Réunion

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Réunion Island
Overseas region of France
Flag of Réunion Island
Flag
Coat of arms of Réunion Island
Coat of arms
Reunion in France.svg
Country  France
Prefecture Saint-Denis, Réunion
Departments 1
Government
 • President Didier Robert
Area
 • Total 2,511 km2 (970 sq mi)
Population (Jan. 2013)[1]
 • Total 840,974
 • Density 330/km2 (870/sq mi)
Time zone RET (UTC+04)
ISO 3166 code RE
GDP (2013)[2] Ranked
Total €16.29 billion (US$21.57 bn)
NUTS Region FR9
Website www.reunion.fr/en/

Réunion (French: La Réunion, IPA: [la ʁeynjɔ̃] ( ); previously Île Bourbon) is a French island with a population of 840,974 inhabitants (as of January 2013[1]) located in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar, about 200 kilometres (120 mi) southwest of Mauritius, the nearest island.

Administratively, Réunion is one of the overseas departments of France. Like the other overseas departments, Réunion is also one of the 27 regions of France (being an overseas region) and an integral part of the Republic with the same status as those situated on the European mainland.

Réunion is an outermost region of the European Union and, as an overseas department of France, is part of the Eurozone.[3]

History[edit]

10 cent. 1817 Isle de Bourbon

Before the arrival of the Portuguese in the early sixteenth century, there is little to Réunion's (also known as la réunion) recorded history.[4] Arab traders were familiar with it by the name Dina Morgabin.[5] The island is possibly featured on a map from 1153 AD by Al Sharif el-Edrisi.[6] The island may also have been visited by Swahili or Malay sailors.[4]

The first European discovery of the area was made around 1507 by Portuguese explorers, but the specifics are unclear. The uninhabited island may have been first sighted by the expedition led by Dom Pedro Mascarenhas, who gave his name to the island group around Réunion, the Mascarenes.[7] Réunion itself was dubbed Santa Apolónia after a favorite saint,[5] which suggests that the date of the Portuguese discovery may have been February 9, her saint day. Diogo Lopes de Sequeira is said to have landed on the islands of Reunion and Rodrigues in 1509.[6]

Over a century later, nominal Portuguese rule had left Santa Apolónia virtually untouched.[7] The island was then occupied by France and administered from Port Louis, Mauritius. Although the first French claims date from 1638, when François Cauche and Salomon Goubert visited in June 1638,[8] the island was officially claimed by Jacques Pronis of France in 1642, when he deported a dozen French mutineers to the island from Madagascar. The convicts were returned to France several years later, and in 1649, the island was named Île Bourbon after the House of Bourbon. Colonization started in 1665, when the French East India Company sent the first 20 settlers.

"Réunion" was the name given to the island in 1793 by a decree of the Convention with the fall of the House of Bourbon in France, and the name commemorates the union of revolutionaries from Marseille with the National Guard in Paris, which took place on 10 August 1792. In 1801, the island was renamed "Île Bonaparte", after Napoleon Bonaparte. The island was invaded by a Royal Navy squadron led by Commodore Josias Rowley in 1810, who used the old name of “Bourbon”. When it was restored to France by the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the island retained the name of "Bourbon" until the fall of the restored Bourbons during the French Revolution of 1848, when the island was once again given the name “Réunion”.

From the 17th to the 19th centuries, French immigration supplemented by influxes of Africans, Chinese, and Indians gave the island its ethnic mix. Starting from 1690, most of the immigrants from outside Europe were enslaved until 20 December 1848 when slavery was abolished. Afterwards, many of them were indentured workers. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 reduced the importance of the island as a stopover on the East Indies trade route.

Hindu festival, 19th century

During the Second World War, Réunion was under the authority of the Vichy Regime until 30 November 1942, when Free French forces took over the island with the destroyer Léopard.

Réunion became a département d'outre-mer (overseas départment) of France on 19 March 1946. Its département code is 974.

For a period of around two decades in the twentieth century (1968–1982), 1,630 children from Réunion were relocated to metropolitan France, particularly to Creuse. These children, known as les enfants de la Creuse, were brought to light in 2002 when Réunion exile Jean-Jacques Martial brought a legal action against politician Michel Debré (who had been the MP for Réunion at the time) for "kidnapping of a minor, roundup and deportation".[9] In 2005, a similar case was brought against the French government by the Association of Réunion of Creuse.[10]

In 2005 and 2006, Réunion was hit by a crippling epidemic of chikungunya, a disease spread by mosquitoes. According to the BBC News, 255,000 people on Réunion had contracted the disease as of 26 April 2006.[11] The neighboring islands of Mauritius and Madagascar had also been hit by this disease during the same year.[12][13] A few cases also appeared in mainland France through airline travel. Then French Prime Minister Dominique de Villepin sent an emergency aid package worth 36 million Euro ($57.6M U.S. dollars) and deployed approximately five hundred French troops in an effort to eradicate mosquitoes.

