|— City —|
|First appeared on map||1154|
|• Mayor||Edgar Savisaar (Centre Party)|
|• City||159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||9 m (30 ft)|
|Population (1 April 2013)|
|• Density||2,700/km2 ( 6,900/sq mi)|
|Time zone||EET (UTC+2)|
|• Summer (DST)||EEST (UTC+3)|
|Area code(s)||(+372) 64|
Tallinn,  is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It occupies an area of 159.2 km2 (61.5 sq mi) with a population of 425,249. It is situated on the northern coast of the country, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, 80 km (50 mi) south of Helsinki, east of Stockholm and west of Saint Petersburg. Tallinn's Old Town is in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. It is ranked as a global city and has been listed among the top 10 digital cities in the world. The city was a European Capital of Culture for 2011, along with Turku, Finland.
Tallinn is the oldest capital city in Northern Europe. The city was known as Reval from the 13th century until 1917 and again during the Nazi invasion of Estonia from 1941 to 1944.
Historical names 
In 1154 a town called Qlwn or Qalaven (possible derivations of Kalevan or Kolyvan) was put on the world map of the Almoravid by the Muslim cartographer Muhammad al-Idrisi, who described it as a small town like a large castle among the towns of Astlanda. It has been suggested that the Quwri in Astlanda may have denoted the predecessor town of today's Tallinn.
Up to the 13th century the Scandinavians and Henry of Livonia in his chronicle called the town Lindanisa: Lyndanisse in Danish, Lindanäs in Swedish, also mentioned as Ledenets in Old East Slavic. According to some theories the name derived from mythical Linda, the wife of Kalev and the mother of Kalevipoeg. who in an Estonian legend carried rocks to her husband's grave that formed the Toompea hill.
It has been also suggested that in the context the meaning of linda in the archaic Estonian language, that is similar to lidna in Votic, had the same meaning as linna or linn later on meaning a castle or town in English. According to the suggestion nisa would have had the same meaning as niemi (meaning peninsula in English) in an old Finnish form of the name Kesoniemi.
After the Danish conquest in 1219 the town became known in the German, Swedish and Danish languages as Reval (Latin: Revalia). The name originated from (Latin) Revelia (Estonian) Revala or Rävala, the adjacent ancient name of the surrounding Estonian county.
Modern name 
The origin of the name "Tallinn(a)" is certain to be Estonian, although the original meaning of the name is debated. It is usually thought to be derived from, Tallide-linn (meaning the City of Stables) or "Taani-linn(a)" (meaning "Danish-castle/town"; Latin: Castrum Danorum) after the Danes built the castle in place of the Estonian stronghold at Lindanisse. However, it could also have come from "tali-linna" ("winter-castle/town"), or "talu-linna" ("house/farmstead-castle/town"). The element -linna, like Germanic -burg and Slavic -grad / -gorod, originally meant "fortress" but is used as a suffix in the formation of town names.
The previously used official German name Reval (help·info) (??????) was replaced after Estonia became independent in 1918–1920. At first both forms Tallinna and Tallinn were used. The United States Board on Geographic Names adopted the form Tallinn between June 1923 and June 1927. The form Tallinna appearing in modern times in Estonian denotes the genitive case of the name, as in Tallinna Reisisadam (Port of Tallinn).
|Historic Centre (Old Town) of Tallinn|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1997 (21st Session)|
The first traces of human settlement found in Tallinn's city center by archeologists are about 5000 years old. The comb ceramic pottery found on the site dates to about 3000 BC and corded ware pottery c. 2500 BC.
As an important port for trade between Russia and Scandinavia, it became a target for the expansion of the Teutonic Knights and the Kingdom of Denmark during the period of Northern Crusades in the beginning of the 13th century when Christianity was forcibly imposed on the local population. Danish rule of Tallinn and Northern Estonia started in 1219.
In 1285 the city became the northernmost member of the Hanseatic League – a mercantile and military alliance of German-dominated cities in Northern Europe. The Danes sold Tallinn along with their other land possessions in northern Estonia to the Teutonic Knights in 1346. Medieval Tallinn enjoyed a strategic position at the crossroads of trade between Western and Northern Europe and Russia. The city, with a population of 8,000, was very well fortified with city walls and 66 defence towers.
