Reuven Gal

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Reuven Gal
Head and shoulders of a man in his sixties with close-cropped white hair and a short beard, wearing a black T-shirt.
Dr. Reuven Gal at 2008 IANYS Conference in Paris.
General Director
Administration of National and
Civic Service
Office of the Prime Minister
In office
2008–2009
Deputy National Security Advisor
for Domestic Policy
Israeli National Security Council
In office
2002–2004
Chief Psychologist
Commanding Officer of the
Unit of Military Psychology
Israeli Defense Forces
In office
1977–1982
Chief Psychologist
Israeli Navy
In office
1969–1972
Personal details
Born (1942-08-24) August 24, 1942 (age 72)
Haifa, Israel
Nationality Israeli
Spouse(s) Ivria Gal
Relations David Gruber (father)
Ester Freiberg
(mother)
Residence Zikhron Ya'akov, Israel
Alma mater Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel
B.A. in Psychology & Sociology (1965)
Completion of studies toward M.A. in Clinical Psychology (1967)


University of California, Berkeley, CA..
M.A. in General Psychology & Personality (1974)
Ph.D. in Psychology (1975)

Profession author, social and clinical psychologist, social activist, researcher, consultant
Religion Judaism
Website * * *
Military service
Service/branch Israeli Defense Forces
and Reserve
Years of service 1960-1983
Rank Colonel
(Hebrew: Aluf Mishne)
Battles/wars Six-Day War
Jerusalem (1967)
War of Attrition (1967-1970)
Lebanon War (1982)

Reuven Gal (Hebrew: ראובן גל‎; born August 24, 1942, surname Gruber) is an Israeli social and clinical psychologist, a social activist and entrepreneur, researcher, author and consultant in the field of behavioral, communal and social sciences.  Working closely with the Office of the Prime Minister of Israel, Dr. Gal helped to create the Administration for National Civic Service, which has been called “the Israeli equivalent of the Peace Corps.”  He served as its first General Director, coordinating more than 12,000 youth volunteers coming from all ethnic and religious groups (January 2008 to August 2009).[1][2][3][4][5]

Reuven Gal also served on the Israeli National Security Council as Deputy National Security Advisor for Domestic Policy (2002-2004), as Chief Psychologist (Commanding Officer of the Unit of Military Psychology) for the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF), and as Chief Psychologist for the Israeli Navy (1969–1972).[6][7][8]

Reuven Gal is a sixth-generation descendant of Israel-born ancestors on his father's side. The founding father of this chain of ancestors was Rabbi Yisroel ben Shmuel Ashkenazi of Shklov.  Reuven's father, David Gruber, was born in Jerusalem, Palestine.  His mother, Ester (Freiberg), was born in Bendjin, Poland and immigrated to Palestine in 1936.  The rest of her family were murdered by German Nazis.[9] [10]

Dr. Gal is the author or editor of five books including: “A Portrait of the Israeli Soldier” (1986), “Legitimacy and Commitment in the Military” (1990), “The Seventh War” (1990), “Handbook of Military Psychology” (1991), and “Service Without Guns” (2006).[11][12][13][14][15]


A Military Psychologist with Battlefield Experience[edit]

Reuven Gal speaks about his idea for a Middle East Peace Trail at the 2010 National Conference on Volunteering and Service in New York City.
(CLICK below to watch movie)

Reuven Gal served in the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) as a combat infantry officer (as part of his regular mandatory service) from 1960-1963. As a reserve officer he served as a commander of an elite infantry unit, which participated in the battles in Jerusalem during the Six-Days War in 1967. Following that war, he was awarded the rank of Captain in the Reserve Corps. Gal also served, in various positions as an officer in the War of Attrition (1967-1970) and in the Lebanon War (1982).[8]

After completing his academic studies in psychology and sociology (B.A. and M.A. at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, 1968; Ph.D. at the University of California at Berkeley, 1975), Gal re-joined the military and served as IDF's Chief Psychologist (1976-1982). He retired from the IDF with the rank of Colonel in 1983.[8]

