Responsive web design
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Responsive web design (RWD) is a web design approach aimed at crafting sites to provide an optimal viewing experience—easy reading and navigation with a minimum of resizing, panning, and scrolling—across a wide range of devices (from mobile phones to desktop computer monitors).
A site designed with RWD adapts the layout to the viewing environment by using fluid, proportion-based grids, flexible images, and CSS3 media queries, an extension of the
- The fluid grid concept calls for page element sizing to be in relative units like percentages, rather than absolute units like pixels or points.
- Flexible images are also sized in relative units, so as to prevent them from displaying outside their containing element.
- Media queries allow the page to use different CSS style rules based on characteristics of the device the site is being displayed on, most commonly the width of the browser.
Progressive enhancement based on browser-, device-, or feature-detection
Challenges, and other approaches
Luke Wroblewski has summarized some of the RWD and mobile design challenges, and created a catalog of multi-device layout patterns. He suggests that, compared with a simple RWD approach, device experience or RESS (responsive web design with server-side components) approaches can provide a user experience that is better optimized for mobile devices. Server-side "dynamic CSS" implementation of stylesheet languages like Sass or Incentivated's MML can be part of such an approach by accessing a server based API which handles the device (typically mobile handset) differences in conjunction with a device capabilities database in order to improve usability. RESS is more expensive to develop, requiring more than just client-side logic, and so tends to be reserved for organisations with larger budgets. Google recommends responsive design for smartphone websites over other approaches.
Although this challenge has become recently a minor issue, with many of the publishers starting to support responsiveness, one still at least partly existing problem for RWD is that some banner advertisements and videos are not fluid. However search advertising and (banner) display advertising support specific device platform targeting and different advertisement size formats for desktop, smartphone, and basic mobile devices. Different landing page URLs can be used for different platforms, or Ajax can be used to display different advertisement variants on a page.
An alternative to RWD is the method of Adaptive Web Delivery or AWD that is adopted by consumer brands worldwide. Although it is very similar to Responsive Web Design, with adaptive delivery the most significant difference is that the server hosting the website detects the devices making requests to it, and uses this information to deliver different batches of HTML and CSS code based on the characteristics of the device that have been detected.
There are now many ways of validating and testing RWD designs, ranging from mobile site validators and mobile emulators to simultaneous testing tools like Adobe Edge Inspect. The Firefox browser and the Chrome console offer responsive design viewport resizing tools, as do third parties.
The technique of adapting a site's layout to a device's display was first written about by Cameron Adams in 2004. Ethan Marcotte coined the term responsive web design (RWD) in a May 2010 article in A List Apart. He described the theory and practice of responsive web design in his brief 2011 book titled Responsive Web Design. Responsive design was listed as #2 in Top Web Design Trends for 2012 by .net magazine after progressive enhancement at #1.
Forbes featured a piece, 'Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now'  where the importance was made clear that having a mobile version of your website isn’t enough anymore. Jody Resnick, President of Trighton Interactive stated in his interview with Forbes, “Responsive websites simplify internet marketing and SEO. Instead of having to develop and manage content for multiple websites, businesses with responsive sites can take a unified approach to content management because they have only the one responsive site to manage.
Resnick predicts, “As the internet transforms further into a platform of services and user interfaces that tie those services together, leveraging this technology in the future will allow companies to integrate a plethora of back-end services, such as Facebook, Twitter, Salesforce.com, and Amazon Web Services, and then present the integrated data back out the front-end iad layer on a responsive design so the application looks great on all devices without custom coding needed for each device or screen size."
Nick Salas, President of Nickspages, believes that responsive design will be more prevalent than native apps simply because of the browser compatibility and the cost associated with programming the apps.
- Marcotte, Ethan (May 25, 2010). "Responsive Web design". A List Apart.
- "Ethan Marcotte's 20 favourite responsive sites". .net magazine. October 11, 2011.
- Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Dec 15, 2010). "Examples of flexible layouts with CSS3 media queries". Stunning CSS3. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-321-722133.
- Pettit, Nick (Aug 8, 2012). "Beginner’s Guide to Responsive Web Design". TeamTreehouse.com blog.
- Marcotte, Ethan (March 3, 2009). "Fluid Grids". A List Apart.
- Marcotte, Ethan (June 7, 2011). "Fluid images". A List Apart.
- "Adaptive Images".
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- Jacobs, Denise (April 24, 2012). "50 fantastic tools for responsive web design". .net Magazine.
- Gillenwater, Zoe Mickley (Oct 21, 2011). "Crafting quality media queries".
- "Responsive design—harnessing the power of media queries". Google Webmaster Central. Apr 30, 2012.
- W3C @media rule
- Wroblewski, Luke (November 3, 2009). "Mobile First".
- Firtman, Maximiliano (July 30, 2010). Programming the Mobile Web. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-596-80778-8.
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- Wroblewski, Luke (February 6, 2012). "Rolling Up Our Responsive Sleeves".
- Wroblewski, Luke (March 14, 2012). "Multi-Device Layout Patterns".
- Wroblewski, Luke (February 29, 2012). "Responsive Design ... or RESS".
- Wroblewski, Luke (September 12, 2011). "RESS: Responsive Design + Server Side Components".
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- "Responsive but not completely mobile optimised | Blog". Incentivated.
- "Building Smartphone-Optimized Websites". Google.
- Snyder, Matthew; Koren, Etai (Apr 30, 2012). "The state of responsive advertising: the publishers' perspective". .net Magazine.
- Google AdWords Targeting (Device Platform Targeting)
- "Responsive and Adaptive web designing". Aug 27, 2014.
- Young, James (Aug 13, 2012). "Top responsive web design problems... testing". .net Magazine.
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- Rinaldi, Brian (September 26, 2012). "Browser testing... with Adobe Edge Inspect".
- Responsive Design View in Firefox
- Viewport resizer
- Adams, Cameron (September 21, 2004). "Resolution dependent layout". The Man in Blue.
- "15 top web design and development trends for 2012". .net magazine. January 9, 2012.
- Cashmore, Pete (Dec 11, 2012). "Why 2013 Is the Year of Responsive Web Design".
- Gunelius, Susan (March 13, 2013). "Why You Need To Prioritize Responsive Design Now".