Josef Gabriel Rheinberger, whose father was the treasurer for Aloys II, Prince of Liechtenstein, showed exceptional musical talent at an early age. At only seven years of age he was already serving as organist of the Vaduz parish church, and his first composition was performed the following year. In 1851, his father, who had initially been resistant to his son's desire to pursue a musical career, allowed him to enter the Munich Conservatory, where he later became professor of piano and subsequently professor of composition. When this first version of the Munich Conservatorium was dissolved he was appointed répétiteur at the Court Theatre, from which he resigned in 1867.
Rheinberger married his former pupil, the poetess and socialite Franziska von Hoffnaass (eight years his senior) in 1867. The couple remained childless, but the marriage was happy. Franziska wrote the texts for much of her husband's vocal work.
Rheinberger's influences ranged from contemporaries such as Johannes Brahms to composers from earlier times, such as Franz Schubert and Johann Sebastian Bach. He was also influenced by painting and literature (especially English and German).
In 1877 he was appointed court conductor, responsible for the music in the royal chapel. He was later awarded an honorary Ph.D. degree by Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich. A distinguished teacher, he numbered many Americans among his pupils including Horatio Parker, William Berwald, George Whitefield Chadwick, Bruno Klein and Henry Holden Huss. Other notable pupils include Italian composer Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari, German composers Engelbert Humperdinck and Wilhelm Furtwängler (the latter much better known as a conductor) and Austrian composer Désiré Thomassin (de). When the second (and present) Munich Conservatorium was founded, he was appointed Royal Professor of organ and composition, a post he held until his death.
Rheinberger was a prolific composer. His religious works include twelve Masses (one for double chorus, three for four voices a cappella, three for women's voices and organ, two for men's voices and one with orchestra), a Requiem and a Stabat Mater. His other works include several operas, symphonies, chamber music, and choral works. Today he is remembered primarily for his elaborate and challenging organ compositions; these include two concertos, 20 sonatas in 20 different keys (of a projected set of 24 sonatas in all the keys), 22 trios, 12 Meditations, 24 fughettos, and 36 solo pieces. His organ sonatas were once declared to be
undoubtedly the most valuable addition to organ music since the time of Mendelssohn. They are characterized by a happy blending of the modern Romantic spirit with masterly counterpoint and dignified organ style.
- Rheinberger: Missae et Cantiones, Wolfgang Schäfer Choir Director, Edgar Krapp Organ, Klaus Mertens Baritone, Frankfurter Kantorei, Carus-Verlag 1998
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- Jameson, Michael. "Joseph Rheinberger". Allmusic. Retrieved 7 July 2012.
- Percy Goetschius, Masters of the Symphony (Boston: Ditson, 1929, 331) wrote that Rheinberger "is celebrated mainly for his organ works ... He composed only two Symphonies: No. I, Wallenstein, D minor, in the usual four Movements, but tracing a definite program, as indicated by the given titles; and No. II, Op. 87, the Florentine."
- "Dr Ken Wolf – in memoriam". Worcester Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. 21 October 2011. Retrieved 11 June 2012.
- This article is based on a text from The Etude, prior to 1923, that is in the public domain.
- This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company.
- The Musical Times
- Free scores by Josef Rheinberger at the International Music Score Library Project
- e-Partitions Newly edited and typeset organ scores.
- Free scores by Josef Rheinberger in the Choral Public Domain Library (ChoralWiki)
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