This combined experience – both as a combatant who saw war and as a military psychologist who treated battle casualties and consulted field commanders – helped Dr. Gal to develop programs to enhance and maintain units’ morale and cohesion as means to protect soldiers serving in battle from emotional and psychological traumas. Gal studied this subject and wrote numerous scholarly papers on the topic.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Gal’s expertise in military psychology – of Western militaries in general and of the Israeli army in particular – is also reflected in his books.[11][12][13][14][15]

After retiring from his post as chief psychologist for the IDF, Dr. Gal was awarded a Senior Research Associateship by the National Academy of Science (NAS) and spent two years (1983–85) in Washington D.C. doing research and academic work.[24]

A Leading Voice for Peace and Co-Existence[edit]

Since his retirement from military service in 1983, Dr. Gal has focused his effort on strategies for achieving peaceful co-existence (in other words, the proactive embrace of diversity and difference) in the Middle East. He serves as a member of the Board of Advisors for The Abraham Fund Initiatives (TAFI) Council, non-profit organization which is dedicated to advancing co-existence, equality and cooperation between Israel's Jewish and Arab citizens. It was founded in 1989 by Alan B. Slifka and the late Dr. Eugene Weiner (both Reuven's close friends) and named for the common ancestor of both Jews and Arabs.[25][26]

In 2008, Dr. Gal helped to found The Administration for National Civic Service (ANCS) in an effort to include young Israeli Arabs in service efforts and also as a strategy for achieving better cooperation and equity between Jews and Arabs in Israel. The ANCS has been called “the Israeli equivalent of the Peace Corps” and as a result, Dr. Gal was identified by the Jerusalem Post as “the driving force behind national-civic service.” [27][28]

One of Reuven Gal’s most notable recent initiatives was to propose the idea of building a Middle-East Peace Trail spanning five countries in the Middle East, to be built by young people from Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Iran, and Iraq. This effort to support the growth of peace and understanding between Israelis and Arabs is still ongoing.[6]

The Administration for National Civic Service[edit]

A man with white hair and beard wearing a blue button-down shirt and red coat stands against a sky blue background.
Dr. Reuven Gal, official portrait while working in the Office of the Prime Minister, Israel, 2006.

In 2006, Gal wrote the book “Service without Guns” in collaboration with American author Donald J. Eberly, establishing himself as a proponent of non-military national service. In the book, he makes the point that, “Young people everywhere would much rather cooperate with other young people in constructive activities than engage them in combat.” [15][29]

Dr. Gal was asked by the Israeli Prime Minister’s Office (then headed by Ariel Sharon) to became a consultant to and subsequently the Deputy National Security Advisor for Domestic Policy in the Israeli National Security Council, where he was in charge of promoting Civic Service, a voluntary service organization for young people exempt from the mandatory military service.[8][30]

Working hand-in-hand with two consecutive Israeli Prime Ministers (Ariel Sharon and Ehud Olmert), Dr. Gal played an instrumental role in creating a system to encourage young people who are exempted from the military draft to support local communities and their country in non-military service instead. This resulted in the creation of The Administration for National Civic Service, the organization which he headed from 2007 to 2009.[15][28][31]

Gal said the idea of the ANCS is to allow young Israeli Arabs to earn benefits of the same type earned by Jewish men and women who are conscripted into the army.[32]

In 2007, the Associated Press noted that the number Israeli Arabs participating in service projects had risen thanks to word of mouth as young people completed their service and encouraged others to sign up. AP quoted Reuven Gal as saying, “The youngsters will benefit a lot, the community will get a lot ... and the entire Israeli society will benefit. You (the Arabs) will become a part of Israeli society and contribute to integration.” [4]

As part of the ANCS’s mission, Dr. Gal was involved in efforts to modify the Tal laws (named after retired judge Tzvi Tal, who headed the committee under prime minister Ehud Barak) which dealt with the special exemption from mandatory military service given to Israeli Ultra Orthodox Jews. And in 2008, the Israeli daily newspaper Haaretz reported that under the policies of the new national service administration “the number of ultra-Orthodox youth who opt for national service instead of joining the army has doubled in recent months.” [33]

The Carmel Institute for Social Studies[edit]

