Chemical structures of cis- ((Z)-resveratrol, left) and trans-resveratrol ((E)-resveratrol, right)
|Molar mass||228.24 g·mol−1|
|Appearance||white powder with
slight yellow cast
|Melting point||261 to 263 °C (502 to 505 °F; 534 to 536 K)|
|Solubility in water||0.03 g/L|
|Solubility in DMSO||16 g/L|
|Solubility in ethanol||50 g/L|
|UV-vis (λmax)||304nm (trans-resveratrol, in water)
286nm (cis-resveratrol, in water)
|R-phrases||R36 (irritating to eyes)|
|S-phrases||S26 (in case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with plenty of water and
seek medical advice)
LD50 (Lethal dose)
|23.2 µM (5,29 g)|
Except where noted otherwise, data is given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)
|what is: / ?)(|
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced naturally by several plants in response to injury or when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Food sources of resveratrol include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, and mulberries. As of 2014, there is limited evidence of health effects in humans.
- 1 Health effects
- 2 Adverse effects
- 3 Discovery and name
- 4 Pharmacokinetics
- 5 Mechanisms of action
- 6 Chemical and physical properties
- 7 Metabolism
- 8 Occurrences
- 9 Research
- 10 Related compounds
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
There is little evidence of benefit from resveratrol in those who already have heart disease. A 2014 meta-analysis found that resveratrol supplementation at usual doses has no effect on blood pressure but may help if high doses are used.
There is very little human evidence of an effect of resveratrol on metabolism. Tentative data supports a potential benefit in controlling some biomarkers in diabetes but further evidence is needed before it can be recommended.
The effect of resveratrol on lifespan in humans is unclear as of 2011.
Discovery and name
The first mention of resveratrol was in a Japanese article in 1939 by Michio Takaoka, who isolated it from the poisonous, but medicinal, Veratrum album, variety grandiflorum. The name presumably comes from the fact that it is a resorcinol derivative coming from a Veratrum species. In 2003, D. Sinclair from Harvard Medical School reported in Nature that resveratrol activated sirtuins in yeast cells. This was immediately followed by the launch of Sirtris Pharmaceuticals. While pharmacological effects of resveratrol did not turn out to be commercially viable, their discovery lead to efforts to develop other types of SIRT genes' activators.
One way of administering resveratrol in humans may be buccal delivery, that is without swallowing, by direct absorption through tissues on the inside of the mouth. When one milligram of resveratrol in 50 ml 50% alcohol/ water solution was retained in the mouth for one minute before swallowing, 37 ng/ml of free resveratrol were measured in plasma two minutes later. This level of unchanged resveratrol in blood can only be achieved with 250 mg of resveratrol taken in a pill form. However, the viability of a buccal delivery method is called into question due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. For a drug to be absorbed transmucosally it must be in free-form or dissolved. Resveratrol fits the criteria for oral transmucosal dosing, except for this caveat. The low aqueous solubility greatly limits the amount that can be absorbed through the buccal mucosa. Resveratrol that is attempted to be taken buccally was expected to pass through the mucous membrane of the mouth and be absorbed as an oral dose, however, the need to explore buccal delivery in future pharmaceutical formulations was expressed.
While 70% of orally administered resveratrol is absorbed its oral bioavailability is approximately 0.5% due to extensive hepatic gluconuridation and sulfation. Only trace amounts (below 5 ng/ml) of unchanged resveratrol could be detected in the blood after 25 mg oral dose. Even when a very large dose (2.5 and 5 g) was given as an uncoated pill, the concentration of resveratrol in blood failed to reach the level claimed to be necessary for the systemic cancer prevention. A formulation of resveratrol in a chewing gum form is now in production, and this would be expected to achieve much higher blood levels than oral formulations. Resveratrol given in a proprietary formulation SRT-501 (3 or 5 g), developed by Sirtris Pharmaceuticals, reached five to eight times higher blood levels. These levels did approach the concentration necessary to exert the effects shown in animal models and in vitro experiments. On May 5, 2010, however, GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) said it had suspended a small clinical trial of SRT501, a proprietary form of resveratrol, due to safety concerns, and terminated the study on December 2, 2010.
In humans and rats less than 5% of the oral dose was observed as free resveratrol in blood plasma. The most abundant resveratrol metabolites in humans, rats, and mice are trans-resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and trans-resveratrol-3-sulfate. Walle suggests sulfate conjugates are the primary source of activity, Wang et al. suggests the glucuronides, and Boocock et al. also emphasized the need for further study of the effects of the metabolites, including the possibility of deconjugation to free resveratrol inside cells. Goldberd, who studied the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol, catechin and quercetin in humans, concluded "it seems that the potential health benefits of these compounds based upon the in vitro activities of the unconjugated compounds are unrealistic and have been greatly exaggerated. Indeed, the profusion of papers describing such activities can legitimately be described as irrelevant and misleading. Henceforth, investigations of this nature should focus upon the potential health benefits of their glucuronide and sulfate conjugates."
The hypothesis that resveratrol from wine could have higher bioavailability than resveratrol from a pill has been refuted by experimental data. For example, after five men took 600 ml of red wine with the resveratrol content of 3.2 mg/l (total dose about 2 mg) before breakfast, unchanged resveratrol was detected in the blood of only two of them, and only in trace amounts (below 2.5 ng/ml). Resveratrol levels appeared to be slightly higher if red wine (600 ml of red wine containing 0.6 mcg(?)/ml resveratrol; total dose about 0.5 mg) was taken with a meal: trace amounts (1–6 ng/ml) were found in four out of ten subjects. In another study, the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol (25 mg) did not change whether it was taken with vegetable juice, white wine, or white grape juice. The highest level of unchanged resveratrol in the serum (7–9 ng/ml) was achieved after 30 minutes, and it completely disappeared from blood after four hours. The authors of both studies concluded the trace amounts of resveratrol reached in the blood are insufficient to explain the French paradox. The beneficial effects of wine apparently could be explained by the effects of alcohol or the whole complex of substances wine contains; for example, the cardiovascular benefits of wine appear to correlate with the content of procyanidins.
Mechanisms of action
The mechanisms of resveratrol's apparent effects on life extension are not fully understood, but they appear to mimic several of the biochemical effects of calorie restriction. Some studies indicates resveratrol activates Sirtuin 1 and PGC-1α and improves the functioning of the mitochondria. Resveratrol's ability to directly activate sirtuin 1 has been called into question, although newer attempts tried to reconfirm this link, latest research demonstrated that resveratrol binds to TyrRS to potentiate a PARP1/NAD+ driven signaling cascade to activate p53 and AMPK by inhibiting SIRT1 
In cells treated with resveratrol, a fourteen-fold increase in the action of MnSOD (SOD2) is observed. MnSOD reduces superoxide to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), but H2O2 is not increased due to other cellular activity. Superoxide O2− is a byproduct of respiration in complexes 1 and 3 of the electron transport chain. It is "not highly toxic, [but] can extract an electron from biological membrane and other cell components, causing free radical chain reactions. Therefore it is essential for the cell to keep superoxide anions in check." MnSOD reduces superoxide and thereby, confers resistance to mitochondrial dysfunction, permeability transition, and apoptotic death in various diseases. It has been implicated in lifespan extension, inhibits cancer, (e.g. pancreatic cancer) and provides resistance to reperfusion injury and irradiation damage. These effects have also been observed with resveratrol. Robb et al. propose MnSOD is increased by the pathway RESV → SIRT1 / NAD+ → FOXO3a → MnSOD. Resveratrol has been shown to cause SIRT1 to cause migration of FOXO transcription factors to the nucleus, which stimulates FOXO3a transcriptional activity  and it has been shown to enhance the sirtuin-catalyzed deacetylation (activity) of FOXO3a. MnSOD is known to be a target of FOXO3a, and MnSOD expression is strongly induced in cells overexpressing FOXO3a. It has been reported too that the disproportional up-regulation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalse (CAT) and glutathion peroxidase (GPX) expression (high expression of MnSOD, but mild change in CAT or GPX) and their enzymatic activity in cancer cells results in the mitochondrial accumulation of H2O2, which in turn induces cancer cell apoptosis.
