Adelaide and Port Adelaide had entered the AFL in 1991 and 1997 respectively, South Australia had two AFL teams and a strong nine-team state league (the SANFL). Until 2013, the AFL clubs were affiliated with the entire SANFL, rather than with an individual club as is seen in Victoria; this meant that the reserves players from each AFL club would be dispersed throughout the SANFL, playing for different teams. This arrangement was governed by the annual "AFL–SANFL Interchange Agreement".[14]

The method used to allocate players to the state league teams varied depending upon whether the player was from South Australia, or had come from interstate:

  • Players from South Australia remained allocated to the SANFL clubs from which they were recruited. These players would originally have been allocated to their state league clubs as juniors under zoning rules.
  • Players from interstate were allocated to the SANFL clubs based on a "mini-draft". Each year, the pool of players available in the mini-draft consists solely of AFL-listed players in their first pre-season with a South Australian club; the SANFL teams then draft players in reverse-finishing order from the previous season. SANFL clubs may choose players from either of the two AFL clubs.[15]

Regardless of which method is used to allocate the player, he typically remained allocated to the same SANFL for his entire career, although there were provisions in the rules for players to be re-allocated to a different club on a case-by-case basis, to ensure that the AFL-listed players were given the appropriate opportunities to develop; e.g. an AFL club could seek a re-allocation for a developing key forward on its list, if the player's opportunities were limited by the presence of an established key forward in his allocated team.[16]

This arrangement, or a variation of it, was been the sole mechanism for distribution of reserves players in South Australia until 2013.

Current arrangement[edit]

In August 2013, the SANFL clubs agreed to allow Adelaide to enter a stand-alone reserves team into the SANFL senior competition as a tenth team, after many years of rejecting such proposals. Among the arrangements, Adelaide's reserves team will be branded as the Adelaide Football Club, will pay a $400,000 licence fee (which will increase for inflation) to be dispersed amongst the remaining clubs, will play all its games as the away team, and cannot wear the Adelaide Crows AFL guernsey. The team each week will consist of Adelaide Crows players who are not playing in the AFL team, one permanently contracted former Adelaide Crows player to serve in a leadership position, and young top-up players from other SANFL clubs or suburban competitions. The arrangement will be in place for fifteen years.[17]

The SANFL also agreed to permit the Port Adelaide Power to use the Port Adelaide Magpies team as a stand-alone reserves team, which would be subject to the same playing conditions as Adelaide's reserves team.[17] The team will wear Port Adelaide's traditional SANFL guernsey and will play home games at Alberton Oval. From 2015, Port Adelaide will operate an academy team of father-son selections and international and interstate scholarship holders in the SANFL Reserves, but will not be permitted to retain its traditional its junior grades or its SANFL recruiting zones.[18][19][20]

Historical arrangements by club[edit]

Adelaide
  • 1991–2013 – established and affiliated with the entire SANFL
  • From 2014 – will field a stand-alone reserves team in the SANFL[17]
Port Adelaide
  • 1997–2013 – established and affiliated with the entire SANFL
  • From 2014 – will field a stand-alone reserves team in the SANFL; this team will be known as the Port Adelaide Magpies, and replaces the traditional stand-alone senior Port Adelaide Magpies team in the SANFL.[20]

Western Australian clubs[edit]

Like South Australia, Western Australia has two AFL clubs (Fremantle and West Coast) and a strong nine-team state league (the West Australian Football League). Initially, the Western Australian AFL clubs were involved in a league affiliation with the WAFL, which functioned in the same way as the SANFL's league affiliation. From 1999 until 2001, both clubs established affiliations with a single WAFL club, similar to (and, in fact, pre-dating by one year) those seen in Victoria, and known locally as "host-club arrangements". After three years, the WAFL clubs voted to end these arrangements, and returned to a league affiliation for the next twelve years.

