Rhinella

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rhinella
Bufo marinus from Australia.JPG
Cane Toad (Bufo marinus)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Subgenus: Rhinella
Fitzinger, 1826
Type species
Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) proboscideus
Spix, 1824
Species

71 species; see table.

Synonyms

Chaunus Wagler, 1828
Rhamphophryne Trueb, 1971

Rhinella (Beaked Toads or Rio Viejo Toads) is a subgenus of Bufo (treated by some as a distinct genus) containing 71 species of true toads native to Neotropical Central and South America.

Originally, all Rhinella species were included in the genus Bufo, then they were split into Chaunus and Rhamphophryne. However, Chaunus and Rhamphophryne may also be considered synonyms of Rhinella.[1]

Some authors continue to include Rhinella as a subgroup with the genus Bufo.[2]

Etymology[edit]

  • Rhinella means ‘little nose’, from rhino- (ῥῑνο-), the combining form of the Ancient Greek rhis (ῥίς, ‘nose’) and the Latin diminutive suffix -ella.[3]
  • Chaunus is the Latinised form of the Ancient Greek chaûnos (χαῦνος, ‘porous, spongy’).[4][5]
  • Rhamphophryne, meaning “beaked toad”, is from rhamphos (ῥάµϕος, ‘beak’)[6] and phrunē (φρύνη, ‘toad’).[3]

Species[edit]

Note: Species below are shown as species of Rhinella, but are treated as species of Bufo by many authors.