During the Great Northern War, plague stricken Tallinn along with Swedish Estonia and Livonia capitulated to Imperial Russia in 1710, but the local self-government institutions (Magistracy of Reval and Chivalry of Estonia) retained their cultural and economical autonomy within Imperial Russia as the Duchy of Estonia. The Magistracy of Reval was abolished in 1889. The 19th century brought industrialization of the city and the port kept its importance. During the last decades of the century Russification measures became stronger.
The oldest football club in Estonia, Meteor Tallinn was founded in 1908 in the district Lasnamäe.
On 24 February 1918, the Independence Manifesto was proclaimed in Tallinn, followed by Imperial German occupation and a war of independence with Russia. On 2 February 1920, the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed with Soviet Russia, wherein Russia acknowledged the independence of the Estonian Republic. Tallinn became the capital of an independent Estonia. After World War II started, Estonia was annexed by the Soviet Union (USSR) in 1940, and later occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944. After the Nazi retreat in 1944, it was again annexed by the USSR. After annexation into the Soviet Union, Tallinn became the capital of the Estonian SSR.
During the 1980 Summer Olympics, the sailing (then known as yachting) events were held at Pirita, north-east of central Tallinn. Many buildings, such as the "Olümpia" hotel, the new Main Post Office building, and the Regatta Center, were built for the Olympics.
In August 1991 an independent democratic Estonian state was re-established and a period of quick development to a modern European capital ensued. Tallinn became the capital of a de facto independent country once again on 20 August 1991.
Tallinn has historically consisted of three parts:
- The Toompea (Domberg) or "Cathedral Hill", which was the seat of the central authority: first the Danish captains, then the komturs of the Teutonic Order, and Swedish and Russian governors. It was until 1877 a separate town (Dom zu Reval), the residence of the aristocracy; it is today the seat of the Estonian parliament, government and some embassies and residencies.
- The Old Town, which is the old Hanseatic town, the "city of the citizens", was not administratively united with Cathedral Hill until the late 19th century. It was the centre of the medieval trade on which it grew prosperous.
- The Estonian town forms a crescent to the south of the Old Town, where the Estonians came to settle. It was not until the mid-19th century that ethnic Estonians replaced the local Baltic Germans as the majority among the residents of Tallinn.
The city of Tallinn has never been razed and pillaged; that was the fate of Tartu, the university town 200 km (124 mi) south, which was pillaged in 1397 by the Teutonic Order. Around 1524 Catholic churches in many towns in Estonia, including Tallinn, were pillaged as part of the Reformational fervor: this occurred throughout Europe. Although extensively bombed by Soviet air forces during the later stages of World War II, much of the medieval Old Town still retains its charm. The Tallinn Old Town (including Toompea) became a UNESCO World Cultural Heritage site in 1997.
At the end of the 15th century a new 159 m (521.65 ft) high Gothic spire was built for St. Olaf's Church. Between 1549 and 1625 it was the tallest building in the world. After several fires and following rebuilding, its overall height is now 123 m (403.54 ft).
Tallinn is situated on the southern coast of the Gulf of Finland, in north-western Estonia.
The largest lake in Tallinn is Lake Ülemiste (covering 9.6 km²). It is the main source of the city's drinking water. Lake Harku is the second largest lake within the borders of Tallinn and its area is 1.6 km². Tallinn does not lie on a major river. The only significant river in Tallinn is Pirita River in Pirita, a city district counted as a suburb. Historically, the small Härjapea River flowed from Lake Ülemiste through the town into the sea, but the river was diverted for sewage in the 1930s and has since completely disappeared from the cityscape. References to it still remain in the street names Jõe (from Jõgi, river) and Kivisilla (from Kivisild, stone bridge).