Starting in 2011, the two AFL clubs started to push hard to end the league affiliation model; their preference was to field stand-alone reserves teams in the WAFL, but this was rejected by the WAFL clubs.[21] In October 2012, after two years of negotiations, the clubs agreed to return to host-club arrangements – West Coast with East Perth and Fremantle with Peel Thunder – to commence from the 2014 season, with some transitionary arrangements beginning in 2013. The deal will last for a minimum of five seasons.[22]

Fremantle
  • 1995–1998 – established and affiliated with the entire WAFL
  • 1999 – affiliated in a host-club arrangement with the South Fremantle Football Club[23]
  • 2000–2013 – after the WAFL clubs voted to end host-club arrangements, returned to an affiliation with the entire WAFL.[24]
  • From 2014, until at least 2018, Fremantle will be affiliated in a host-club arrangement with the Peel Thunder Football Club.
West Coast
  • 1987–1998 – established and affiliated with the entire WAFL
  • 1999 – affiliated in a host-club arrangement with the Claremont Football Club[25]
  • 2000–2001 – affiliated in a host-club arrangement with the East Perth Football Club[26]
  • 2002–2013 – after the WAFL clubs voted to end host-club arrangements, returned to an affiliation with the entire WAFL.[24]
  • From 2014, until at least 2018, West Coast will be once again affiliated in a host-club arrangement with the East Perth Football Club.

New South Wales and Queensland clubs[edit]

In New South Wales and Queensland, all four AFL clubs field stand-alone reserves teams in the North East Australian Football League.

Historical New South Wales and Queensland affiliations[edit]

Brisbane Bears
  • 1987–1988 – established and affiliated with the entire QAFL
  • 1989–1992 – fielded a reserves team in the VFL reserves/AFL reserves/VSFL competition[3]
  • 1993–1996 – returned to an affiliation with the entire QAFL[27]
Brisbane Lions
  • 1997 – established (from the merger of Fitzroy and Brisbane Bears) and affiliated with the entire QAFL[28]
  • 1998–2010 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the QAFL. The reserves team was initially known as the Lion Cubs,[29] became known as the Suncoast Lions from 2004.
  • 2011–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the NEAFL (in the Northern Conference while it existed). The team was known as simply Brisbane Lions from 2011.
Gold Coast
  • 2010 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the VFL, as preparation for joining the AFL in 2011.
  • 2011–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the NEAFL (in the Northern Conference while it existed).[30]
Greater Western Sydney
  • 2011 – fielded a stand-alone senior team in the NEAFL Eastern Conference, as preparation for joining the AFL in 2012.
  • 2012–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team, known as the University of Western Sydney Giants, in the NEAFL (in the Eastern Conference while it existed). The name was chosen in acknowledgment a broad partnership between the football club and the university; from a football perspective the UWS Giants team is entirely managed by GWS as a stand-alone team.[31]
Sydney
  • Until 1981 – based in Melbourne and known as the South Melbourne Football Club, fielded a reserves team in the VFL reserves.
  • 1982–1999 – relocated to Sydney, and continued to field a reserves team in the VFL reserves/AFL reserves/VSFL.
  • 2000 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team known as the Redbacks in the Sydney AFL. The Redbacks team proved to be much too strong for the Sydney-based league, and the club elected not to participate in the finals.
  • 2001–2002 – partially affiliated with the Port Melbourne Football Club in the VFL, and also fielded the Redbacks as a stand-alone team in the Sydney AFL. In practice, Port Melbourne served as a reserves affiliation for experienced players, and the Redbacks served as a development team for inexperienced players.[2]
  • 2003–2010 – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in AFL Canberra.
  • 2011–present – fielded a stand-alone reserves team in the NEAFL (in the Eastern Conference while it existed).[30]

Push towards stand-alone reserves teams in the 2000s[edit]

Starting in around 2011, there was considerable interest by many AFL clubs in abandoning league affiliations or host-club arrangements and forming stand-alone reserves teams. A large contributing factor to this interest was the perception that the developmental autonomy Geelong and Collingwood enjoyed as the only two clubs fielding stand-alone reserves teams in the VFL was responsible for the very strong senior AFL performances of those two clubs between 2007 and 2011, during which time they shared four of the five AFL premierships. In Victoria, some VFL clubs with a strong existing identity were also interested in ending their AFL affiliations after the strong performance of stand-alone VFL side Port Melbourne in its unbeaten 2011 season.[10]