Resveratrol interferes with all three stages of carcinogenesis—initiation, promotion and progression. Experiments in cell cultures of varied types and isolated subcellular systems in vitro imply many mechanisms in the pharmacological activity of resveratrol. These mechanisms include modulation of the transcription factor NF-κB, inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme CYP1A1 (although this may not be relevant to the CYP1A1-mediated bioactivation of the procarcinogen benzo(a)pyrene), alterations in androgenic actions, and expression and activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes. In vitro, resveratrol "inhibited the proliferation of human pancreatic cancer cell lines." In some lineages of cancer cell culture, resveratrol has been shown to induce apoptosis, which means it kills cells and may kill cancer cells. Resveratrol has been shown to induce Fas/Fas ligand mediated apoptosis, p53 and cyclins A, B1, and cyclin-dependent kinases cdk 1 and 2. Resveratrol also possesses antioxidant and anti-angiogenic properties.
Resveratrol was reported to be effective against neuronal cell dysfunction and cell death, and, in theory, could be effective against diseases such as Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Again, this has not yet been tested in humans for any disease.
Resveratrol increased intracellular glutathione levels via Nrf2-dependent upregulation of gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase in lung epithelial cells, which protected them against cigarette smoke extract-induced oxidative stress.
Another potentially important mechanism common to both resveratrol supplementation and caloric restriction is the modulation of autophagy. SIRT1 is a hypothesized target of both resveratrol and caloric restriction, and has been shown to facilitate autophagy through the inhibition of mTOR, which itself negatively regulates autophagy.
In 2012, it was shown that resveratrol is capable of competitively inhibiting various phosphodiesterases, which results in an increase in cytosolic concentration of cAMP, which acts as a second messenger for the activation of the pathway Epac1/CaMKKβ/AMPK/SIRT1/PGC-1α. This rise of cAMP concentration allows an increase in oxidation of fatty acids, mitochondrial biogenesis, mitochondrial respiration, and gluconeogenesis.
Chemical and physical properties
Resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene) is a stilbenoid, a derivate of stilbene.
Trans-resveratrol in the powder form was found to be stable under "accelerated stability" conditions of 75% humidity and 40 °C in the presence of air. The trans isomer is also stabilized by the presence of transport proteins. Resveratrol content also was stable in the skins of grapes and pomace taken after fermentation and stored for a long period. lH- and 13C-NMR data for the four most common forms of resveratrols are reported in literature.
Resveratrol gets extensively metabolized in the body. Liver and gut are the major site of its metabolism. Lungs are also involved in its metabolism, with inter-species difference in its pulmonary metabolism.
The grapevine fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea is able to oxidise resveratrol into metabolites showing attenuated antifungal activities. Those include the resveratrol dimers restrytisol A, B, and C, resveratrol trans-dehydrodimer, leachinol F, and pallidol. The soil bacterium Bacillus cereus can be used to transform resveratrol into piceid (resveratrol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside).
Resveratrol was originally isolated by Takaoka from the roots of hellebore in 1940, and later, in 1963, from the roots of Japanese knotweed. It attracted wider attention only in 1992, however, when its presence in wine was suggested as the explanation for cardioprotective effects of wine.
In grapes, trans-resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced against the growth of fungal pathogens such as Botrytis cinerea. Its presence in Vitis vinifera grapes can also be constitutive, with accumulation in ripe berries of different levels of bound and free resveratrols, according to the genotype. In grapes, resveratrol is found primarily in the skin, and, in muscadine grapes, also in the seeds. The amount found in grape skins also varies with the grape cultivar, its geographic origin, and exposure to fungal infection. The amount of fermentation time a wine spends in contact with grape skins is an important determinant of its resveratrol content.
It is also found in Pinus strobus, the eastern white pine.
The levels of resveratrol found in food varies greatly. Red wine contains between 0.2 and 5.8 mg/l, depending on the grape variety, while white wine has much less, because red wine is fermented with the skins, allowing the wine to extract the resveratrol, whereas white wine is fermented after the skin has been removed. The composition of wine is different from that of grapes since the extraction of resveratrols from grapes depends on the duration of the skin contact, and the resveratrol 3-glucosides are in part hydrolised, yielding both trans- and cis-resveratrol. A number of reports have indicated muscadine grapes may contain high concentrations of resveratrol, and that wines produced from these grapes, both red and white, may contain more than 40 mg/l, however, subsequent studies have found little or no resveratrol in different varieties of muscadine grapes.
One of the most promising sources is peanuts, especially sprouted peanuts where the content rivals that in grapes. Before sprouting, it was in the range of 2.3 to 4.5 μg/g, and after sprouting, in the range of 11.7 to 25.7 μg/g depending upon peanut cultivar.
Wine and grape juice
|Beverage||Total resveratrol (mg/l)||Total resveratrol (mg/150ml)|
|Red wine (global)||1.98 – 7.13||0.30 – 1.07|
|Red wine (Spanish)||1.92 – 12.59||0.29 – 1.89|
|Red grape juice (Spanish)||1.14 – 8.69||0.17 – 1.30|
|Rose wine (Spanish)||0.43 – 3.52||0.06 – 0.53|
|Pinot noir||0.40 – 2.0||0.06 – 0.30|
|White wine (Spanish)||0.05 – 1.80||0.01 – 0.27|
The trans-resveratrol concentration in 40 Tuscan wines ranged from 0.3 to 2.1 mg/l in the 32 red wines tested and had a maximum of 0.1 mg/l in the 8 white wines in the test. Both the cis- and trans-isomers of resveratrol were detected in all tested samples. cis-resveratrol levels were comparable to those of the trans-isomer. They ranged from 0.5 mg/l to 1.9 mg/l in red wines and had a maximum of 0.2 mg/l in white wines.
In a review of published resveratrol concentrations, the average in red wines is 1.9 ± 1.7 mg trans-resveratrol/L (8.2 ± 7.5 μM), ranging from nondetectable levels to 14.3 mg/l (62.7 μM) trans-resveratrol. Levels of cis-resveratrol follow the same trend as trans-resveratrol.
Reports suggest some aspect of the wine making process converts piceid to resveratrol in wine, as wine seems to have twice the average resveratrol concentration of the equivalent commercial juices.
In general, wines made from grapes of the Pinot Noir and St. Laurent varieties showed the highest level of trans-resveratrol, though no wine or region can yet be said to produce wines with significantly higher concentrations than any other wine or region.
|Food||Serving||Total resveratrol (mg)|
|Peanuts (raw)||1 c (146 g)||0.01 – 0.26|
|Peanuts (boiled)||1 c (180 g)||0.32 – 1.28|
|Peanut butter||1 c (258 g)||0.04 – 0.13|
|Red grapes||1 c (160 g)||0.24 – 1.25|
|Cocoa powder||1 c (200 g)||0.28 – 0.46|
Ounce for ounce, peanuts have about half as much resveratrol as red wine. The average amount in peanuts in the marketplace is 79.4 µg/ounce.