Tallinn has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification Dfb) with warm, mild summers and cold, snowy winters. Winters are cold but mild for its latitude, owing to its coastal location. The average temperature in February, the coldest month is −4.3 °C (24.3 °F). During the winter months, temperatures tend to hover close to the freezing mark but mild spells of weather can push temperatures above 0 °C (32 °F), occasionally reaching above 5 °C (41 °F) while cold air masses can push temperatures below −18 °C (−0 °F). On average there are 3–6 days where the temperature stays above freezing for the entire day and there are 6 days where the temperature reaches or drops below −17 °C (1 °F). Snowfall is common during the winter months. Winters are cloudy and are characterized by low amounts of sunshine, ranging from only 0.5 hours of sunshine per day in December to 4.1 hours in March. At the winter solstice daylight only lasts for 6 hours.
Spring starts out cool, with freezing temperatures common in March and April but gradually becomes warmer in late May when daytime temperatures average 15.2 °C (59.4 °F) although nighttime temperatures still remain cool, averaging -1.0 to 5.2 °C (30 to 41 °F) from March to May. Snowfall is common in March and April but usually stops falling in May.
Summers are mild with daytime temperatures hovering around 19 to 21 °C (66 to 70 °F) and nighttime temperatures averaging between 9.6 to 12.7 °C (49 to 55 °F) from June to August. The warmest month is usually July, with an average of 17.2 °C (63.0 °F). Periods of hot weather are rare during the summer months, with only 31 days per year where the temperature reaches or exceeds 21.0 °C (69.8 °F). During summer, parly cloudy or clear days are common and is sunniest season, ranging from 7.4 hours of sunshine in August to 10.1 hours in June although precipitation is higher during these months. As a high consequence of its latitude, at the summer solstice, daylight lasts for more than 18 hours and 30 minutes.
Fall starts out mild, with a September average of 11.3 °C (52.3 °F) and increasingly becomes cooler and cloudier towards the end of November. In the early parts of fall, temperatures commonly reach 15 °C (59 °F) on some days and at least one day above 21 °C (70 °F) in September. In the latter months of fall, freezing temperatures become more common and snowfall can occur.
Tallinn receives 618 millimeters (24.3 in) of precipitation annually which is evenly distributed throughout the year although March and April are the driest months, averaging about 30 millimeters (1.2 in) while July and August are the wettest months with 74 millimeters (2.9 in) of precipitation. The average humidity is 81%, ranging from a high of 88% to a low of 69% in May. Tallinn has an average windspeed of 3.5 metre per second (11 ft/s) with winters being the windest (around 4.0 metre per second (13 ft/s) in January) and summers being the least windest at around 2.9 m/s (9.5 ft/s) in July and August. Extremes range from −31.1 °C (−24.0 °F) in January 1940 to 34.3 °C (93.7 °F) in July 1994.
|Climate data for Tallinn|
|Record high °C (°F)||9.3
|Average high °C (°F)||−1.2
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−3.4
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−31.1
|Precipitation mm (inches)||49
|Avg. rainy days||10||8||9||12||11||13||13||14||17||18||16||12||153|
|Avg. snowy days||19||18||13||5||0.4||0||0||0.1||0.1||2||11||18||87|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||24.8||56.5||127.1||186.0||275.9||303.0||279.0||229.4||141.0||93.0||30.0||15.5||1,761.2|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only 1961-1990).|
Administrative districts 
|1. Haabersti||18.6 km²||42,839|
|2. Kesklinn (centre)||28.0 km²||52,820|
|3. Kristiine||9.4 km²||30,274|
|4. Lasnamäe||30.0 km²||116,490|
|5. Mustamäe||8.0 km²||64,425|
|6. Nõmme||28.0 km²||39,049|
|7. Pirita||18.7 km²||17,019|
|8. Põhja-Tallinn||17.3 km²||56,914|
For local government purposes, Tallinn is subdivided into 8 administrative districts (Estonian: linnaosad, singular linnaosa). The district governments are city institutions that fulfill, in the territory of their district, the functions assigned to them by Tallinn legislation and statutes.
Each district government is managed by an Elder (Estonian: linnaosavanem). He or she is appointed by the City Government on the nomination of the Mayor and after having heard the opinion of the Administrative Councils. The function of the Administrative Councils is to recommend, to the City Government and Commissions of the City Council, how the districts should be administered.
The registered population of Tallinn is 425,249 as of 1 April 2013.