In Victoria, Essendon ended its VFL affiliation at the end of 2012.[7] Richmond and the Western Bulldogs have both formally announced that their VFL affiliations will end after the 2013 seasons; in the Bulldogs' case, Williamstown's desire for autonomy played a part in the decision.[8][10] The AFL preferred that its Victorian clubs retained VFL-affiliations, and offered a disincentive in the form of an inflated licence fee for fielding a stand-alone team; however, the AFL did not otherwise prevent teams from fielding stand-alone reserves teams if they are willing and able to pay the fee. The total licence and running costs for a stand-alone team were estimated to be $500,000 per year in 2011.[32] From 2014, five of the ten Victorian AFL clubs will operate stand-alone reserves teams, and five will exist in a club affiliation.

In South Australia and Western Australia, the debate has always been more heated than in Victoria. The league affiliation system primarily benefitted the state leagues, by helping to ensure that none of their clubs gained an undue advantage through preferential access to professional AFL-listed players, and by helping to minimise the drain of talent from the league; but this was to the detriment of player development at the AFL clubs, since reserves players end up playing for a variety of different teams, under a variety of different game-plans, and not necessarily in the positions that the AFL clubs would prefer. As early as 1988, the West Coast Eagles' second season in the then-VFL competition, senior coach John Todd was calling for the Eagles to enter a reserves team in the VFL reserves, a plan which the West Australian Football Commission would not permit.[33]

From 2011, Adelaide, Port Adelaide, Fremantle and West Coast actively sought to establish stand-alone reserves teams. There was considerable opposition from the SANFL and WAFL teams about including those reserves teams in the state leagues, with the clubs concerned about the impact this would have on depth of talent, league competitiveness, and gate takings; as such, the WAFL and SANFL both on several occasions outright rejected any proposal which would see an AFL club's reserves team participate in those leagues.[21][34][35]

In Western Australia, a wide range of compromise solutions was proposed, including: stand-alone reserves teams playing against WAFL clubs in a separate competition during their WAFL bye weeks;[36] a new small league including reserves teams from the Western Australian and South Australian AFL clubs;[37] and a return to host-club arrangements.[38] In October 2012, the Western Australian clubs reached a compromise, with two WAFL clubs, Peel and East Perth, forming host club arrangements with Fremantle and West Coast.

