||This article's lead section may not adequately summarize key points of its contents. (June 2012)|
Monument to Joan Prim.
Location of Reus in Catalonia
|• Mayor||Carles Pellicer Punyed (CiU)|
|• Total||52.71 km2 (20.35 sq mi)|
|Elevation||134 m (440 ft)|
|• Density||2,000/km2 (5,200/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Reus (Catalan pronunciation: [ˈrɛws]) is the capital of Baix Camp, in the province of Tarragona, in Catalonia, Spain. The area has always been an important producer of wines and spirits, and gained continental importance at the time of the Phylloxera plague. Nowadays it is known by its commercial activity, for being a center for rock-climbing and as the birthplace of architect Antoni Gaudí.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Demography
- 4 Climate
- 5 Festivities
- 6 Main sights
- 7 Sport
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Flag of Reus
- 10 People
- 11 Twin cities
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The origin of the name is a source of discussion. One of the theories is that Reus comes from the Latin word used to describe convict prisoners (reus), and as such, it would be a Roman penitentiary. Currently, the most accepted theory is that the name has Celtic roots, from the root red that originated the name redis (or reddis), that would approximately mean place in the way / place in the roads, or said alternatively, an inhabited place in a cross-road.
Foundation and early history
Around 1150 Robert d'Aguiló repopulated the region of Reus, after receiving it on 3 June 1154. On 5 June 1154 the archbishop of Tarragona gave two-thirds of Reus to Bertran de Castellet, as a castellan, with the order to build a church. On 29 June 1159, the distribution of income from ecclesiastical goods, the third of its Reus parish of Santa Maria was awarded to the camerlengo, starting the duplicity of governing the town. The camerlengo has the third of Reus parish. At this time the city was known as Redis or Reddis. The castellan Bernat de Bell-lloc gave the title of town to Reus on 3 August 1183, giving the ownership of houses and gardens, establishing a census to pay for farmland and reserving justice, but recognizing its vassalage towards the archbishopric of Tarragona. On 2 June 1186 the camerlengo Joan de Santboi confirmed the rights given by the castellan Bernard de Bell-lloc.
Camerlengo, Popes and Archbishops of Tarragona
In 1305 Reus revolted against the Archbishop Rodrigo Tello, who wanted that the citizens of Reus pay for rebuilding the walls of Tarragona. In 1309 the Catalan king gave to Reus the right to do market on Mondays. The dynasty of Bell-lloc castellans became extinct in 1327 and then Bernard de Cabrera became the new castellan, but in 1335 the castellan was sold to Pere Mulet, who lost it on 1345. Pere Mulet heirs sold their rights to Bernat d'Olzinelles in 1349. The camerlengo Pere Roger de Belfort disputed domain to the Archbishop López de Ayerbe, which sent an army that decimated the town. A second attack was repulsed. A third attack led military occupation of the town and Reus was sacked. The camerlengo Pere Roger de Belfort, nephew of Pope Clement VI, who was living in Avignon with his uncle, he persuaded the Pope to call the archbishop of Tarragona and the Pope received a commitment for peace. Pere Roger de Belfort gave the roses of his coat to coat of arms of the town and later he became Pope Gregory XI, keeping it as a camerlengo of Reus, so the coat of arms was crowned with adorned with papal tiara and keys of St. Peter.
Catalan Revolt war and the Archduke Charles
At the beginning of the Catalan Revolt war the town had 1200 houses, but reduced to 800 by the end of the war. On 16 December 1640 was declared an enemy of the fatherland by the Parliament and confiscated the goods of the inhabitants, as a response to the inactive participation in the war. In 1641 it was occupied by the French La Mothe.
Reus was loyal to Philip V until 1705, but this year, under the direction of Joan Nebot, revolted in favor of the Archduke Charles. On 3 July 1706 the Archduke Charles came to the town. In 1707 fell shortly to the Bourbons, but in 1709 Reus surrendered to the Spanish and French Bourbons. In 1710 Reus returned again to the field of Archduke Charles. On 5 June 1712 the wife of the Archduke, Elisabeth Christine, gave the title of imperial city to Reus. In 1713 Reus was occupied finally by the Bourbon.