The dominant and only official language of Tallinn is Estonian, followed closely by Russian. As of 2011, 206,490 (50.1%) speak Estonian as their native language and 192,199 (46.7%) speak Russian as their native language. Other spoken languages include, Ukrainian, Belarusian and Finnish.
In addition to longtime functions as seaport and capital city, Tallinn has seen development of an information technology sector; in its 13 December 2005, edition, The New York Times characterized Estonia as "a sort of Silicon Valley on the Baltic Sea". One of Tallinn's sister cities is the Silicon Valley town of Los Gatos, California. Skype is one of the best-known of several Estonian start-ups originating from Tallinn. Many start-ups originated from the Soviet-era Institute of Cybernetics. The economic sectors of Tallinn also include the light, textile, and food industry, as well as the service and government sector. There is a small fleet of ocean going-trawlers that operate out of Tallinn. Port of Tallinn is one of the biggest ports in the Baltic sea region.
Currently, over half of the Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn. In 2008, the GDP per capita of Tallinn stood at 172% of the Estonian average. This makes the GDP of Tallinn be at 115% of the European Union average, while the overall GDP level of Estonia is at 67% of the EU average.
Notable headquarters 
- NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE)
- European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice will be based in Tallinn.
- Estonian Air has its headquarters in Tallinn.
- Skype has its software development centre located in Tallinn.
- TeliaSonera has its IT development centre located in Tallinn.
- Ericsson has one of its biggest production facilities in Europe located in Tallinn, focusing on the production of 4G communication devices.
- Statoil has announced moving the group's financial centre to Tallinn.
Institutions of higher education and science include:
- Tallinn University
- Tallinn University of Technology
- National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics
- Estonian Business School
- Estonian Academy of Music and Theatre
- Estonian Academy of Arts
- Estonian Maritime Academy
- Public Service Academy
- Estonian Evangelical Lutheran Church Institute of Theology
The main attractions are in the two old towns (Lower Town and Toompea) which are both easily explored on foot. Eastern districts around Pirita and Kadriorg are also worth visiting and the Estonian Open Air Museum (Eesti Vabaõhumuuseum) in Rocca al Mare, west of the city, preserves aspects of Estonian rural culture and architecture.
Toompea – Upper Town 
This area was once a separate town (Dom zu Reval), the residence of the Chivalry of Estonia, Roman Catholic bishops of Tallinn (until 1561) and Lutheran superintendents of Estonia, occupying an easily defensible site overlooking the surrounding districts. The major attractions are the walls and various bastions of Castrum Danorum, the Russian Orthodox Alexander Nevsky Cathedral (built during the period of Russian Empire, the church was built on a site that formerly housed a statue of Martin Luther) and the Lutheran Cathedral (Toomkirik) and the old Estonian Royal Palace now the Parliament building.
Alexander Nevsky Cathedral built in 1894–1900.
All-linn – Lower Town 
This area is one of the best preserved old towns in Europe and the authorities are continuing its rehabilitation. Major sights include Raekoja plats (Town Hall square), the town walls and towers (notably "Fat Margaret" and "Kiek in de Kök") and St Olaf church tower (124 m).
Kiek in de Kök defence tower.
This is 2 kilometres east of the centre and is served by buses and trams. Kadriorg Palace, the former palace of Peter the Great, built just after the Great Northern War, now houses (part of) the Art Museum of Estonia, presidential residence and the surrounding grounds include formal gardens and woodland. Restored 2001–2004 with a large donation from the Swedish Government
The new residence of the Art Museum of Estonia, KUMU (Kunstimuuseum, Art Museum), was built in 2006. It has an encyclopedic collection of Estonian Art, including paintings by Carl Von Neff, Johann Köler ("Monk's Impression of Lorelei"), Eduard Ole ("Spring"), Jaan Koort, Konrad Mägi ("Norwegian Landscape"), Eduard Wiiralt, Henn Roode and Adamson-Eric.
This coastal district is a further two kilometres north-east of Kadriorg. The marina was built for the Moscow Olympics of 1980, and boats can be hired on the Pirita River. Two kilometres inland are the Botanic Gardens and the Tallinn TV Tower.