In 1985, Reuven founded and subsequently headed the Israeli Institute for Military Studies. In 1993, it was renamed the Carmel Institute for Social Studies.[34]

As a non-profit research and policy-making center, the Carmel Institute, situated in the town Zikhron Ya'akov, on the slopes of Mount Carmel, conducted research programs and promoted social and psychological projects, both in Israel and internationally. While its main focus was studying and researching a multitude of aspects of the Israeli society from sociological and psychological perspectives, under Dr. Gal's personal supervision the Carmel Institute also initiated many international projects based on its body of knowledge. Among these projects was the “Helping-the-Helpers” program designed to assist and support mental-health professionals in the former Yugoslavia countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Serbia, Croatia, Kosovo) throughout their civil wars (1992-2001). Dr. Gal served as the Director of the Carmel Institute from 1985-2002, and President from 2002 until its closure in 2004. During this time period, he published widely on a range of scholarly topics.[35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47]

In 1991, Reuven, together with two colleagues, founded the Center for Outstanding Leadership (COL) (which had as its roots the ideas and philosophies of the Carmel Institute) in Zikhron Ya’akov, Israel. The Center specialized in long-term, in-depth leadership development programs. To this day, the COL has trained and supervised hundreds of leading Israeli CEO's and leaders of various institutions. In 1998, in collaboration with the JDC-Israel, the COL conducted a year-long leadership program for young Jewish activists in the Former Soviet Unions (FSU), sponsored by the Schusterman Foundation.[48]

Military Psychology and the Peace Process[edit]

In 1991, Dr. Gal, while he was Head of The Israeli Institute for Military Studies, edited the textbook “Handbook of Military Psychology” with co-editor A. David Mangelsdorff of the United States Army’s Health Services Command at Fort Sam Houston, Texas. Bringing together a distinguished team of authors, including Edgar M. Johnson, Friedrich W. Steege, Paul R. Chatelier, Earl A. Alluisi, Gerald P. Krueger, T. O. Jacobs, and Robert S. Nichols, this comprehensive book on the psychological aspects of military organizations and service was dubbed by military author Sir John Keegan as “an essential tool” for military psychologists, trainers and leaders.[49][50][51]

From 2002 to 2004, Dr. Gal served as the Deputy National Security Advisor for Domestic Policy at the Israeli National Security Council (NSC). Among his responsibilities were issues related to the improvement of the conditions of Arab minorities (Muslims, Christians, Bedouins, Druze and others) in Israel, national resiliency, the connection between the State of Israel and Jewish Diaspora, and other issues.[6][7][8]

From 2005 to 2007 he served as a senior consultant to the Alan B. Slifka Foundation, planning and designing the Co-existence Leadership Institute for Jews and Arabs in Israel. In May 2006, as part of this project, he published an extensive report entitled “Enhancing Co-existence through Multiple Channels of Influence: A Strategic Scheme to Change the Quality of Arab-Jewish Relationships in Israel.” [52]

Between 2006 and 2007, Reuven was a Senior Fellow, sponsored by The Richard and Rodah Goldman Research Scholarship Foundation, at the Harold Hertog School of Government and Policy at Tel Aviv University. His position paper –"The Perceived Subject of Rights and Duties of Israeli-Arab Citizens in Light of the 'National Civic Service' Perspective" was submitted in October 2007.[53]

A Consultant In Conflict and Disaster Areas[edit]

During the civil wars in the Balkans (1992-1995) and in Kosovo (1996-1999), Gal served as a consultant on post-traumatic stress in the former Yugoslavia countries (Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Kosovo) on behalf of UK Jewish Aid & International Development (UKJAID) in collaboration with UNICEF.[54][55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62]

In the aftermath of the 1995 earthquake in Japan, Gal (together with his wife, Ivria, a clinical-psychologist and family-therapist) traveled to the destroyed city of Kobe to train Japanese mental-health professionals in how to treat and cope with the post-traumatic effects of that disaster.[63]

In addition, Dr. Gal engaged in conflict-resolution and reconciliation issues in Northern Ireland, as well as Jewish-Arab co-existence programs.[10][64][65][66]