In comparison, some red wines contain approximately 160 µg/fluid ounce. Resveratrol was detected in grape, cranberry, and wine samples. Concentrations ranged from 1.56 to 1042 nmol/g in Concord grape products, and from 8.63 to 24.84 µmol/L in Italian red wine. The concentrations of resveratrol were similar in cranberry and grape juice at 1.07 and 1.56 nmol/g, respectively.
Blueberries have about twice as much resveratrol as bilberries, but there is great regional variation. These fruits have less than 10% of the resveratrol of grapes. Cooking or heat processing of these berries will contribute to the degradation of resveratrol, reducing it by up to half.
As a result of extensive news coverage, sales of supplements greatly increased in 2006. This was despite the existence of studies cautioning that benefits to humans are unproven.
Supplements vary in purity and can contain anywhere from 50 percent to 99 percent resveratrol. Many brands consist of an unpurified extract of Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum), an introduced species in many countries. These contain about 50 percent resveratrol by weight, as well as emodin, which, while considered safe in moderate quantities, can have a laxative effect in high amounts. Resveratrol can be produced from its glucoside piceid from Japanese knotweed fermented by Aspergillus oryzae.
Harvard University scientist and professor David Sinclair is often quoted in online ads for resveratrol supplements, many of which imply endorsement of the advertized product; however, Sinclair, who has studied resveratrol extensively, has gone on record in Bloomberg Businessweek to say he never uttered many of the statements attributed to him on these sites.
There are a number of promising animal studies and some data from human clinical trials is emerging. Nevertheless, there is not enough evidence to recommend consumption of resveratrol beyond the amount that can be obtained through dietary sources, and more human clinical trials are needed.
As of 2014, the results of limited human clinical trials with small samples sizes of the effects of resveratrol on cancer are inconsistent. Testing of resveratrol in animal models of cancer have also shown mixed results. The strongest evidence of anticancer action of resveratrol exists for tumors it can contact directly, such as skin and gastrointestinal tract tumors. For other cancers, the evidence is uncertain, even if massive doses of resveratrol are used. Resveratrol treatment appeared to prevent the development of mammary tumors in animal models; however, it had no effect on the growth of existing tumors. Paradoxically, treatment of prepubertal mice with high doses of resveratrol enhanced formation of tumors. Injected in high doses into mice, resveratrol slowed the growth of neuroblastomas.
Studies suggest resveratrol in red wine may play an important role in this phenomenon. It appears to stimulate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity; and inhibition of platelet aggregation.
The cardioprotective effects of resveratrol also are theorized to be a form of preconditioning—the best method of cardioprotection, rather than direct therapy. Study into the cardioprotective effects of resveratrol is based on the research of Dipak K. Das. However, he has been found guilty of scientific fraud, and many of his publications related to resveratrol have been retracted.
Other diabetic animal model studies by different researchers have also demonstrated the antidiabetic effects of resveratrol. This compound was shown to act as agonist of PPARgamma, nuclear receptor that is current pharmacological target for the treatment of diabetes type 2.
The oxidative stress induced by ultraviolet radiation is one of the main causes for premature skin ageing. The photoprotective effects of several polyphenols known for their antioxidant properties, including resveratrol, have been investigated in silico and in topical application conditions.
The neuroprotective effects have been confirmed in several animal model studies.
Some of the benefits demonstrated in previous studies were overstated, however, this study was challenged immediately, and a few experiments were suggested to be of inferior quality.
- Epsilon-viniferin and Pallidol, two different resveratrol dimers
- Trans-diptoindonesin B, a resveratrol trimer
- Hopeaphenol, a resveratrol tetramer
- Oxyresveratrol, the aglycone of mulberroside A, a compound found in Morus alba, the white mulberry
- Piceatannol, an active metabolite of resveratrol found in red wine
- Piceid, a resveratrol glucoside
- Pterostilbene, a doubly methylated resveratrol
- 4'-Methoxy-(E)-resveratrol 3-O-rutinoside, a compound found in the stem bark of Boswellia dalzielii
- Camont L, Cottart CH, Rhayem Y, Nivet-Antoine V, Djelidi R, Collin F, Beaudeux JL, Bonnefont-Rousselot D; Cottart; Rhayem; Nivet-Antoine; Djelidi; Collin; Beaudeux; Bonnefont-Rousselot (February 2009). "Simple spectrophotometric assessment of the trans-/cis-resveratrol ratio in aqueous solutions". Anal. Chim. Acta 634 (1): 121–8. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.12.003. PMID 19154820.
- Resveratrol MSDS on Fisher Scientific website
- Resveratrol MSDS on www.sigmaaldrich.com
- Bechmann LP, Zahn D, Gieseler RK, Fingas CD, Marquitan G, Jochum C, Gerken G, Friedman SL, Canbay A; Zahn; Gieseler; Fingas; Marquitan; Jochum; Gerken; Friedman; Canbay (June 2009). "Resveratrol amplifies profibrogenic effects of free fatty acids on human hepatic stellate cells". Hepatol. Res. 39 (6): 601–8. doi:10.1111/j.1872-034X.2008.00485.x. PMC 2893585. PMID 19207580.
- Fremont, Lucie. "Biological Effects of Resveratrol". Life Sciences. Elservier, France. Retrieved 6 June 2014.
- Jasiński M, Jasińska L, Ogrodowczyk M; Jasińska; Ogrodowczyk (August 2013). "Resveratrol in prostate diseases - a short review". Cent European J Urol 66 (2): 144–9. doi:10.5173/ceju.2013.02.art8 (inactive 2015-02-01). PMC 3936154. PMID 24579014.
- Tomé-Carneiro J, Gonzálvez M, Larrosa M, Yáñez-Gascón MJ, García-Almagro FJ, Ruiz-Ros JA, Tomás-Barberán FA, García-Conesa MT, Espín JC; Gonzálvez; Larrosa; Yáñez-Gascón; García-Almagro; Ruiz-Ros; Tomás-Barberán; García-Conesa; Espín (Jul 2013). "Resveratrol in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a dietary and clinical perspective". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290: 37–51. Bibcode:2013NYASA1290...37T. doi:10.1111/nyas.12150. PMID 23855464.
- Liu Y, Ma W, Zhang P, He S, Huang D; Ma; Zhang; He; Huang (March 2014). "Effect of resveratrol on blood pressure: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Clinical Nutrition 34 (1): 27–34. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2014.03.009. PMID 24731650.
- Carter LG, D'Orazio JA, Pearson KJ; d'Orazio; Pearson (June 2014). "Resveratrol and cancer: focus on in vivo evidence". Endocr. Relat. Cancer 21 (3): R209–25. doi:10.1530/ERC-13-0171. PMC 4013237. PMID 24500760.
- Poulsen MM, Jørgensen JO, Jessen N, Richelsen B, Pedersen SB; Jørgensen; Jessen; Richelsen; Pedersen (Jul 2013). "Resveratrol in metabolic health: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1290: 74–82. Bibcode:2013NYASA1290...74P. doi:10.1111/nyas.12141. PMID 23855468.
- Hausenblas HA, Schoulda JA, Smoliga JM; Schoulda; Smoliga (19 August 2014). "Resveratrol treatment as an adjunct to pharmacological management in type 2 diabetes mellitus-systematic review and meta-analysis". Molecular nutrition & food research 59 (1): 147–59. doi:10.1002/mnfr.201400173. PMID 25138371.