Binomial Name and Author Common Name
Rhinella abei (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004)
Rhinella achalensis (Cei, 1972) Cordoba Toad
Rhinella achavali (Maneyro, Arrieta, & de Sá, 2004)
Rhinella acrolopha (Trueb, 1971) Cerro Mali Beaked Toad
Rhinella acutirostris (Spix, 1824)
Rhinella alatus (Thominot, 1884)
Rhinella amabilis (Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003)
Rhinella amboroensis (Harvey & Smith, 1993) Cochabamba Toad
Rhinella arborescandens (Duellman & Schulte, 1992) Mendoza Pass Toad
Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867) Common Toad; Argentine Toad
Rhinella arequipensis (Vellard, 1959) Rio Chili Toad
Rhinella arunco (Molina, 1782) Arunco; Concepcion Toad
Rhinella atacamensis (Cei, 1962) Vallenar Toad; Atacama Toad
Rhinella beebei (Gallardo, 1965) Rivero's Toad
Rhinella bergi (Céspedez, 2000)
Rhinella castaneoticus (Caldwell, 1991) Para Toad
Rhinella ceratophrys (Boulenger, 1882) Horned Toad
Rhinella chavin (Lehr, Köhler, Aguilar & Ponce, 2001)
Rhinella chrysophorus (McCranie, Wilson & Williams, 1989) Rio Viejo Toad
Rhinella cristinae (Vélez-Rodriguez & Ruiz-Carranza, 2002)
Rhinella crucifer (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) Striped Toad
Rhinella dapsilis (Myers & Carvalho, 1945) Bom Jardim Toad
Rhinella diptychus (Cope, 1862) Cope's Toad
Rhinella dorbignyi (Duméril & Bibron, 1841) Dorbigny's Toad
Rhinella fernandezae (Gallardo, 1957) Bella Vista Toad
Rhinella festae (Peracca, 1904) Valle Santiago Beaked Toad
Rhinella fissipes (Boulenger, 1903) Carabaya Toad
Rhinella gallardoi (Carrizo, 1992) Gallardo's Toad
Rhinella gnustae (Gallardo, 1967) Rio Grande Toad
Rhinella granulosus (Spix, 1824) Common Lesser Toad
Rhinella henseli (Lutz, 1934)
Rhinella hoogmoedi (Caramaschi & Pombal, 2006)
Rhinella ictericus (Spix, 1824) Yellow Cururu Toad
Rhinella inca (Stejneger, 1913) Inca Toad
Rhinella iserni (Jiménez de la Espada, 1875) Rio Perene Toad
Rhinella jimi (Stevaux, 2002)
Rhinella justinianoi (Harvey & Smith, 1994) El Chape Toad
Rhinella limensis (Werner, 1901) Peru Coast Toad
Rhinella lindae (Rivero & Castaño, 1990) Murri Beaked Toad
Rhinella macrorhina (Trueb, 1971) Santa Rita Beaked Toad
Rhinella manu Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007
Rhinella margaritifer (Laurenti, 1768) South American Common Toad
Rhinella marina (Linnaeus, 1758) Cane Toad
Rhinella multiverrucosus (Lehr, Pramuk & Lundberg, 2005)
Rhinella nesiotes (Duellman & Toft, 1979) Laguna Toad
Rhinella nicefori (Cochran & Goin, 1970) Colombian Beaked Toad
Rhinella ocellatus (Günther, 1858) Ocellated Toad
Rhinella ornatus Spix, 1824
Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845) Gray Toad
Rhinella pombali (Baldissera, Caramaschi & Haddad, 2004)
Rhinella proboscideus (Boulenger, 1882) Beaked Toad
Rhinella pygmaeus (Myers & Carvalho, 1952) Rio Parahyba Toad
Rhinella quechua (Gallardo, 1961) Incachaca Toad
Rhinella roqueanus (Melin, 1941)
Rhinella rostrata (Noble, 1920) Mesopotamia Beaked Toad
Rhinella rubescens (Lutz, 1925)
Rhinella rubropunctatus (Guichenot, 1848) Rusty Toad
Rhinella ruizi (Grant, 2000)
Rhinella rumbolli (Carrizo, 1992) Salta Toad
Rhinella schneideri (Werner, 1894) Cururu Toad; Schneider's Toad
Rhinella scitulus (Caramaschi & de Niemeyer, 2003)
Rhinella sclerocephalus (Mijares-Urrutia & Arends-R., 2001)
Rhinella spinulosus (Wiegmann, 1834) Warty Toad; Huanuco Toad
Rhinella stanlaii (Lötters & Köhler, 2000)
Rhinella sternosignatus (Günther, 1858) Falcon Toad
Rhinella tacana (Padial, Reichle, McDiarmid, & De la Riva, 2006)
Rhinella tenrec (Lynch & Renjifo, 1990) Antioquia Beaked Toad
Rhinella truebae (Lynch & Renjifo, 1990) Trueb's Beaked Toad
Rhinella vellardi (Leviton & Duellman, 1978) Alto Maranon Toad
Rhinella veraguensis (Schmidt, 1857) Veragua Toad
Rhinella veredas (Brandão, Maciel, and Sebben, 2007)
Rhinella yunga (Mordavec, Lehr, 2014)

References[edit]

  1. ^ Chaparro, Juan Carlos, Jennifer B. Pramuk and Andrew G. Gluesenkamp. 2007. A new species of arboreal Rhinella (Anura: Bufonidae) from a cloud forest of southeastern Peru. Herpetologica. 63 (2): 203-212.
  2. ^ Pauly, G. B., D. M. Hillis, and D. C, Cannatella. (2004) The history of a Nearctic colonization: Molecular phylogenetics and biogeography of the Nearctic toads (Bufo). Evolution 58: 2517–2535.
  3. ^ a b Dodd, C. Kenneth (2013). Frogs of the United States and Canada 1. The Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4214-0633-6. 
  4. ^ d'Orbigny, Charles (1845). Dictionnaire universel d'histoire naturelle (in French) 3. Bureau Principal de l'Éditeurs. p. 433. 
  5. ^ χαῦνος. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus Project
  6. ^ "rhamphoid". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. 
  • Frost, Darrel (2006). "The Amphibian Tree of Life". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 297: 1–371.

External links[edit]