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The retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈ɽ〉, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is 〈r`〉.
Features of the retroflex flap:
- Its manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another.
- Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
- Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Hausa||bara||[bəɽa]||'servant'||Represented in Arabic script with 〈ر〉|
|Hindi||बड़ा||[bəɽɑː]||'big'||Represented by 〈ड़〉. Hindi contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology|
|Nepali||तह||[bʱaɽa]||'rent'||See Nepali phonology|
|Norwegian||Eastern and central dialects||blad||[bɽɑː]||'leaf'||Allophone of /ɭ/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Almost the same as above||bord||[buːɽ]||'board', 'table'||Allophone of /r/. See Norwegian phonology|
|Portuguese||Some European speakers||falar||[fəˈlaɽ]||'to speak'||Allophone of /ɾ/. May rhotacize ("color") preceding vowel. See Portuguese phonology|
|Brazilian caipira speakers||madeira||[mɐˈdeːɽə]||'wood', 'timber'|
|Some sertanejo speakers||gargalhar||[ɡaɽɡɐˈʎaɽ]||'to chortle',
|Swedish||Some dialects||blad||[bɽɑː]||'leaf'||Allophone of /l/. See Swedish phonology|
|Urdu||بڑا||[bəɽɑː]||'big'||Represented by 〈ڑ〉. Urdu contrasts unaspirated and aspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology|
- Khatiwada (2009:377)
- Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
- (Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
- (Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
- (Portuguese) Rhotic consonants in the speech of three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty. Pages 22 and 23.
- Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), "Nepali", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 337–380
Heide, Eldar, 2010: «Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.» Maal og minne, s. 3-44.