- Fernández AF, Fraga MF; Fraga (Jul 2011). "The effects of the dietary polyphenol resveratrol on human healthy aging and lifespan". Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society 6 (7): 870–4. doi:10.4161/epi.6.7.16499. PMID 21613817.
- Resveratrol, a new phenolic compound, from Veratrum grandiflorum. M Takaoka, Journal of the Chemical Society of Japan, 1939, volume 60, pages 1090-1100 (abstract)
- Schröder, Joachim (March 6, 2010). "Discovery of resveratrol". Resveratrol.[self-published source?]
- Asensi M, Medina I, Ortega A, Carretero J, Baño MC, Obrador E, Estrela JM; Medina; Ortega; Carretero; Baño; Obrador; Estrela (August 2002). "Inhibition of cancer growth by resveratrol is related to its low bioavailability". Free Radic. Biol. Med. 33 (3): 387–98. doi:10.1016/S0891-5849(02)00911-5. PMID 12126761.
- Madhav NV, Shakya AK, Shakya P, Singh K; Shakya; Shakya; Singh (November 2009). "Orotransmucosal drug delivery systems: a review". J Control Release 140 (1): 2–11. doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2009.07.016. PMID 19665039.
- Ansari KA, Vavia PR, Trotta F, Cavalli R; Vavia; Trotta; Cavalli (March 2011). "Cyclodextrin-based nanosponges for delivery of resveratrol: in vitro characterisation, stability, cytotoxicity and permeation study". AAPS PharmSciTech 12 (1): 279–86. doi:10.1208/s12249-011-9584-3. PMC 3066340. PMID 21240574.
- Shojaei AH (1998). "Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a review". J Pharm Pharm Sci 1 (1): 15–30. PMID 10942969.
- Santos AC, Veiga F, Ribeiro AJ; Veiga; Ribeiro (August 2011). "New delivery systems to improve the bioavailability of resveratrol". Expert Opin Drug Deliv 8 (8): 973–90. doi:10.1517/17425247.2011.581655. PMID 21668403.
- Walle T, Hsieh F, DeLegge MH, Oatis JE, Walle UK; Hsieh; Delegge; Oatis Jr; Walle (December 2004). "High absorption but very low bioavailability of oral resveratrol in humans". Drug Metab. Dispos. 32 (12): 1377–82. doi:10.1124/dmd.104.000885. PMID 15333514.
- Boocock DJ, Faust GE, Patel KR, Schinas AM, Brown VA, Ducharme MP, Booth TD, Crowell JA, Perloff M, Gescher AJ, Steward WP, Brenner DE; Faust; Patel; Schinas; Brown; Ducharme; Booth; Crowell; Perloff; Gescher; Steward; Brenner (June 2007). "Phase I dose escalation pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers of resveratrol, a potential cancer chemopreventive agent". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 16 (6): 1246–52. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-0022. PMID 17548692.
- Elliott PJ, Jirousek M; Jirousek (April 2008). "Sirtuins: novel targets for metabolic disease". Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs 9 (4): 371–8. PMID 18393104.
- Clinical trial number NCT00920556 for "A Clinical Study to Assess the Safety and Activity of SRT501 Alone or in Combination With Bortezomib in Patients With Multiple Myeloma" at ClinicalTrials.gov
- Wenzel E, Soldo T, Erbersdobler H, Somoza V; Soldo; Erbersdobler; Somoza (May 2005). "Bioactivity and metabolism of trans-resveratrol orally administered to Wistar rats". Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (5): 482–94. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500003. PMID 15779067.
- Marier JF, Vachon P, Gritsas A, Zhang J, Moreau JP, Ducharme MP; Vachon; Gritsas; Zhang; Moreau; Ducharme (July 2002). "Metabolism and disposition of resveratrol in rats: extent of absorption, glucuronidation, and enterohepatic recirculation evidenced by a linked-rat model". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 302 (1): 369–73. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.033340. PMID 12065739.
- Abd El-Mohsen M, Bayele H, Kuhnle G, Gibson G, Debnam E, Kaila Srai S, Rice-Evans C, Spencer JP; Bayele; Kuhnle; Gibson; Debnam; Kaila Srai; Rice-Evans; Spencer (July 2006). "Distribution of [3H]trans-resveratrol in rat tissues following oral administration". Br. J. Nutr. 96 (1): 62–70. doi:10.1079/BJN20061810. PMID 16869992.
- Yu C, Shin YG, Chow A, Li Y, Kosmeder JW, Lee YS, Hirschelman WH, Pezzuto JM, Mehta RG, van Breemen RB; Shin; Chow; Li; Kosmeder; Lee; Hirschelman; Pezzuto; Mehta; Van Breemen (December 2002). "Human, rat, and mouse metabolism of resveratrol". Pharm. Res. 19 (12): 1907–14. doi:10.1023/A:1021414129280. PMID 12523673.
- Wang LX, Heredia A, Song H, Zhang Z, Yu B, Davis C, Redfield R; Heredia; Song; Zhang; Yu; Davis; Redfield (October 2004). "Resveratrol glucuronides as the metabolites of resveratrol in humans: characterization, synthesis, and anti-HIV activity". J Pharm Sci 93 (10): 2448–57. doi:10.1002/jps.20156. PMID 15349955.
- Goldberg DM, Yan J, Soleas GJ; Yan; Soleas (February 2003). "Absorption of three wine-related polyphenols in three different matrices by healthy subjects". Clin. Biochem. 36 (1): 79–87. doi:10.1016/S0009-9120(02)00397-1. PMID 12554065.
- Baur JA, Sinclair DA; Sinclair (June 2006). "Therapeutic potential of resveratrol: the in vivo evidence". Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 5 (6): 493–506. doi:10.1038/nrd2060. PMID 16732220.
- Wenzel E, Somoza V; Somoza (May 2005). "Metabolism and bioavailability of trans-resveratrol". Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (5): 472–81. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500010. PMID 15779070.
- Vitaglione P, Sforza S, Galaverna G, Ghidini C, Caporaso N, Vescovi PP, Fogliano V, Marchelli R; Sforza; Galaverna; Ghidini; Caporaso; Vescovi; Fogliano; Marchelli (May 2005). "Bioavailability of trans-resveratrol from red wine in humans". Mol Nutr Food Res 49 (5): 495–504. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200500002. PMID 15830336.
- Corder R, Mullen W, Khan NQ, Marks SC, Wood EG, Carrier MJ, Crozier A; Mullen; Khan; Marks; Wood; Carrier; Crozier (November 2006). "Oenology: red wine procyanidins and vascular health". Nature 444 (7119): 566. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..566C. doi:10.1038/444566a. PMID 17136085.
- Alcaín FJ, Villalba JM; Villalba (April 2009). "Sirtuin activators". Expert Opin Ther Pat 19 (4): 403–14. doi:10.1517/13543770902762893. PMID 19441923.
- Lagouge M, Argmann C, Gerhart-Hines Z, Meziane H, Lerin C, Daussin F, Messadeq N, Milne J, Lambert P, Elliott P, Geny B, Laakso M, Puigserver P, Auwerx J; Argmann; Gerhart-Hines; Meziane; Lerin; Daussin; Messadeq; Milne; Lambert; Elliott; Geny; Laakso; Puigserver; Auwerx (December 2006). "Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha". Cell 127 (6): 1109–22. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.11.013. PMID 17112576.