Growth in the eighteenth century
In the eighteenth century Reus had phenomenal growth and became the second city of the principality of Catalonia. The walls were completely demolished in 1766. The town developed the textile trade and the liquor trade. In this last contribution was the first center, the others were London and Paris. From this time it’s the popular sentence "Reus, Paris and London”, because Reus was one of the centers of the liquor marquet. The construction of a canal between Reus and Salou, proposed by Pere Sunyer was granted in 1805, but it was stopped because of the French War. At this time Reus had consulates in the United States, Liguria, England, Holland, Sweden, Ragusa, Denmark, Sicily, the Papal States, France, Portugal, Naples and Prussia.
19th and 20th centuries
In 1854 the Reus Gas Company was founded. In 1856 the railway between Reus and Tarragona was built. In 1884 the Catalan Association of Reus was founded and in 1893 was celebrated the Assembly of the Unió Catalana. In 1886 Pau Font de Rubinat founded the Catalan newspaper Lo Somatent. In 1895 the phylloxera killed big areas of vineyards in the region of Reus and many of this areas were changed to hazelnuts.
In 1931 Reus voted for the republic. In 1936 dictator Franco bombed the city until his rebel army occupied the city on 15 January 1939, starting with the dictatorship of Franco since the dictator died on 1975.
The first democratic mayor after Franco's dictatorship was Carles Martí Massagué, lawyer of Reus. In 1983 Anton Borrell Marcó was the new mayor of the city, but he died in a car accident on the road from Reus to Cambrils, then his successor was Juan Maria Roig. After him, Josep Abelló Padró was the mayor until 1999, when the current mayor, Lluís Miquel Pérez Segura, started.
Reus was for long the second city of Catalonia with a population of 14,440 in 1787 and 27,257 in 1860. It was overtaken by Tarragona and Lleida between 1900 and 1930. The population barely grew between 1920 and 1930, with 30,266 and 35,950 inhabitants, respectively. From then, the population growth has been substantial, from 41,014 inhabitants in 1960 to 108,100 inhabitants that the city has as of the end of 2008. Immigration, mostly from Marrakesh, has been a portion of that increase. About 6% are Muslim and 8% from other religions.
According to the 2006 official Spanish census (source: Instituto Nacional de Estadística), Reus is the 9th most populous city in Catalonia and the 59th in Spain.
|Climate data for Reus Airport (between Reus - 3km and Tarragona - 7km)|
|Average high °C (°F)||13.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||8.9
|Average low °C (°F)||4.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||38
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm)||4||3||4||6||6||4||2||4||5||5||4||4||51|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||160||164||199||223||243||264||308||264||201||184||160||138||2,509|
|Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología|
The principal Reus festivity is Sant Pere on June 29, declared of National Touristic Interest. Also, on September 25, the Mare de Déu de la Misericòrdia is held. One of the most characteristic and popular acts of these festivities is the so-called tronada, which is a series of 29 little mortars masclets with bigger and stronger bangers interleaved, arranged linearly around the Mercadal square (where the city hall is located), united by a hand craft gunpowder line. This line ends in a square shape in front of the city hall, with more bangers and 4 more masclets.
Besides the major festivities, Reus holds many festivals, for example Cos, a festival dedicated to mime, or El Trapezi, a festival with circus spectacles. In every odd numbered year the Reus Institut Municipal d’Accio Cultural presents the Biennals Internacionals de Fotografia Medalla Gaudi. This bi-annual exhibition features fine art photographers from around the world working in Alternative Photographic Processes (such as Platinum Printing, Gum Dichromate, Etc.). At each Biennal they award the Medalla Gaudi award to a select few artists and purchase their work for the Institut Municipal d’Accio Cultural's permanent collection.
Catalan Modernist edifices
The city of Reus has many Catalan modernist buildings. Although Antoni Gaudí was born in Reus, there are no designed by him; there are however numerous modernist buildings from his colleagues as Lluís Domènech i Montaner, Pere Caselles i Tarrats and Pere Domènech Roura.