Politics[edit]

Main article: Politics of Réunion

Réunion sends seven deputies to the French National Assembly and three senators to the Senate.

Administrative divisions[edit]

Administratively, Réunion is divided into four arrondissements, 49 cantons, and 24 communes.[14] It is a French overseas département as well as a French region. The low number of communes, compared to French metropolitan departments of similar size and population, is unique; most Réunionnaises communes encompass several localities, sometimes separated by significant distances. Réunion is part of the Indian Ocean Commission.

Districts[edit]

Map of Réunion

Geography[edit]

Main article: Geography of Réunion

The island is 63 kilometres (39 mi) long; 45 kilometres (28 mi) wide; and covers 2,512 square kilometres (970 sq mi). It is similar to the Island of Hawaiʻi as both are located above hotspots in the Earth's crust.

The Piton de la Fournaise, a shield volcano on the eastern end of Réunion Island, rises more than 2,631 metres (8,632 ft) above sea level and is sometimes called a sister to Hawaiian volcanoes because of the similarity of climate and volcanic nature. It has erupted more than 100 times since 1640 and is under constant monitoring. It most recently erupted on 2 January 2010.[15] Before that, the most noticeable was during April 2007, when the lava flow was estimated at 3,000,000 cubic metres (3,900,000 cu yd) per day.[16] The Piton de la Fournaise is created by a hotspot volcano, which also created the Piton des Neiges and the islands of Mauritius and Rodrigues.

The Piton des Neiges volcano, the highest point on the island at 3,070 metres (10,070 ft) above sea level, is north west of the Piton de la Fournaise. Collapsed calderas and canyons are south west of the mountain. Like Kohala on the Big Island of Hawaii, the Piton des Neiges is extinct. Despite its name, snow (French: neige) practically never falls on the summit.

The slopes of both volcanoes are heavily forested. Cultivated land and cities like the capital city of Saint-Denis are concentrated on the surrounding coastal lowlands. Offshore, part of the west coast is characterised by a coral reef system.

Réunion also has three calderas: the Cirque de Salazie, the Cirque de Cilaos and the Cirque de Mafate. The last is accessible only on foot or by helicopter.

Climate[edit]

The climate in Réunion is tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation. The weather is cool and dry from May to November, and hot and rainy from November to April. Precipitation levels vary greatly within the island, with the east being much wetter than the west. There is more than 6m of rain a year on some parts of the east and less than 1m a year on the west coast.[17]

Between 7 and 8 January 1966, Cilaos at the centre of Réunion received 1,869.9 millimetres (73.62 in) of rainfall. This is the greatest 24-hour precipitation total ever recorded on earth.[18] Another part of the island holds the record for most rainfall in 72 hours, 3,929 millimetres (154.7 in) at Commerson's Crater in March 2007 from Cyclone Gamede. Commerson also holds the record for most rainfall over all periods ranging from 4 to 15 days from a storm in 1980.

Environment[edit]

The island has been designated by Unesco as a protected natural site.[19][verification needed]

Furcifer pardalis (chameleon)

Wildlife[edit]

Main article: Wildlife of Réunion

Réunion is home to a variety of birds such as the White-tailed Tropicbird (French: paille en queue).[20] Its largest land animal is the Panther chameleon, Furcifer pardalis. Much of the West coast is ringed by coral reef which harbours, among other animals, sea urchins, conger eels and parrot fish. Sea turtles and dolphins also inhabit the coastal waters. Humpback whales also migrate north to the island from the Antarctic waters annually during the Southern Hemisphere winter (June–September) to breed and feed, and can be routinely observed from the shores of Réunion during this season.

At least 19 species formerly endemic to Réunion have become extinct following human colonization.