- Kaeberlein M, McDonagh T, Heltweg B, Hixon J, Westman EA, Caldwell SD, Napper A, Curtis R, DiStefano PS, Fields S, Bedalov A, Kennedy BK; McDonagh; Heltweg; Hixon; Westman; Caldwell; Napper; Curtis; Distefano; Fields; Bedalov; Kennedy (April 2005). "Substrate-specific activation of sirtuins by resveratrol". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (17): 17038–45. doi:10.1074/jbc.M500655200. PMID 15684413.
- Beher D, Wu J, Cumine S, Kim KW, Lu SC, Atangan L, Wang M; Wu; Cumine; Kim; Lu; Atangan; Wang (December 2009). "Resveratrol is not a direct activator of SIRT1 enzyme activity". Chem Biol Drug Des 74 (6): 619–24. doi:10.1111/j.1747-0285.2009.00901.x. PMID 19843076.
- Pacholec M, Bleasdale JE, Chrunyk B, Cunningham D, Flynn D, Garofalo RS, Griffith D, Griffor M, Loulakis P, Pabst B, Qiu X, Stockman B, Thanabal V, Varghese A, Ward J, Withka J, Ahn K; Bleasdale; Chrunyk; Cunningham; Flynn; Garofalo; Griffith; Griffor; Loulakis; Pabst; Qiu; Stockman; Thanabal; Varghese; Ward; Withka; Ahn (March 2010). "SRT1720, SRT2183, SRT1460, and resveratrol are not direct activators of SIRT1". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (11): 8340–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.088682. PMC 2832984. PMID 20061378.
- Robb EL, Page MM, Wiens BE, Stuart JA; Page; Wiens; Stuart (March 2008). "Molecular mechanisms of oxidative stress resistance induced by resveratrol: Specific and progressive induction of MnSOD". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 367 (2): 406–12. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.12.138. PMID 18167310.
- Radák, Zsolt (2000). Free radicals in exercise and aging. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. p. 39. ISBN 978-0-88011-881-1.
- Macmillan-Crow LA, Cruthirds DL; Cruthirds (April 2001). "Invited review: manganese superoxide dismutase in disease". Free Radic. Res. 34 (4): 325–36. doi:10.1080/10715760100300281. PMID 11328670.
- Cullen JJ, Weydert C, Hinkhouse MM, Ritchie J, Domann FE, Spitz D, Oberley LW; Weydert; Hinkhouse; Ritchie; Domann; Spitz; Oberley (March 2003). "The role of manganese superoxide dismutase in the growth of pancreatic adenocarcinoma". Cancer Res. 63 (6): 1297–303. PMID 12649190.
- "Mounting evidence shows red wine antioxidant kills cancer" (Press release). University of Rochester Medical Center. March 26, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- Sun J, Folk D, Bradley TJ, Tower J; Folk; Bradley; Tower (June 2002). "Induced overexpression of mitochondrial Mn-superoxide dismutase extends the life span of adult Drosophila melanogaster". Genetics 161 (2): 661–72. PMC 1462135. PMID 12072463.
- Hu D, Cao P, Thiels E, Chu CT, Wu GY, Oury TD, Klann E; Cao; Thiels; Chu; Wu; Oury; Klann (March 2007). "Hippocampal long-term potentiation, memory, and longevity in mice that overexpress mitochondrial superoxide dismutase". Neurobiol Learn Mem 87 (3): 372–84. doi:10.1016/j.nlm.2006.10.003. PMC 1847321. PMID 17129739.
- Wong GH (May 1995). "Protective roles of cytokines against radiation: induction of mitochondrial MnSOD". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1271 (1): 205–9. doi:10.1016/0925-4439(95)00029-4. PMID 7599209.
- Stefani M, Markus MA, Lin RC, Pinese M, Dawes IW, Morris BJ; Markus; Lin; Pinese; Dawes; Morris (October 2007). "The effect of resveratrol on a cell model of human aging". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1114: 407–18. Bibcode:2007NYASA1114..407S. doi:10.1196/annals.1396.001. PMID 17804521.
- Brunet A, Sweeney LB, Sturgill JF, Chua KF, Greer PL, Lin Y, Tran H, Ross SE, Mostoslavsky R, Cohen HY, Hu LS, Cheng HL, Jedrychowski MP, Gygi SP, Sinclair DA, Alt FW, Greenberg ME; Sweeney; Sturgill; Chua; Greer; Lin; Tran; Ross; Mostoslavsky; Cohen; Hu; Cheng; Jedrychowski; Gygi; Sinclair; Alt; Greenberg (March 2004). "Stress-dependent regulation of FOXO transcription factors by the SIRT1 deacetylase". Science 303 (5666): 2011–5. Bibcode:2004Sci...303.2011B. doi:10.1126/science.1094637. PMID 14976264.
- Kops GJ, Dansen TB, Polderman PE, Saarloos I, Wirtz KW, Coffer PJ, Huang TT, Bos JL, Medema RH, Burgering BM; Dansen; Polderman; Saarloos; Wirtz; Coffer; Huang; Bos; Medema; Burgering (September 2002). "Forkhead transcription factor FOXO3a protects quiescent cells from oxidative stress". Nature 419 (6904): 316–21. Bibcode:2002Natur.419..316K. doi:10.1038/nature01036. PMID 12239572.
- Khan MA, Chen HC, Wan XX, Tania M, Xu AH, Chen FZ, Zhang DZ; Chen; Wan; Tania; Xu; Chen; Zhang (March 2013). "Regulatory effects of resveratrol on antioxidant enzymes: a mechanism of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in cancer cells". Mol Cells 35 (3): 219–25. doi:10.1007/s10059-013-2259-z. PMC 3887918. PMID 23456297.
- Leiro J, Arranz JA, Fraiz N, Sanmartín ML, Quezada E, Orallo F; Arranz; Fraiz; Sanmartín; Quezada; Orallo (February 2005). "Effect of cis-resveratrol on genes involved in nuclear factor kappa B signaling". Int. Immunopharmacol. 5 (2): 393–406. doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2004.10.006. PMID 15652768.
- Chun YJ, Kim MY, Guengerich FP; Kim; Guengerich (August 1999). "Resveratrol is a selective human cytochrome P450 1A1 inhibitor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 262 (1): 20–4. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1152. PMID 10448061.
- Schwarz D, Roots I; Roots (April 2003). "In vitro assessment of inhibition by natural polyphenols of metabolic activation of procarcinogens by human CYP1A1". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 303 (3): 902–7. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00435-2. PMID 12670496.
- Benitez DA, Pozo-Guisado E, Alvarez-Barrientos A, Fernandez-Salguero PM, Castellón EA; Pozo-Guisado; Alvarez-Barrientos; Fernandez-Salguero; Castellón (2007). "Mechanisms involved in resveratrol-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in prostate cancer-derived cell lines". J. Androl. 28 (2): 282–93. doi:10.2164/jandrol.106.000968. PMID 17050787.
- Faber AC, Chiles TC; Chiles (December 2006). "Resveratrol induces apoptosis in transformed follicular lymphoma OCI-LY8 cells: evidence for a novel mechanism involving inhibition of BCL6 signaling". Int. J. Oncol. 29 (6): 1561–6. doi:10.3892/ijo.29.6.1561. PMID 17088997.
- Riles WL, Erickson J, Nayyar S, Atten MJ, Attar BM, Holian O; Erickson; Nayyar; Atten; Attar; Holian (September 2006). "Resveratrol engages selective apoptotic signals in gastric adenocarcinoma cells". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (35): 5628–34. PMC 4088162. PMID 17007014.