City transport 
The city operates a system of bus (64 lines), tram (4 lines) and trolley-bus (7 lines) routes to all districts. A flat-fare system is used. Payment for single tickets is made either by pre-purchase of tickets at street-side kiosks or by a purchase from the transport vehicle. Monthly cards are available by registering through the national ID-card. Starting from January 2013 public transport for citizens registered to live in Tallinn is completely free. That includes buses, trams and trolleybuses.
The Lennart Meri Tallinn Airport is about four kilometres from Town Hall square (Raekoja plats). There is a local bus connection between the airport and the edge of the city centre (bus no. 2). The nearest railway station Ülemiste is only 1.5 km from the airport.
The construction of the new section of the airport began in 2007 and was finished in summer 2008.
There has been a helicopter service to and from Helsinki operated by Copterline and taking 18 minutes to cross the Gulf of Finland. The Copterline Tallinn terminal is located adjacent to Linnahall, five minutes from the city center. After a crash near Tallinn in August 2005, service was suspended but restarted in 2008 with a new fleet. The operator cancelled it again in December 2008, on grounds of unprofitability. On 15 February 2010, Copterline filed for bankruptcy, citing inability to keep the company profitable. In 2011 Copterline started again operating the Tallinn-Helsinki flights.
Rail and road 
The Edelaraudtee railway company operates train services from Tallinn to Tartu, Valga, Türi, Viljandi, Tapa, Narva, Orava, and Pärnu. Buses are also available to all these and various other destinations in Estonia, as well as to Saint Petersburg in Russia and Riga, Latvia. The Go Rail company operates a daily international sleeper train service between Tallinn-Moscow.
Tallinn also has a commuter rail service running from Tallinn's main rail station in two main directions: east (Aegviidu) and to several western destinations (Pääsküla, Keila, Riisipere, Paldiski, Klooga and Kloogaranna). These are electrified lines and are used by the Elektriraudtee railroad company. The trains are a mixture of modernised older Soviet EMUs and newly built units. The first electrified train service in Tallinn was opened in 1924 from Tallinn to Pääsküla, a distance of 11.2 kilometres.
The Rail Baltica project, which will link Tallinn with Warsaw via Latvia and Lithuania, will connect Tallinn with the rest of the European rail network. A tunnel has been proposed between Tallinn and Helsinki, though it remains at a planning phase.
Frequent and affordable long-distance bus routes connect Tallinn with other parts of Estonia.
International relations 
Twin towns – sister cities 
Tallinn participates in international town twinning schemes to foster good international relations. Partners include:
See also 
- Eurovision Song Contest 2002
- Legends of Tallinn
- Soviet evacuation of Tallinn 1941
- Tallinn Marathon
- Franz Hoppenstätt (d 1657/58), early baroque wood carver in Tallinn.
- Total population in Urban Audit cities
- "Tallinna elanike arv" [Number of Tallinn residents] (in Estonian). Tallinn city government. 1 April 2013. Retrieved 7 April 2013.
- "Tal•linn". Dictionary.infoplease.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- "Definition of Tallinn". Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/822. Missing or empty
- "Tech capitals of the world". The Age. 15 May 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Fasman, The Geographer's Library, pp.17
- Ertl, Alan (2008). Toward an Understanding of Europe. Universal-Publishers. p. 381. ISBN 978-1-59942-983-0.
- Birnbaum, Stephen; Mayes Birnbaum, Alexandra (1992). Birnbaum's Eastern Europe. Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-06-278019-5.
- Fasman, Jon (2006). The Geographer's Library. Penguin. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-14-303662-3.
- "A glance at the history and geology of Tallinn" by Jaak Nõlvak. In Wogogob 2004: Conference Materials
- Terras, Victor (1990). Handbook of Russian Literature. Yale University Press. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-300-04868-1.
- The Esthonian Review. University of California.
- (Danish)In 1219 Valdemar II of Denmark, leading the Danish Fleet in connection with the Livonian Crusade, landed in an Estonian town of Lindanisse
- "Salmonsens Konversations Leksikon". Runeberg.org. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- (German) Reval's ältester Estnischer Name Lindanisse, Verhandlungen der gelehrten estnischen Gesellschaft zu Dorpat. Band 3, Heft 1. Dorpat 1854, p. 46–47
- Wieczynski, Joseph (1976). The Modern Encyclopedia of Russian and Soviet History. Academic International Press. p. 230. ISBN 978-0-87569-064-3.