Between 2011 and 2013, there were 12 shark attacks in the waters of Réunion including a 15 year-old girl who was bitten in half. In July 2013 the Prefect of Réunion Michel Lalande announced a ban on swimming, surfing and bodyboarding off more than half of the coast. Lalande also said 45 bull sharks and 45 tiger sharks would be culled, in addition to the 20 already killed as part of scientific research into the illness ciguatera.[21]

Economy[edit]

Main article: Economy of Réunion

Sugar was traditionally the chief agricultural product and export. Tourism is now an important source of income.[22] In 2007, the GDP of Réunion was estimated at 13,740 million euros and the GDP per capita was 17,146 euros.[23] Unemployment is a major problem in Réunion, the rate stood at 30% in 2014, 60% among young people. According to Le Monde, 42% of the population was living below poverty line in 2010.[24]

Demographics[edit]

Population of
Census Pop. Rate

Ethnic groups present include people of African, Indian, European, Malagasy and Chinese origin. Local names for these are: Yabs, Cafres, Malbars and Zarabes (both ethnic groups of Indian origin) and Chinois (Réunion). All of the ethnic groups comprising the island are immigrant populations that have come to Réunion from Europe, Asia and Africa over the centuries. There is no indigenous people on the island as it was originally deserted. These populations have mixed in a melting pot very early on in the history of the island (indeed first settlers married women from Madagascar and of Indo-Portuguese heritage) resulting in a majority population of mixed race and in a "Creole" culture.

It is not known exactly how many people there are of each ethnicity since there is a ban on ethnic censuses in France,[25] which applies in Réunion because it is a part of the 1958 constitution and also due to the extent of racial mixing on the island. According to estimates, whites (petits blancs and gros blancs) make up approximately one-quarter of the population,[26] Indians make up roughly a quarter, and people of Chinese ancestry form roughly 3%. The percentages for mixed race people and those of Afro-Malagasy origins vary widely in estimates. There are also some people of Vietnamese ancestry on the island, though they are very few in number.[27][28][29]

People of South Indian and Gujarati origin make up the majority of the Réunionnais of Indian origin; Bihari and other origins form the remainder of the population.[30] The island's community of Muslims from North Western India, particularly Gujarat, and elsewhere is commonly referred to as Zarab.

Creoles (a name given to those born on the island, regardless of ethnic origins), make up the majority of the population. Groups that are not creole include people recently arrived from Metropolitan France (known as zoreils) and those from Mayotte and the Comoros.

Historical population[edit]

Year Population Year Population Year Population
1671 90 1830 101,300 1961 349,282
1696 269 1848 110,300 1967 416,525
1704 734 1849 120,900 1974 476,675
1713 1,171 1860 200,000 1982 515,814
1717 2,000 1870 212,000 1990 597,823
1724 12,550 1887 163,881 1999 706,300
1764 25,000 1897 173,192 2006 781,962
1777 35,100 1926 182,637 2011 828,581
1789 61,300 1946 241,708 2013 840,974
1826 87,100 1954 274,370
Official data from INSEE by census or estimate; estimates shown in italics.

Religion[edit]

Main article: Religion in Réunion
Catholic church of Notre-Dame-des-Neiges in Cilaos

The predominant religion is Roman Catholicism with Hinduism, Islam, Chinese folk religion and Buddhism also represented, among others.

Language[edit]

French is the only official language of Réunion. Although not official, Réunion Creole is the native language of a large part of the population and is spoken alongside French. Creole is used informally whereas the official language of any administration, office as well as education is French.[31]

Due to the diverse population, other languages such as Mandarin, Hakka and Cantonese are also spoken by members of the Chinese community, but fewer people speak these languages as younger generations start to converse in French and Réunion Creole. The number of speakers of Indian languages (mostly Urdu, Gujarati and Tamil) is also dropping sharply. Arabic is taught in mosques and spoken by a small community of Muslims.

English is a compulsory second language as part of the French school curriculum, but as in mainland France, English fluency is rare. German and Spanish are offered as a third language. Tamil is also taught as optional language in some schools.[30]

Public health[edit]

There are no public health threats. In 2005–2006, Réunion experienced an epidemic of chikungunya, a viral disease similar to dengue fever brought in from East Africa, which infected almost a third of the population due to its transmission through mosquitoes. The epidemic has since been eradicated. See the History section for more details.

Culture[edit]

Réunionese culture is a blend (métissage) of European, African, Indian, Chinese and insular traditions.

The most widely spoken language, Réunion Creole, derives from French.

Local food and music blend influences from Africa, India, China and Europe, resulting in a unique, diverse culture.

Transport[edit]

Main article: Transport in Réunion

Roland Garros Airport, handling flights to Madagascar, Mauritius, South Africa and Europe serves the island. Pierrefonds Airport, a smaller airport, has some flights to Mauritius and Madagascar.