- Sareen D, van Ginkel PR, Takach JC, Mohiuddin A, Darjatmoko SR, Albert DM, Polans AS; Van Ginkel; Takach; Mohiuddin; Darjatmoko; Albert; Polans (September 2006). "Mitochondria as the primary target of resveratrol-induced apoptosis in human retinoblastoma cells". Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 47 (9): 3708–16. doi:10.1167/iovs.06-0119. PMID 16936077.
- Tang HY, Shih A, Cao HJ, Davis FB, Davis PJ, Lin HY; Shih; Cao; Davis; Davis; Lin (August 2006). "Resveratrol-induced cyclooxygenase-2 facilitates p53-dependent apoptosis in human breast cancer cells". Mol. Cancer Ther. 5 (8): 2034–42. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-06-0216. PMID 16928824.
- Aziz MH, Nihal M, Fu VX, Jarrard DF, Ahmad N; Nihal; Fu; Jarrard; Ahmad (May 2006). "Resveratrol-caused apoptosis of human prostate carcinoma LNCaP cells is mediated via modulation of phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase/Akt pathway and Bcl-2 family proteins". Mol. Cancer Ther. 5 (5): 1335–41. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-05-0526. PMID 16731767.
- Cao Y, Fu ZD, Wang F, Liu HY, Han R; Fu; Wang; Liu; Han (June 2005). "Anti-angiogenic activity of resveratrol, a natural compound from medicinal plants". J Asian Nat Prod Res 7 (3): 205–13. doi:10.1080/10286020410001690190. PMID 15621628.
- Hung LM, Chen JK, Huang SS, Lee RS, Su MJ; Chen; Huang; Lee; Su (August 2000). "Cardioprotective effect of resveratrol, a natural antioxidant derived from grapes". Cardiovasc. Res. 47 (3): 549–55. doi:10.1016/S0008-6363(00)00102-4. PMID 10963727.
- Marambaud P, Zhao H, Davies P; Zhao; Davies (November 2005). "Resveratrol promotes clearance of Alzheimer's disease amyloid-beta peptides". J. Biol. Chem. 280 (45): 37377–82. doi:10.1074/jbc.M508246200. PMID 16162502.
- Parker JA, Arango M, Abderrahmane S, Lambert E, Tourette C, Catoire H, Néri C; Arango; Abderrahmane; Lambert; Tourette; Catoire; Néri (April 2005). "Resveratrol rescues mutant polyglutamine cytotoxicity in nematode and mammalian neurons". Nat. Genet. 37 (4): 349–50. doi:10.1038/ng1534. PMID 15793589.
- Olson ER, Naugle JE, Zhang X, Bomser JA, Meszaros JG; Naugle; Zhang; Bomser; Meszaros (March 2005). "Inhibition of cardiac fibroblast proliferation and myofibroblast differentiation by resveratrol". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 288 (3): H1131–8. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00763.2004. PMID 15498824.
- Bhat KP, Lantvit D, Christov K, Mehta RG, Moon RC, Pezzuto JM; Lantvit; Christov; Mehta; Moon; Pezzuto (October 2001). "Estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties of resveratrol in mammary tumor models". Cancer Res. 61 (20): 7456–63. PMID 11606380.
- Wang Y, Lee KW, Chan FL, Chen S, Leung LK; Lee; Chan; Chen; Leung (July 2006). "The red wine polyphenol resveratrol displays bilevel inhibition on aromatase in breast cancer cells". Toxicol. Sci. 92 (1): 71–7. doi:10.1093/toxsci/kfj190. PMID 16611627.
- Kode A, Rajendrasozhan S, Caito S, Yang SR, Megson IL, Rahman I; Rajendrasozhan; Caito; Yang; Megson; Rahman (March 2008). "Resveratrol induces glutathione synthesis by activation of Nrf2 and protects against cigarette smoke-mediated oxidative stress in human lung epithelial cells". Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. 294 (3): L478–88. doi:10.1152/ajplung.00361.2007. PMID 18162601.
- Ghosh HS, McBurney M, Robbins PD; McBurney; Robbins (2010). "SIRT1 negatively regulates the mammalian target of rapamycin". PLoS ONE 5 (2): e9199. Bibcode:2010PLoSO...5.9199G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009199. PMC 2821410. PMID 20169165.
- Morselli E, Galluzzi L, Kepp O, Criollo A, Maiuri MC, Tavernarakis N, Madeo F, Kroemer G; Galluzzi; Kepp; Criollo; Maiuri; Tavernarakis; Madeo; Kroemer (December 2009). "Autophagy mediates pharmacological lifespan extension by spermidine and resveratrol". Aging (Albany NY) 1 (12): 961–70. PMC 2815753. PMID 20157579.
- Tennen RI, Michishita-Kioi E, Chua KF; Michishita-Kioi; Chua (February 2012). "Finding a target for resveratrol". Cell 148 (3): 387–9. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.032. PMID 22304906.
- Park SJ, Ahmad F, Philp A, Baar K, Williams T, Luo H, Ke H, Rehmann H, Taussig R, Brown AL, Kim MK, Beaven MA, Burgin AB, Manganiello V, Chung JH; Ahmad; Philp; Baar; Williams; Luo; Ke; Rehmann; Taussig; Brown; Kim; Beaven; Burgin; Manganiello; Chung (February 2012). "Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases". Cell 148 (3): 421–33. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.01.017. PMC 3431801. PMID 22304913.
- Mattivi F, Reniero F, Korhammer S; Reniero; Korhammer (1995). "Isolation, characterization, and evolution in red wine vinification of resveratrol monomers". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 (7): 1820–3. doi:10.1021/jf00055a013.
- Lamuela-Raventos RM, Romero-Perez AI, Waterhouse AL, de la Torre-Boronat MC; Romero-Perez; Waterhouse; de la Torre-Boronat (1995). "Direct HPLC Analysis of cis- and trans-Resveratrol and Piceid Isomers in Spanish Red Vitis vinifera Wines". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 43 (2): 281–283. doi:10.1021/jf00050a003.
- Resveratrol Photoisomerization: An Integrative Guided-Inquiry Experiment Elyse Bernard, Philip Britz-McKibbin, Nicholas Gernigon Vol. 84 No. 7 July 2007 Journal of Chemical Education 1159.
- Yang I, Kim E, Kang J, Han H, Sul S, Park SB, Kim SK; Kim; Kang; Han; Sul; Park; Kim (2012). "Photochemical generation of a new, highly fluorescent compound from non-fluorescent resveratrol". Chemical Communications 48 (32): 3839–41. doi:10.1039/C2CC30940H. PMID 22436889.
- Prokop J, Abrman P, Seligson AL, Sovak M; Abrman; Seligson; Sovak (2006). "Resveratrol and its glycon piceid are stable polyphenols". J Med Food 9 (1): 11–4. doi:10.1089/jmf.2006.9.11. PMID 16579722.
- Pantusa M, Bartucci R, Rizzuti B; Bartucci; Rizzuti (2014). "Stability of trans-resveratrol associated with transport proteins". J Agric Food Chem 62 (19): 4384–91. doi:10.1021/jf405584a. PMID 24773207.
- Bertelli AA, Gozzini A, Stradi R, Stella S, Bertelli A; Gozzini; Stradi; Stella; Bertelli (1998). "Stability of resveratrol over time and in the various stages of grape transformation". Drugs Exp Clin Res 24 (4): 207–11. PMID 10051967.
- Sharan S, Nagar S; Nagar (2013). "Pulmonary Metabolism of Resveratrol: In Vitro and in Vivo Evidence". Drug Metabolism and Disposition 41 (5): 1163–9. doi:10.1124/dmd.113.051326. PMC 3629805. PMID 23474649.