Another project he supported was the organization and feasibility studies of the “World Jewish Peace Corps,” an effort to create a network of young Jewish volunteers serving internationally in non-Jewish, disaster-stricken communities.[67][68]

Dr. Reuven Gal currently serves as an Advisory Board Member of The International Center for Conciliation alongside other notables such as Elie Wiesel, Thomas L. McNaugher, Hillel Levine, and Henry Rosovsky.[69]

Building a Peace Trail[edit]

In 1999, Reuven Gal first proposed the idea of building a Middle East Peace Trail (similar to the Appalachian Trail in the United States). He subsequently included this idea in his book “Service Without Guns” and again shared the idea at a forum sponsored by the Shinnyo-en Foundation in 2009 called the “Six Billion Paths to Peace: Reflection and Dialogue.”  [7]  As envisioned by Dr. Gal, the Peace Trail would span five countries in the Middle East. His concept would team up young people from Egypt, Israel, Palestine, Jordan, Iran, and Iraq who would work closely together to build the trail. In a year-long “tour-of-duty,” Gal proposed, these young “future leaders in the Middle East will have the opportunity to share their stories with each other, and to bond and build community in powerful ways.” [7][15]

The Future Road to Peace[edit]

In the introduction to their book “Service without Guns” authors Gal and Eberly make the point that the future “Road to Peace” will require more than U.N. resolutions and military might, and the toppling of dictators. It requires the development of institutions that will help move the world toward peace, and to sustain it once war is abolished. They wrote: “We have written this book because we believe the world will be a better place if civilian service by young people becomes as widespread and important in the 21st Century as military service was in the 20th Century.” [15]

In 1990, when the Middle East stood on the brink of war and the United States was laying the groundwork for an invasion of Iraq, Dr. Gal edited (along with American military expert Thomas C. Wyatt) the book “Legitimacy and Commitment in the Military.” [12][70]

Featuring eleven essays written by an international group of leading behavioral scientists – from the perspectives of psychology, sociology, history, philosophy, anthropology, and military studies – the book critically analyzed “fault lines” and urgent questions of legitimacy and commitment of military forces. This blue ribbon panel closely scrutinized specific wars such as in Vietnam and Algeria, as well as military organizations, including the Soviet, Israeli, and U.S. armies, and ultimately, the role and commitment of the individual soldier.[12]

Today, Reuven Gal serves on advisory panels and speaks at conferences around the world to promote the cause of peace, volunteerism and service.

Awards[edit]

Dr. Reuven Gal has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards, including:

