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retroflex flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ ɽ ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ⟨ r` ⟩.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the retroflex flap:
manner of articulation is flap, which means it is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (usually the tongue) is thrown against another. Its
place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat). Its
phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds or lenis lax. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The
airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
Toda has a retroflex trill, which is transcribed with the same IPA symbol.
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:91, 94-95, 97, 101, 107)
^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:50-51, 53-55)
^ a b Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:107)
^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:95, 97, 101 and 107)
^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:50-51, 53-54)
^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:95)
^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:54)
^ Khatiwada (2009:377)
^ Lista das marcas dialetais e ouros fenómenos de variação (fonética e fonológica) identificados nas amostras do Arquivo Dialetal do CLUP (Portuguese)
^ (Portuguese) Acoustic-phonetic characteristics of the Brazilian Portuguese's retroflex /r/: data from respondents in Pato Branco, Paraná. Irineu da Silva Ferraz. Pages 19–21
^ (Portuguese) Syllable coda /r/ in the "capital" of the paulista hinterland: sociolinguistic analisis. Cândida Mara Britto LEITE. Page 111 (page 2 in the attached PDF)
^ (Portuguese) Rhotic consonants in the speech of three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty. Pages 22 and 23.
Bibliography [ edit ]
Goeman, Ton; Van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on , in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects" 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, ISSN 0777-3692
Khatiwada, Rajesh (2009), Nepali, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 39 (3): 337–380, doi: 10.1017/s0025100309990181
Verstraten, Bart; Van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Socio-geographical variation of , in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, /r/ in standard Dutch" 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 45–61, ISSN 0777-3692
Heide, Eldar, 2010: «Tjukk l – Retroflektert tydeleggjering av kort kvantitet. Om kvalitetskløyvinga av det gamle kvantitetssystemet.» Maal og minne, s. 3-44.