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In the United States
The term "reverse racism" came into use as the struggle for African-American rights divided the white community. In 1966, Hosea Williams of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), publicly accused members of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) of reverse racism in their efforts to exclude or expel whites from local government in Alabama to make room for blacks. Williams argued that SNCC's (unsuccessful) "all-black" campaign in Alabama would drive white moderates out of the civil rights movement. "Black racism" was a more common term in this era, used to describe SNCC and groups like the Black Panthers.
The term gained widespread use in debates and legal actions concerning affirmative action, albeit sometimes in the context of "the myth of reverse racism". It appeared resurgent on the political scene with the successful candidacy of Barack Obama in 2008.
A recent study conducted at Tufts and Harvard sought to quantify perceptions of reverse racism by surveying Americans who identified as White or Black. The study's title, "White People See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing", indicates its findings: that Whites feel as though they now suffer disproportionately from racism. (Blacks felt that anti-Black racism had decreased over time, but did not perceive increases in anti-White bias.) These results were constant for people of different ages and levels of education.
Studies show that great percentages of both whites and blacks feel as though anti-black racism has decreased significantly. However, studies also show that great percentages of whites feel as though they've replaced blacks as the racial group most discriminated against. This is despite the fact that statistics show whites as still having the upper hand in most aspects of American life. Tufts Associate Professor of Psychology, Ph.D., and author Samuel Sommers stated, "It's a pretty surprising finding when you think of the wide range of disparities that still exist in society, most of which show black Americans with worse outcomes than whites in areas such as income, home ownership, health and employment." The concept of White Privilege is explored further by Peggy McIntosh in her frequently cited essay, White Pivilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack.
In South Africa
The term has been used actively by White and Black South Africans after the end of apartheid. Accusations of reverse racism have been leveled particularly at government efforts to transform the demographics of South Africa's white-dominated civil service.
Nelson Mandela in 1995 described "racism in reverse" when Black students demonstrated in favor changing the racial makeup of staff at South African universities. But students denied Mandela's claim and argued that in fact a great deal of ongoing actual racism persisted from apartheid. Some charged that Mandela's government moved slowly in other areas of social change, due to fears of being perceived as "reverse racist." Mandela was later himself charged with reverse racism—during 1997 proceedings of the national Truth and Reconciliation Commission and for supporting the 1998 Employment Equity Bill.
Claims of reverse racism continued into the 21st century. Helen Suzman, a prominent white anti-apartheid politician, has charged the African National Congress and the Mbeki administration of reverse racism since Mandela's departure in 1999. In 2004, a group of young white members of the "Solidarity Trade Union" locked themselves into a zoo to protest discrimination against whites.
South African critics of the "reverse racism" concept use similar arguments as Americans.
Mixed-race South Africans have also sometimes claimed to be victimized by reverse racism of the new Black government. Similar accusations have been leveled by Indian and Afrikaner groups, who feel that they have not been dominant historically but now suffer from discrimination by the Black government.
- "Define Reverse Racism - Reverse Discrimination - Reverse Racism Examples". Racerelations.about.com. Retrieved 2013-05-03.
- Norton, Michael I.; Sommers, Samuel R. (2011). "Whites See Racism as a Zero-Sum Game That They Are Now Losing". Perspectives on Psychological Science 6 (3): 215–8. doi:10.1177/1745691611406922. Lay summary – TuftsNow (May 23, 2011).
- "Strife on Two Civil Rights Fronts in Alabama: SNCC is Scored by King Group". Chicago Daily Defender. 25 April 1966. p. 1. "The move was called 'reverse racism' by Hosea Williams, Southern program director for King's Southern Christian Leadership conference. He described the effort to exclude all whites from public office as being as racist as excluding all blacks. It isn't integration, he indicated, and it isn't likely— in the long run — to help cure the nation's number one headache."
- Sustar, Lee (12 October 2012). "The fallacy of 'reverse racism'". Socialist Worker.
- Sanneh, Kelefah (10 August 2009). "Discriminating Tastes". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012.
- Wise, Tim (March 2008). "Obama, Black Voters and the Myth of Reverse Racism". L.A. Progressive. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012.
- Norton, Michael I.; Sommers, Samuel R. (23 May 2011). "Jockeying for Stigma". New York Times.
- Susan de Villiers and Stefan Simanowitz, "South Africa: The ANC at 100", Contemporary Review 294, March 2012; accessed via ProQuest.
- Karen Mac Gregor, "Mandela slams `reverse racism'", Times Higher Education", 24 March 1995.
- Abiola Sinclair, "MEDIA WATCH: All is not well, disappointments, racial clashes", New York Amsterdam News, 16 September 1995; accessed via ProQuest. "The students maintained that the university was living in the apartheid past with the upper echelons reserved for whites. The students are demanding that some jobs be reserved for Blacks. AZASM had denied the charge of reverse racism. They maintain it is unfair for thousands of Black teachers to be out of work while white teachers sit up in good jobs in Black schools."
- Paul Taylor, "Black Capitalists Rare In New South Africa; Apartheid's Legacy, Cultural Ethos Cited", Washington Post, 19 March 1995; accessed via ProQuest. "So far Mandela's government has moved slowly on that front. 'I think the government is still looking over its shoulder, afraid of the tag of reverse racism,' said Thami Mazwai, editor of Enterprise, a glossy monthly magazine devoted to black businesses. He noted that earlier this year a white ad agency and the nation's only black ad agency competed for a major government contract to publicize the public hearing process for the writing of a new constitution. Although the black agency has won several industry awards, the white agency got the contract."
- Dean Murphy, "Apartheid-Era Leader Defies Subpoena; S. Africa: Truth commission urges contempt charges against former President Pieter W. Botha", Washington Post, 20 December 1997; accessed via ProQuest. "The move to charge Botha is particularly sensitive because it comes just days after President Nelson Mandela, in a racially charged address to the ruling African National Congress, harshly criticized white South Africans for protecting their positions of privilege and doing little to reconcile with the black majority. The speech, hailed as accurate by blacks, brought calls of reverse racism from many whites."
- Mutume, Gumisai (3 April 1993). "Racism Spoils It for New Democracy". Inter-Press Service.
- Kate Dunn, "Mandela Hits White Wealth", Christian Science Monitor, 26 February 1998.
- Scott Calvert, "Against apartheid, at odds with blacks", Baltimore Sun, 14 May 2004.
- "Youth Cage Themselves in Zoo to Protest Against Discrimination", The Statesman (Press Trust of India), 27 December 2004.
- Dalamba, Yolisa (2000). "Towards An African Renaissance: Identity, Race And Representation In Post-Apartheid South Africa". Journal of Cultural Studies 2 (1): 40–61. doi:10.4314/jcs.v2i1.6231.
- Polgreen, Lydia (27 July 2003). "For Mixed-Race South Africans, Equity Is Elusive". New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 November 2012.
- Danna Harman, "South Africans try to 'beat' a segregated past", Christian Science Monitor, 26 September 2002.
- Aberger, Peter (1980). "Leopold Senghor and the Issue of Reverse Racism". Phylon 41 (3): 276–83. JSTOR 274791.
- Chang, Robert S. (1995). "Reverse Racism!: Affirmative Action, the Family, and the Dream That Is America". Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly 23: 1115–34.