  • Charles Atwood Kofoid Eugenics Fellowship, University of California, Berkeley (1973-1974)
  • Goewey Fellowship, University of California, Berkeley (1974-1975)
  • Visiting Fellow, Center for Judaic Studies, Boston University (1984-1985)
  • Senior Research Associateship, National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Science, at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C. (1983-1985)
  • Research Grant, National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (1990-1993)
  • Senior Fellow (The Richard and Rodah Goldman Research Scholarship Foundation) at the Harold Hartog School of Government and Policy, Tel Aviv University, Israel (2006-2007) [53]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Dr. Reuven Gal to Lead Establishment of Civilian Service Authority" (Press release). The Office of the Israeli Prime Minister. December 12, 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  2. ^ "Interview with Reuven Gal, general director of the Authority for National and Civic Service at the Prime Minister's Office in Israel". Innovations in Civic Participation, A Resource for Ideas and Action website. February 17, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  3. ^ Susser, Leslie (April 16, 2008). "Seeking Arabs for Civic Service". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  4. ^ a b Hadid, Diaa (November 11, 2007). "Israel Wants National Service From Arabs". The Associated Press, published in The Washington Post. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  5. ^ "The Administration of National and Civic Service" (Press release). The Office of the Israeli Prime Minister. 2007. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  6. ^ a b c "Dr. Reuven Gal, Deputy National Security Advisor for Domestic Policy at the Israeli National Security Council, Biography". Innovations in Civic Participation, A Resource for Ideas and Action website. 2004. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  7. ^ a b c d "The Shinnyo-en Foundation hosts "Six Billion Paths to Peace" Reflection and Dialogue". Jewish-Palestinian Living Room Peace Dialogue, Len & Libby Traubman's website. May 26, 2009. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  8. ^ a b c d e "Article about Dr. Reuven Gal". Sourcewatch, the online Encyclopedia. October 3, 2008. Retrieved July 17, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Dr. Reuven Gal, CVs of the Keynote Speakers" (Press release). National Defence University website. 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  10. ^ a b "Workshop on Faith and International Development". Harold Hartog School of Government and Policy at Tel Aviv University website. March 30–31, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b Gal, Reuven (1986). Portrait of the Israeli Soldier. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, at Google books website, ISBN 0-313-24315-8. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b c d Gal, Reuven; Wyatt, Thomas C. (1990). Legitimacy and Commitment in the Military. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, at Google books website, ISBN 0-313-26815-0. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  13. ^ a b Gal, Reuven (1990). The Seventh War: The Effects of the Intifada on the Israeli Society. Tel-Aviv, Israel: Hakibbutz Hameuchad Publishing House Ltd. 
  14. ^ a b Gal, Reuven; Mangelsdorff, A. David (1991). "Handbook of Military Psychology". West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, at Border's books website, ISBN 978-0-471-92045-8. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  15. ^ a b c d e f Gal, Reuven; Eberly, Donald J. (2006). Service Without Guns. Raleigh, North Carolina: Lulu Press, at Google books website, ISBN 1-4116-7283-6. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  16. ^ Gal, Reuven; Lazarus, Richard S. (1975). The Role of Activity in Anticipating and Confronting Stressful Situations. Journal of Human Stress, 1(4), 4-20. 
  17. ^ Gal, Reuven; Gabriel, Richard A. (1982). Battlefield Heroism in the Israeli Defence Forces. International Social Science Review, 57(3), 232-235. 
  18. ^ Gal, Reuven; Gabriel, Richard A. (1984). The Israeli Officer: Lynchpin of Unit Cohesion. Army, 34(1), 42-49. 
  19. ^ Gal, Reuven (1985 - Summer). Commitment and Obedience in the Military: An Israeli Case Study. Armed Forces and Society, 11(4), 553-564. 
  20. ^ Gal, Reuven (1986). Morale and its Components: A Cross National Comparison. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 16(6), 549-564. 
  21. ^ Gal, Reuven; Manning, Frederick J. (1987). Morale and its Components: A Cross National Comparison. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 174, 369-391. 
  22. ^ Gal, Reuven (1992). "Combat Stress" in the International Military and Defense Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, 565-569. Washington, DC: Pergamon Brassey's Publishers, Inc. 