- Schröder G, Brown JW, Schröder J; Brown; Schröder (February 1988). "Molecular analysis of resveratrol synthase. cDNA, genomic clones and relationship with chalcone synthase". Eur. J. Biochem. 172 (1): 161–9. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1988.tb13868.x. PMID 2450022.
- Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA, Hamann MT; Kouzi; Hamann (January 2000). "Dimerization of resveratrol by the grapevine pathogen Botrytis cinerea". J. Nat. Prod. 63 (1): 29–33. doi:10.1021/np990266n. PMID 10650073.
- Cichewicz RH, Kouzi SA; Kouzi (October 1998). "Biotransformation of resveratrol to piceid by Bacillus cereus". J. Nat. Prod. 61 (10): 1313–4. doi:10.1021/np980139b. PMID 9784180.
- Favaron, F.; Lucchetta, M.; Odorizzi, S.; Pais da Cunha, A.T.; Sella, L. (2009). "The role of grape polyphenols on trans-resveratrol activity against Botrytis cinerea and of fungal laccase on the solubility of putative grape PR proteins". Journal of Plant Pathology 91 (3): 579–88. doi:10.4454/jpp.v91i3.549 (inactive 2015-02-01).
- Gatto P, Vrhovsek U, Muth J, Segala C, Romualdi C, Fontana P, Pruefer D, Stefanini M, Moser C, Mattivi F, Velasco R; Vrhovsek; Muth; Segala; Romualdi; Fontana; Pruefer; Stefanini; Moser; Mattivi; Velasco (December 2008). "Ripening and genotype control stilbene accumulation in healthy grapes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (24): 11773–85. doi:10.1021/jf8017707. PMID 19032022.
- Roy, H., Lundy, S., Resveratrol, Pennington Nutrition Series, 2005 No. 7
- LeBlanc, Mark Rene (13 December 2005). "Cultivar, Juice Extraction, Ultra Violet Irradiation and Storage Influence the Stilbene Content of Muscadine Grapes (Vitis Rotundifolia Michx.)". Retrieved 2007-08-15.
- Gu X, Creasy L, Kester A, Zeece M; Creasy; Kester; Zeece (August 1999). "Capillary electrophoretic determination of resveratrol in wines". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47 (8): 3223–7. doi:10.1021/jf981211e. PMID 10552635.
- Mattivi F (June 1993). "Solid phase extraction of trans-resveratrol from wines for HPLC analysis". Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 196 (6): 522–5. doi:10.1007/BF01201331. PMID 8328217.
- Ector BJ, Magee JB, Hegwood CP, Coign MJ (1996). "Resveratrol Concentration in Muscadine Berries, Juice, Pomace, Purees, Seeds, and Wines". American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 47 (1): 57–62.
- Pastrana-Bonilla E, Akoh CC, Sellappan S, Krewer G; Akoh; Sellappan; Krewer (August 2003). "Phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of muscadine grapes". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (18): 5497–503. doi:10.1021/jf030113c. PMID 12926904.
Contrary to previous results, ellagic acid and not resveratrol was the major phenolic in muscadine grapes. The HPLC solvent system used coupled with fluorescence detection allowed separation of ellagic acid from resveratrol and detection of resveratrol." "[T]rans-resveratrol had the lowest concentrations of the detected phenolics, ranging from not detected in two varieties to 0.2 mg/ 100 g of FW (Tables 1 and 2). Our result for resveratrol differed from previous results [Ector et al., 1996] indicating high concentrations. These researchers apparently were not able to separate ellagic acid from resveratrol with UV detection alone.
- Hudson TS, Hartle DK, Hursting SD, Nunez NP, Wang TT, Young HA, Arany P, Green JE; Hartle; Hursting; Nunez; Wang; Young; Arany; Green (September 2007). "Inhibition of prostate cancer growth by muscadine grape skin extract and resveratrol through distinct mechanisms". Cancer Res. 67 (17): 8396–405. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-4069. PMID 17804756.
MSKE [muscadine grape skin extract] does not contain significant quantities of resveratrol and differs from MSEE. To determine whether MSKE contains significant levels of resveratrol and to compare the chemical content of MSKE (skin) with MSEE (seed), HPLC analyses were done. As depicted in Supplementary Fig. S1A and B, MSKE does not contain significant amounts of resveratrol (<1 ?g/g by limit of detection).
- Wang KH, Lai YH, Chang JC, Ko TF, Shyu SL, Chiou RY; Lai; Chang; Ko; Shyu; Chiou (January 2005). "Germination of peanut kernels to enhance resveratrol biosynthesis and prepare sprouts as a functional vegetable". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53 (2): 242–6. doi:10.1021/jf048804b. PMID 15656656.
- Stewart JR, Artime MC, O'Brian CA; Artime; O'Brian (July 2003). "Resveratrol: a candidate nutritional substance for prostate cancer prevention". J. Nutr. 133 (7 Suppl): 2440S–2443S. PMID 12840221.
- Hurst WJ, Glinski JA, Miller KB, Apgar J, Davey MH, Stuart DA; Glinski; Miller; Apgar; Davey; Stuart (September 2008). "Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56 (18): 8374–8. doi:10.1021/jf801297w. PMID 18759443.
- Mozzon M (1996). "Resveratrol content in some Tuscan wines". Ital. J. Food Sci. (Chiriotti, Pinerolo, ITALIE) 8 (2): 145–52. INIST:3123149.
- Stervbo U, Vang O, Bonnesen C; Vang; Bonnesen (2007). "A review of the content of the putative chemopreventive phytoalexin resveratrol in red wine". Food Chemistry 101 (2): 449–57. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2006.01.047.
- Higdon J, Drake VJ, Steward WP (May 2008). "Resveratrol". Micronutrient Information Center. Linus Pauling Institute.
- <Please add first missing authors to populate metadata.> (1999). "Resveratrol In Peanuts". Kids Food for Thought (The Peanut Institute) 1 (4). Archived from the original on August 24, 2000.[unreliable source?]
- Wang Y, Catana F, Yang Y, Roderick R, van Breemen RB; Catana; Yang; Roderick; Van Breemen (January 2002). "An LC-MS method for analyzing total resveratrol in grape juice, cranberry juice, and in wine". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 50 (3): 431–5. doi:10.1021/jf010812u. PMID 11804508.
- Lyons MM, Yu C, Toma RB, Cho SY, Reiboldt W, Lee J, van Breemen RB; Yu; Toma; Cho; Reiboldt; Lee; Van Breemen (September 2003). "Resveratrol in raw and baked blueberries and bilberries". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51 (20): 5867–70. doi:10.1021/jf034150f. PMID 13129286.
- Rimas A (2006-12-11). "His research targets the aging process". The Boston Globe.
- Stipp D (2007-01-19). "Can red wine help you live forever?". Fortune magazine.
- Seward ZM (2006-11-30). "Quest for youth drives craze for 'wine' pills". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Caution urged with resveratrol". United Press International. 2006-11-30.
- Aleccia J (2008-04-22). "Longevity quest moves slowly from lab to life". MSNBC.
- Gocze T (2008-09-08). "Japanese Knotweed a Resilient Invader". Bangor Daily News.
- Wang H, Liu L, Guo YX, Dong YS, Zhang DJ, Xiu ZL; Liu; Guo; Dong; Zhang; Xiu (June 2007). "Biotransformation of piceid in Polygonum cuspidatum to resveratrol by Aspergillus oryzae". Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 75 (4): 763–8. doi:10.1007/s00253-007-0874-3. PMID 17333175.