Media[edit]

Newspapers[edit]

Journal de l'île de La Réunion

Le Quotidien

Film[edit]

The Internet Movie Database lists three films as having Réunion as their filming locations: Mississippi Mermaid (1969), the documentary Johnny Backstage (2005) [32] and the documentary Réunion Island: An Overview (2010).[33]

Television[edit]

  • Antenne Réunion
  • Réunion 1ière
  • Télé Kréol

Online media[edit]

  • Z'infos974
  • Linfo

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b (French) INSEE. "Estimation de population au 1er janvier, par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge – Année 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-26. 
  2. ^ (French)"Le PIB à La Réunion et ses principales composantes en 2013". INSEE. p. 2. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  3. ^ Réunion is pictured on all Euro banknotes, on the back at the bottom of each note, right of the Greek ΕΥΡΩ (EURO) next to the denomination.
  4. ^ a b Slaves, freedmen, and indentured laborers in colonial Mauritius By Richard Blair Allen. pg. 9
  5. ^ a b Tabuteau, Jacques (1987). Histoire de la justice dans les Mascareignes (in French). Paris: Océan éditions. p. 13. ISBN 2-907064-00-2. Retrieved 11 June 2011. 
  6. ^ a b "Histoire de La Réunion". Iledelareunion.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  7. ^ a b Moriarty, Cpt. H.A. (1891). Islands in the southern Indian Ocean westward of Longitude 80 degrees east, including Madagascar. London: Great Britain Hydrographic Office. p. 269. OCLC 416495775. 
  8. ^ "| Journal de l'île de la Réunion". Clicanoo.re. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  9. ^ Jean-Jacques Martial (2003). Une enfance volée. Les Quatre Chemins. p. 113. ISBN 978-2-84784-110-7. Retrieved 13 September 2012. 
  10. ^ Châtain, Georges (August 18, 2005). "Les Réunionnais de la Creuse veulent faire reconnaître leur " déportation " en métropole "". Le Monde. Retrieved September 13, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Island disease hits 50,000 people". BBC News. 2 February 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2007. 
  12. ^ wwwnc.cdc.gov
  13. ^ "Madagascar hit by mosquito virus". BBC News. 6 March 2006. Retrieved 18 August 2007. 
  14. ^ "Insee - Code Officiel Géographique". Insee.fr. Retrieved 6 May 2009. 
  15. ^ (French) Institut de physique du Globe de Paris : Actualités
  16. ^ Thomas Staudacher (7 April 2007). "Reunion sees 'colossal' volcano eruption, but population safe". AFP. Archived from the original on 9 April 2007. Retrieved 18 August 2007.  (Web archive)
  17. ^ Jacques Libert. "la pluviométrie". Pedagogie2.ac-reunion.fr. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  18. ^ The Great Bahamian Hurricanes of 1899 and 1932: The Story of Two of the ... - Wayne Neely - Google Boeken
  19. ^ The "Region Reunion" Celebrates the promotion of the status of the island as a Unesco's protected natural site
  20. ^ (French) L'Île de la Réunion.com: Le paille en queue
  21. ^ "Big Read: Reunion Island beset by shark controversy". News Corp Australia. 2013-08-30. 
  22. ^ [1], 2012 Elefant Tours
  23. ^ (French)INSEE Réunion. "8.1 - ÉCONOMIE GÉNÉRALES" (PDF). Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  24. ^ (French)"Hollande va « adapter » le pacte de responsabilité à la Réunion". Le Monde. Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  25. ^ "SSRN-Why France Needs to Collect Data on Racial Identity - In a French Way by David Oppenheimer". Papers.ssrn.com. SSRN 1236362. 
  26. ^ Holm, John A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-521-35940-6. 
  27. ^ Clicanoo. "La Réunion Métisse". 
  28. ^ "Anthropometric evaluations of body composition of undergraduate students at the University of La Réunion". 2006. Retrieved 2011-08-21. 
  29. ^ [2][dead link]
  30. ^ a b "NRI" (PDF). Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  31. ^ "Ethnologue report (language code:rcf)". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  32. ^ Johnny Backstage (Video 2005) - IMDb
  33. ^ Reunion Island: An Overview (Video 2010) - IMDb

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]

Government
General information

Coordinates: 21°06′52″S 55°31′57″E / 21.11444°S 55.53250°E / -21.11444; 55.53250