  23. ^ "Unit Cohesion by Dr. Reuven Gal". International Military and Defense Encyclopedia, Dupuy, Trevor N. (Ed.), Vol. 6, 2821-2825, at Google books website. (1992) Pergamon Brassey's Publishers, Inc., Washington, DC. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  24. ^ "Fellowships Office – Research Associateship Programs". National Academy of Science website. 1983. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  25. ^ "Advancing Coexistence and Equality Among Jews and Arabs in Israel". The Abraham Fund Initiatives (TAFI) Council website. 2005. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  26. ^ "The Alan B. Slifka Foundation". International Human Rights Funders Group website, Funders Directory. 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  27. ^ Susser, Leslie (April 16, 2008). "Seeking Arabs for Civic Service". Jerusalem Post. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 
  28. ^ a b Wieneke, Bryant (June 5, 2006). "Service Without Guns". the Peace Corps writers website. Retrieved August 7, 2009. 
  29. ^ "From Military Service to National Youth Service: Transitions in the 21st Century". Paper presented by Dr. Reuven Gal, Head, Administration for National Civic Service, Israel, at The 9th International Conference of Military Pedagogy in Helsinki, Finland. May 19–22, 2008. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  30. ^ "Task Force Report, Institute for Policy and Strategy, Bio, Reuven Gal". Herzliya Conference. December 2003. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  31. ^ "From Military Officer Cadets to NYS Volunteer Cadets: The Transformation from Military to Civil Service, written by Reuven Gal and Donald J. Eberly". George Washington University, "The Responsive Community," published quarterly by the Institute for Communitarian Policy Studies, Amitai Etzioni, editor. Summer 2004. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  32. ^ Ellingwood, Ken (January 2, 2008). "Israeli Arabs split over national service plan". The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  33. ^ Ilan, Shahar (August 7, 2008). "More and more yeshiva students choosing Torah over IDF service". Haaretz Daily newspaper. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  34. ^ "The Carmel Institute for Social Studies". The International Association for National Youth Service (IANYS) website. 2006. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  35. ^ Gal, Reuven; Mayseless, Ofra (Fall 1990). Hatred on the Rise. Israel Democracy, 21-23. 
  36. ^ Gal, Reuven (Winter 1992). Social and Psychological Fallout: How Israelis Cope with Iraq's Missiles. Israeli Democracy, 17-19. 
  37. ^ Gal, Reuven; Desivilya, Helena Syna and Ayalon, Ofra (1996). Long-Term Effects of Trauma in Adolescence: Comparison between Survivors of a Terrorist Attack and Control Counterparts. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, Vol. 9, 135-150. 
  38. ^ Gal, Reuven; Desivilya, Helena Syna (1996). Coping with Stress by Military Families Searching for "Win-Win" Solutions to a Conflict Between Two Institutions. Family Process, 35, 211-225. 
  39. ^ Gal, Reuven (September 1996). Youth, Public Opinion and Israeli Defence Forces. Journal of Military Applied Science, published by the Netherlands' Royal Military Academy, 17E (3), 118-124. 
  40. ^ Gal, Reuven; Desivilya, Helena Syna and Ayalon, Ofra (1996). Extent of Victimization, Traumatic Stress Symptoms, and Adjustment of Terrorist Assault Survivals: A Long-Term Follow-up. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 9(4), 881-889. 
  41. ^ Gal, Reuven; Desivilya, Helena Syna and Gidron, Yori (1997). Daily Hassles and Hostility as correlates of Driving Behavior: A Stress-Diathesis Approach. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 8 (3), 1-5. 
  42. ^ Gal, Reuven; Gidron, Yori and Zahavi, Sa’ar (1999). Bus Commuters’ Coping Strategies and Anxiety from Terrorism: An Example of the Israeli Experience. Journal of Traumatic Stress, Vol. 12(1), 185-192. 
  43. ^ Gal, Reuven (1990). The Impact of the Intifada on Israeli Youth. In: Proceedings, J.E. Lundeberg, U. Otto, & B. Rybeck (Eds.). Wartime Medical Services, Stockholm. 
  44. ^ Gal, Reuven (1991). Effects of War, Terror, and Terrorism on Civilian Population: The Israeli Case. In: Terrorism in the New Europe, B. Almond (Ed.). The Social Values Research Center, University of Hull, UK. 
  45. ^ Gal, Reuven; Mayseless, Ofra (1995). Global View 4: Extrapolating Relationship Among Fear, Hatred, and National Identity from an Attitude Survey. In: Surveying Public Opinion, S.M. Rubenstein (Ed.). Wadsworth, Belmont, California. 
  46. ^ Gal, Reuven; Cohen, Stuart (2000). Israel: Still Waiting in the Wings. In: The Post-modern Military: Armed Forces After the Cold War, Moskos, C., Williams, J.A., & Segal, D.R. (Eds). Oxford University Press, UK. 