- Weintraub A (2009-07-29). "Resveratrol: The Hard Sell on Anti-Aging". Bloomberg Businessweek.
- Pangeni R, Sahni JK, Ali J, Sharma S, Baboota S; Sahni; Ali; Sharma; Baboota (2014). "Resveratrol: review on therapeutic potential and recent advances in drug delivery". Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery 11 (8): 1285–1298. doi:10.1517/17425247.2014.919253. ISSN 1742-5247. PMID 24830814.
- Tomé-Carneiro J, Larrosa M, González-Sarrías A, Tomás-Barberán FA, García-Conesa MT, Espín JC; Larrosa; González-Sarrías; Tomás-Barberán; García-Conesa; Espín (2013). "Resveratrol and clinical trials: the crossroad from in vitro studies to human evidence". Curr. Pharm. Des. 19 (34): 6064–93. doi:10.2174/13816128113199990407. PMC 3782695. PMID 23448440.
- Vang O, Ahmad N, Baile C, Baur J, Brown K, Csiszar A et al. (2011). "What is new for an old molecule? Systematic review and recommendations on the use of resveratrol". PLoS ONE 6 (6): e19881. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019881. PMC 3116821. PMID 21698226.
- Athar M, Back JH, Tang X, Kim KH, Kopelovich L, Bickers DR, Kim AL; Back; Tang; Kim; Kopelovich; Bickers; Kim (November 2007). "Resveratrol: a review of preclinical studies for human cancer prevention". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 224 (3): 274–83. doi:10.1016/j.taap.2006.12.025. PMC 2083123. PMID 17306316.
- Szmitko PE, Verma S; Verma (January 2005). "Cardiology patient pages. Red wine and your heart". Circulation 111 (2): e10–1. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000151608.29217.62. PMID 15657377.
- Ferrières J (January 2004). "The French paradox: lessons for other countries". Heart 90 (1): 107–11. doi:10.1136/heart.90.1.107. PMC 1768013. PMID 14676260.
- Simini B (January 2000). "Serge Renaud: from French paradox to Cretan miracle". Lancet 355 (9197): 48. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)71990-5. PMID 10615898.
- Kopp P (June 1998). "Resveratrol, a phytoestrogen found in red wine. A possible explanation for the conundrum of the 'French paradox'?". Eur. J. Endocrinol. 138 (6): 619–20. doi:10.1530/eje.0.1380619. PMID 9678525.
- Duffy SJ, Vita JA; Vita (2003). "Effects of phenolics on vascular endothelial function". Current Opinion in Lipidology 14 (1): 21–7. doi:10.1097/01.mol.0000052857.26236.f2 (inactive 2015-02-01). PMID 12544657.
- Olas B, Wachowicz B; Wachowicz (August 2005). "Resveratrol, a phenolic antioxidant with effects on blood platelet functions". Platelets 16 (5): 251–60. doi:10.1080/09537100400020591. PMID 16011975.
- Das DK, Maulik N; Maulik (February 2006). "Resveratrol in cardioprotection: a therapeutic promise of alternative medicine". Mol. Interv. 6 (1): 36–47. doi:10.1124/mi.6.1.7. PMID 16507749.
- Weir, William; Megan, Kathleen (January 11, 2012). "Investigation Finds UConn Professor Fabricated Research - Work Focused On Resveratrol, Chemical In Red Wine". Hartford Courant.
- Retraction Watch
- Baur JA, Pearson KJ, Price NL, Jamieson HA, Lerin C, Kalra A, Prabhu VV, Allard JS, Lopez-Lluch G, Lewis K, Pistell PJ, Poosala S, Becker KG, Boss O, Gwinn D, Wang M, Ramaswamy S, Fishbein KW, Spencer RG, Lakatta EG, Le Couteur D, Shaw RJ, Navas P, Puigserver P, Ingram DK, de Cabo R, Sinclair DA; Pearson; Price; Jamieson; Lerin; Kalra; Prabhu; Allard; Lopez-Lluch; Lewis; Pistell; Poosala; Becker; Boss; Gwinn; Wang; Ramaswamy; Fishbein; Spencer; Lakatta; Le Couteur; Shaw; Navas; Puigserver; Ingram; De Cabo; Sinclair (November 2006). "Resveratrol improves health and survival of mice on a high-calorie diet". Nature 444 (7117): 337–42. Bibcode:2006Natur.444..337B. doi:10.1038/nature05354. PMID 17086191.
- Wang L, Waltenberger B, Pferschy-Wenzig EM, Blunder M, Liu X, Malainer C, Blazevic T, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Kopp B, Bauer R, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Atanasov AG; Waltenberger; Pferschy-Wenzig; Blunder; Liu; Malainer; Blazevic; Schwaiger; Rollinger; Heiss; Schuster; Kopp; Bauer; Stuppner; Dirsch; Atanasov (2014). "Natural product agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ): a review". Biochem Pharmacol 92 (1): 73–89. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2014.07.018. PMC 4212005. PMID 25083916.
- Afaq F, Mukhtar H; Mukhtar (2006). "Botanical antioxidants in the prevention of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging". Experimental Dermatology 15 (9): 678–84. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2006.00466.x. PMID 16881964.
- Baliga MS, Katiyar SK; Katiyar (2006). "Chemoprevention of photocarcinogenesis by selected dietary botanicals". Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences 5 (2): 243–53. doi:10.1039/b505311k. PMID 16465310.
- Anekonda TS (September 2006). "Resveratrol--a boon for treating Alzheimer's disease?". Brain Res Rev 52 (2): 316–26. doi:10.1016/j.brainresrev.2006.04.004. PMID 16766037.
- "'Longevity gene' may be dead end: study". The Raw Story. Agence France-Presse. September 12, 2011.
- Ledford H (September 2011). "Longevity genes challenged. Do sirtuins really lengthen lifespan?". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.549.
- Viswanathan M, Guarente L; Guarente (September 2011). "Regulation of Caenorhabditis elegans lifespan by sir-2.1 transgenes". Nature 477 (7365): E1–2. Bibcode:2011Natur.477E...1V. doi:10.1038/nature10440. PMID 21938026.
- Lombard DB, Pletcher SD, Cantó C, Auwerx J; Pletcher; Cantó; Auwerx (September 2011). "Ageing: longevity hits a roadblock". Nature 477 (7365): 410–1. Bibcode:2011Natur.477..410L. doi:10.1038/477410a. PMID 21938058.
- Pathak L, Agrawal Y, Dhir A; Agrawal; Dhir (Jul 2013). "Natural polyphenols in the management of major depression". Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs 22 (7): 863–80. doi:10.1517/13543784.2013.794783. PMID 23642183.
- Kim JK, Kim M, Cho SG, Kim MK, Kim SW, Lim YH; Kim; Cho; Kim; Kim; Lim (June 2010). "Biotransformation of mulberroside A from Morus alba results in enhancement of tyrosinase inhibition". J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 37 (6): 631–7. doi:10.1007/s10295-010-0722-9. PMID 20411402.
- Alemika Taiwo E, Onawunmi Grace O and Olugbade Tiwalade O, Antibacterial phenolics from Boswellia dalzielii. Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicines, 2006
- Félicien Breton (2008). "Resveratrol and polyphenols in wines".
- CTD's Resveratrol page from the Comparative Toxicogenomics Database
- U.S. National Library of Medicine: Drug Information Portal – Resveratrol
- Detailed Micro-Nutrient information on Resveratrol from the Linus Pauling Institute
- Resveratrol: Don't Buy the Hype
- Stay young on red wine drugs? Think again