In South Australia, Adelaide made it clear that it intended to establish a stand-alone reserves team from 2014, and that it was prepared to field the team in the South Australian Amateur Football League or in another state if the SANFL continued to refuse it entry; entry to the SANFL was granted in August 2013.[17] Port Adelaide's situation remained unresolved for longer, as it wants to operate the Port Adelaide Magpies SANFL team as its host club in the SANFL seniors; but, the South Australian football commission indicated that the club will not be permitted to retain its junior grades or recruiting zones, thereby severing its connection with the community, if it were to progress with this option,[39][40] and Port Adelaide was reluctant to make that sacrifice;[17] as a compromise, the club was granted permission to run an academy team in the SANFL reserves.[20]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Rodgers, Stephen, Every Game Ever Played: VFL/AFL Results, 1897–1991 (2nd ed.), Ringwood, VIC: Penguin Books Australia 
  2. ^ a b c "Unearthing roots of Harbour City talent". The Age. 3 August 2003. Retrieved 23 August 2011. 
  3. ^ a b National Scoreboard, The Sun (Melbourne, VIC), 5 June 1989: 87 
  4. ^ "League nearer Sunday games". The Age (Melbourne, VIC). 12 June 1980. p. 24. 
  5. ^ "Northern Blues". Carlton Football Club. 10 November 2011. Retrieved 11 November 2011. 
  6. ^ a b Landsberger, Sam (27 March 2012). "Bendigo Gold unveiled for final year with Bombers before Dons go solo in VFL". Herald Sun. Retrieved 27 March 2012. 
  7. ^ a b c Paton, Al (30 September 2011), Bombers to dump Bendigo VFL connection, Herald Sun, retrieved 30 September 2011 
  8. ^ a b c Landsberger, Sam (21 July 2012). "Richmond set to walk away from Coburg in 2014". Herald Sun. Retrieved 23 July 2012. 
  9. ^ a b Paul Amy (19 August 2014). "Sandringham and St Kilda to stay aligned until the end of the 2016 VFL season". Bayside Leader. Retrieved 17 October 2014. 
  10. ^ a b c d d'Anello, Luke (21 September 2012). "Seagulls and Bulldogs cut ties". Leader. Retrieved 22 September 2012. 
  11. ^ Bridie Byrne (16 August 2013). "Western Bulldogs VFL team returns to Footscray moniker". Maribyrnong Leader (Maribyrnong, VIC). 
  12. ^ Brent Diamond (25 June 2014). "VFL club Bendigo Gold to fold". The Age. Retrieved 26 June 2014. 
  13. ^ "VFL Genealogy". Retrieved 1 August 2011. 
  14. ^ Rucci, Michelangelo (1 July 2011). "SANFL's integrity at stake". AdelaideNow. Retrieved 10 September 2011. 
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  16. ^ Duffield, Mark (16 November 2011). "Eagles turn up heat on WAFL clubs". The West Australian (Perth, WA). Retrieved 20 November 2011. 
  17. ^ a b c d e Michelangelo Rucci (15 August 2013). "Adelaide Crows to field reserves side in the SANFL in 2014". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA). Retrieved 18 August 2013. 
  18. ^ Rucci, Michelangelo (11 October 2012). "Crows may buy Sturt as its reserves side". The Advertiser. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  19. ^ Michelangelo Rucci (5 August 2013). "Adelaide says it will get a reserves side, but not in the SANFL next year". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA). Retrieved 7 August 2013. 
  20. ^ a b c Michelangelo Rucci (11 September 2013). "Port Adelaide accepts SANFL offer to field Power reserves team in league next year". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA). Retrieved 10 October 2013. 
  21. ^ a b Butler, Duffield, Lewis, Steve, Mark, Ross (2 June 2011). "Eagles, Dockers woo WAFL clubs with $1m carrot". The West Australian. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  22. ^ Quartermaine, Braden (31 October 2012). "West Coast and Fremantle will enter WAFL alignments from 2013". Perthnow. Retrieved 9 November 2012. 
  23. ^ South Fremantle history
  24. ^ a b Hagdorn, Kim (16 December 2001). "Chaos looms in new draft". Archived from the original on 16 December 2001. 
  25. ^ Host clubs dead..... or are they? – Perth Football Club. Retrieved 13 November 2011.
  26. ^ East Perth history
  27. ^ Peters, Renard (2 April 1993), Fabian's second AFL shot, Courier Mail: 45 
  28. ^ Scoreboard, Courier Mail, 2 June 1997: 18 
  29. ^ Scoreboard, Courier Mail, 11 May 1998: 15 
  30. ^ a b "AFL's north east boost". North East Australian Football League. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2011. 
  31. ^ Theodosiou, Peter (14 Dec 2011). "GWS sign partnership with University of Western Sydney". Blacktown Advocate. Retrieved 24 Dec 2011. 
  32. ^ Wilson, Caroline (28 July 2011). "Deadline looms for VFL team decisions". The Age. Retrieved 2 August 2011. 
  33. ^ Timms, Daryl (3 June 1988), No Excuses – Todd, The Sun (Melbourne, VIC): 72 
  34. ^ WA’S AFL Teams in the WAFL
  35. ^ Rucci, Michelangelo (22 June 2012). "SA clubs so no to reserves teams". AdelaideNow. Retrieved 4 August 2012. 
  36. ^ Townsend, John (1 September 2011). "WAFL reserves compromise". The West Australian. Retrieved 2 October 2011. 
  37. ^ Thring, Harry (29 August 2012). "Sando wants reserves side". Australian Football League. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  38. ^ Townsend, Josh (30 June 2012). "'Keep your AFL leftovers'". The West Australian. Retrieved 30 June 2012. 
  39. ^ Rucci, Michelangelo (11 October 2012). "Crows may buy Sturt as its reserves side". The Advertiser. Retrieved 12 October 2012. 
  40. ^ Michelangelo Rucci (5 August 2013). "Adelaide says it will get a reserves side, but not in the SANFL next year". The Advertiser (Adelaide, SA). Retrieved 7 August 2013.