  47. ^ Gal, Reuven (2003). Reaching out to Others: The Role of Social Action Agenda in Jewish Education. In: The Sovereign and the Situated Self: Jewish Identity and Community in the 21st Century, J. Boyd (Ed.). UJIA / Hebrew University, London. 
  48. ^ Gitelman, Zvi Y.; Glants, Musya and Goldman, Marshall I. (February 13, 2003). "Jewish life after the USSR". Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press, ISBN 0-253-34162-0. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  49. ^ Gal, Reuven; Mangelsdorff, A. David (1991). "Handbook of Military Psychology, Description and Table of Contents". West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, ISBN 978-0-471-92045-8. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  50. ^ Harel, Amos (August 31, 2007). "Rescuing Heroes". Haaretz Daily newspaper. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  51. ^ Miller, Yidan (January 24, 1997). "The Army of the Lord". Haaretz Daily newspaper. Retrieved June 20, 2007. 
  52. ^ Gal, Reuven (May 2006). Enhancing Coexistence through Multiple Channels of Influence: A Strategic Scheme to Change the Quality of Arab-Jewish Relationships in Israel. Special Report prepared for the Alan B. Slifka Foundation, New York. 
  53. ^ a b "The Richard and Rhoda Goldman Fellowship Fund for Better Government". Dr. Reuven Gal, Senior Fellow, The Harold Hartog School of Government & Policy at Tel Aviv University website. 2006–2007. Retrieved March 30, 2010. 
  54. ^ "UK Jewish Aid & International Development (UKJAID)". The Israel Forum for International Humanitarian Aid, the IsraAID website. 1995. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  55. ^ "Disaster Response: Humanitarian Relief in the Former Yugoslavia". The Jewish Federation website. 1999. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  56. ^ "Report on Bosnia and Herzegovina". The UNICEF website. September 2001. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  57. ^ Gal, Reuven; Desivilia, Helena Syna (1997). Israelis Assist in Former Yugoslavia. Psychology International, 8 (3), 1-5. 
  58. ^ "Colleagues in Distress: ‘Helping the Helpers’, by Gal, Reuven and Desivilia, Helena Syna". International Review of Psychiatry, 10, 234-238. 1998. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  59. ^ Gal, Reuven (1997). Colleagues in Distress: A personal Perspective. In: Trauma Recovery Training: Lessons Learned, D. Ajdukovic (Ed.). SPA, Zagreb. 
  60. ^ Gal, Reuven (2001). Moments That Made Their Marks: Young Israelis tell of their humanitarian mission during the Kosovo crisis. In: Trauma Recovery Training: Lessons Learned, Tryster, H. (Ed.). UKAID. 
  61. ^ Gal, Reuven (May 1995). "Helping the Helpers": Training Seminars in Israel for Stress-Relief Workers from the Former Yugoslavia. Presentation at the UKJAID Awareness Conference, London. 
  62. ^ Gal, Reuven (October 1995). Trauma and Stress of Families and Children in the Former Yugoslavia: A Report from the Point of View of the Stress-Relief Workers. Paper presented at the IUS Seminar, Baltimore, USA. 
  63. ^ Tatsuki, Shigeo, Ph.D. (December 12, 2000). "A Review of Relief Activities Following the 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake: "A Life-Modeled Social Work Practice with Earthquake Victims - Phase Specific Responses During Crisis and Post-Crisis Periods"". Kyoto, Japan: Doshisha University Press. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  64. ^ Gal, Reuven (March 2006). Principal Guidelines to Achieve Incorporation and Equality for Arabs in the Israeli Society, its Institutions and Economy. Israel Democracy Institute, Policy Paper "First 100 Days for Israel's Prime Minister" (in Hebrew). 
  65. ^ Gal, Reuven (May 2006). Enhancing Coexistence through Multiple Channels of Influence: A Strategic Scheme to Change the Quality of Arab-Jewish Relationships in Israel. Special Report submitted to the Alan B. Slifka Foundation. 
  66. ^ Gal, Reuven (October 2007). The Perceived issue of Rights and Duties of Israeli-Arab Citizens in light of the National Civic Service Perspective. Position Paper, Harold Hartog School of Government and Policy, Tel-Aviv University (in Hebrew). 
  67. ^ "Projects - The World Jewish Peace Corps". Simon Caplan Consulting. 2001. Retrieved April 7, 2010. "Quote: "The World Jewish Peace Corps: Between 2000-1, under the auspices of the Carmel Institute, with Reuven Gal at its head, and with planning grant sponsorship from the United Jewish Federation of New York..."" 
  68. ^ "Carmel Institute for Social Studies". Giving Wisely – The Internet Directory of Israeli Non-profit and Philanthropic Organizations. 2000. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  69. ^ "The International Center for Conciliation". a listing of Board Members. 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2010. 
  70. ^ "Tenth Anniversary of the Gulf War: A Look Back". CNN. January 16, 2001. Retrieved April 7, 2010.