- Casa Navàs, Lluís Domènech i Montaner (1901–1908)
- Casa Rull, Lluís Domènech i Montaner (1901)
- Casa Gasull, Lluís Domènech i Montaner (1910–1912)
- Institut Pere Mata, Lluís Domènech i Montaner (1899–1919)
- Casa Pinyol, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1910)
- Escoles Prat de la Riba, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1911)
- Escorxador, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1899)
- Estació Enològica, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1906–1910)
- Casa Munné, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1904)
- Casa Sardà, Pere Caselles i Tarrats (1896)
- Casa Marco, Pere Domènech Roura (1926)
- Xalet Serra, Joan Rubió i Bellver (1911)
- Castell del Cambrer
- Campanar de Reus
- Town Hall
- Palau Bofarull
- Centre de Lectura
- Museu Salvador Vila-seca
- Teatre Fortuny
- Gaudí Centre
In recent years tourism in Reus has expanded as more and more people come to the Costa Daurada region for their summer holidays or some winter sun. Nowadays the more important group of tourists come from Russia and then France and Holland.
Reus is close to the resort town of Salou and one of Europe's biggest theme parks at PortAventura. Tour companies and buses operate services to Reus from tourist destinations in the region such as Salou, La Pineda and Cambrils.
Recently Reus Airport has started to receive low cost flights from Ryanair that fly to Reus from many different European locations and North Africa. The airport also receives major charter flights from the United Kingdom. Barcelona Airport is another airport which serves the area for those destinations not served by Reus Airport.
Flag of Reus
The first flag of Reus was in use from 1774 to 1943. The flag was dark red with the city arms in the centre.
In 1943 the flag was changed because the color red seemed to be associated with the left, defeated in the civil war (1936–39). As the historic city arms were argent with a heraldic rose the new flag was white with a heraldic rose in the center. Minor changes to the rose in the flag were made after 1943.
Currently the rose has a new version, taken from the city emblem. The emblem itself has official status. This presumably also applies to the flag, but this has not been confirmed by the local government.
- Joan Prim i Prats Marquis of Castillejos, Count of Reus and the Viscount Bruc, born in Reus on 12 December 1814 and died in Madrid on 30 December 1870. He was a general and statesman of the Spanish nineteenth century who played a leading role during the Carlist Wars.
- Soberano Domènec i Mestres 19th-century painter and teacher of the painters Baldomer Galofré i Jiménez, Josep Baró Tapiro and Llovera Josep i Bofill.
- Josep Baró i Tapiro Painter, born in Reus, 7 February 1836 - Tangier, 4 October 1913.
- Josep Bernat Marià Fortuny i Marsal Painter, born in Reus 1838-Rome 1874.
- Josep Bofill i Llovera Painter, born in Reus 7 January 1846 - 1896
- Baldomero Galofre Jimenez Painter born on 24 May 1849 Reus-Barcelona, 26 July 1902
- Roseta Mauri i Segura A principal ballerina and dance teacher, born 15 September 1849 at Reus and died in Paris on 23 September 1923
- Antoni Gaudí Architect was born in Reus 1852 and died in Barcelona 1926
- Ceferí Olivé, born in Reus in 1907, died in the same town in 1995, was a watercolor painter.
- François Tosquelles Psychiatrist, born in Reus, 22 August 1912.
- Isaac Cuenca Football player in FC Barcelona, and the Catalonia national football team, born in Reus, 27 April 1991.
- Sergi Roberto Football player in FC Barcelona, and the Catalonia national football team, born in Reus, 7 February 1992
- Bahía Blanca, Argentina, since 1994
- Hadžići, Bosnia and Herzegovina, since 1995
- Astorga, Spain, since 1998
- Amgala-Wilaya de Aauin, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, since 2000
- Boyeros, Cuba, since 2000
- Gandia, Spain, since 2008
- This article incorporates information from the revision as of 19 August 2010 of the equivalent article on the Catalan Wikipedia.
- Panareda Clopés, Josep Maria; Rios Calvet, Jaume; Rabella Vives, Josep Maria (1989). Guia de Catalunya, Barcelona:Caixa de Catalunya. ISBN 84-87135-01-3 (Spanish). ISBN 84-87135-02-1 (Catalan).
- Climate Summary for Reus, Spain
- "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Tarragona - Reús / Aeropuerto".
- Tourism in Reus|http://www.reusdigital.cat/index.php?command=show_news&news_id=14564
- , sister cities in website of City Council of Reus
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Reus.|