- Ransome, Arthur (1923). "Racundra's" First Cruise. B.W. Huebsc.
- VIRKKUNEN, A. H. (1907). ITÄMEREN SUOMALAISET SAKSALAISEN VALLOITUKSEN AIKANA (in Finnish). Suomen Muinaismuistoyhdistys. p. 91.
- Singer, Nat A.; Steve Roman (2008). Tallinn In Your Pocket. In Your Pocket. p. 11. ISBN 0-01-406269-0.
- Decisions of the United States Geographic Board. The Board.
- Young, Jekaterina (1990). Russian at Your Fingertips. Routledge. p. 100. ISBN 0-415-02930-9.
- Alas, Askur. "The mystery of Tallinn's Central Square" (in Estonian). EE. Retrieved 29 October 2008.
- Peel, M. C. and Finlayson, B. L. and McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11: 1633–1644. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Tallinn, Estonia". Weatherbase. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "Climatological Information for Tallinn, Estonia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved March 13, 2013.
- "Sunrise and Sunset in Tallinn". Time and Date. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- "Sunrise and Sunset in Tallinn". Time and Date. Retrieved March 11, 2013.
- Statistical Yearbook of Tallinn 2008. Tallinn: Tallinn City Government. 2009. p. 160.
- Eurostat (2004). Regions: Statistical yearbook 2004. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. p. 115/135.
- "Tallinn arvudes / Statistical Yearbook of Tallinn" (PDF) (in Estonian, English). Tallinn City Council. 3 August 2011. Retrieved 1 April 2012.
- Mark Ländler, "The Baltic Life: Hot Technology for Chilly Streets", The New York Times, 13 December 2005.
- Reyktal AS fleet[dead link]
- "History | Tallinna Sadam". Portoftallinn.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Kaja Koovit. "Half of Estonian GDP is created in Tallinn". Balticbusinessnews.com. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- "Half of the gross domestic product of Estonia is created in Tallinn". Estonian Statistics Office. Retrieved 20 May 2012.
- Regulation 1077/2011 establishing a European Agency for the operational management of large-scale IT systems in the area of freedom, security and justice; http://ec.europa.eu/home-affairs/policies/agencies/agencies_intro_en.htm
- Ingrid Teesalu. "It's Official: Tallinn To Become EU's IT Headquarters". ERR. Retrieved 27 April 2012.
- "Contact – AS Estonian Air." Estonian Air. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- [[[Category:All articles with dead external links]][dead link] "Skype Jobs: Life at Skype"]. Jobs.skype.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Steve Roman. "TeliaSonera Opens IT Development Center in Tallinn". ERR. Retrieved 7 June 2012.
- "Ericsson Eesti planning to invest EUR 6.4 mln > Tallinn". Tallinn.ee. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Raivo Sormunen. "aripaev.ee – Skandinaavia uue börsifirma finantskeskus tuleb Tall". Ap3.ee. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- "Tallinn, Estonia – Travel Photos by Galen R Frysinger, Sheboygan, Wisconsin". Galenfrysinger.com. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
- Copterline web page[dead link]
- [dead link]
- Korolczuk, Dariusz (12 Jan 2010). "Foreign cooperation - Partner Cities". Bialystok City Council. City Office in Białystok. Retrieved 2013-03-22.
- "Twin Towns – Graz Online – English Version". graz.at. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- "'Groningen – Partner Cities'". 2008 Gemeente Groningen, Kreupelstraat 1,9712 HW Groningen. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
- "Malmö stads vänortssamarbete" (in Swedish). 2004–2009 Malmö stad, 205 80 Malmö, Organisationsnummer: 212000-1124. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
- "Twin cities of Riga". Riga City Council. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Vilniuse sõpruslinnad" (in Estonian). 2002–2009 Tallinn. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
|Wikivoyage has travel information related to: Tallinn|
- Media related to Tallinn at Wikimedia Commons
- The Website of the City of Tallinn (official)
- Panoramas of Tallinn Old Town
- 3D model of Tallinn Old Town