Horseshoe bat

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Rhinolophus)
Jump to: navigation, search
Horseshoe bats
Bat(20070605).jpg
Lesser horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus hipposideros)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Suborder: Yinpterochiroptera
Family: Rhinolophidae
Gray, 1825
Genus: Rhinolophus
Lacépède, 1799
Type species
Vespertilio ferrum-equinum
Schreber, 1774
Species

See text.

Horseshoe bats (Rhinolophidae) are a family of bats. In addition to the single living genus, Rhinolophus, there is one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris. The closely related Hipposideridae are sometimes included within the horseshoe bats as a subfamily, Hipposiderinae. Both families are classified in the suborder Yinpterochiroptera or Pteropodiformes and were previously included in Microchiroptera.

Appearance[edit]

All horseshoe bats have leaf-like, horseshoe-shaped protuberances on their noses. In the related Hipposideridae, these noseleaves are leaf- or spear-like. They emit echolocation calls through these structures, which may serve to focus the sound. Their hind limbs are not well developed, so they cannot walk on all fours; conversely, their wings are broad, making their flight particularly agile. Most rhinolophids are dull brown or reddish-brown in color. They vary in size from 2.5 cm to 14 cm in head-body length, and 4 to 120 g in weight.[1] Their dental formula is 1.1.1-2.32.1.2-3.3.

The females have a pair of mammary glands and two "false nipples" above and to the side of the genital opening, to which newborn bats cling for a few days after birth.

Ecology[edit]

Rhinolophids inhabit temperate and tropical regions of southern Europe, Africa, and Asia south to northern and eastern Australia. All species are insectivorous, capturing insects in flight. Their roost habits are diverse; some species are found in large colonies in caves, some prefer hollow trees, and others sleep in the open, among the branches of trees. Members of northern populations may hibernate during the winter, while a few are known to aestivate; at least one species is migratory. Like many Vespertilionidae bats, females of some rhinolophid species mate during the fall and store the sperm over the winter, conceiving and gestating young beginning in the spring.

Classification[edit]

Horseshoe bats are closely related to the family Hipposideridae, which is often included within Rhinolophidae; however, it is now considered a separate family.[2][3] In addition to the sole living genus, Rhinolophus, the family Rhinolophidae contains one extinct genus, Palaeonycteris.[4] Many species are extremely difficult to distinguish.

Although horseshoe bats have traditionally been included in the suborder Microchiroptera ("microbats"), genetic evidence suggests they and a few other microbat families are more closely related to Pteropodidae, the only family of "megabats" (Megachiroptera). Therefore, Pteropodidae, horseshoe bats, and related families are now placed in a single suborder, called Yinpterochiroptera or Pteropodiformes.[3]

Medical significance[edit]

In September 2005, four Rhinolophus species (R. sinicus, R. ferrumequinum, R. macrotis, R. pearsoni) were identified as natural reservoirs of SARS coronavirus-like viruses, the causative agent of SARS outbreaks in 2002–2004.[5][6]

List of species[edit]

Genus Rhinolophus

u

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Macdonald, D. 1984. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 805 pp. ISBN 0-87196-871-1
  2. ^ Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Pp. 312–529 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols., 2142 pp. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Pp. 312–529 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols., 2142 pp. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0
  3. ^ a b Hutcheon, J.M. and Kirsch, J.A.W. 2006. A moveable face: deconstructing the Microchiroptera and a new classification of extant bats. Acta Chiropterologica 8(1):1–10.
  4. ^ McKenna, M.C. and Bell, S.K. 1997. Classification of Mammals: Above the species level. New York: Columbia University Press, 631 pp. ISBN 978-0-231-11013-6
  5. ^ Li, W., Zhengli, S., Meng, Y., et al. 2005. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310(5748):676–679.
  6. ^ Lau, S., Woo, P., Li, K., et al. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(39):14040–14045.
  • Corbet, G.B. and Hill, J.E. 1992. The mammals of the Indomalayan region: a systematic review. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Hutcheon, J.M. and Kirsch, J.A.W. 2006. A moveable face: deconstructing the Microchiroptera and a new classification of extant bats. Acta Chiropterologica 8(1):1–10.
  • Kock, D., Csorba, G. and Howell, K.M. 2000. Rhinolophus maendeleo n. sp. from Tanzania, a horseshoe bat noteworthy for its systematics and biogeography (Mammalia, Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae). Senckenbergiana biologica 80:233–239.
  • Lau, S., Woo, P., Li, K., et al. 2005. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in Chinese horseshoe bats. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 102(39):14040–14045.
  • Li, W., Zhengli, S., Meng, Y., et al. 2005. Bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-like coronaviruses. Science 310(5748):676–679.
  • Macdonald, D. 1984. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File, 805 pp. ISBN 0-87196-871-1
  • McKenna, M.C. and Bell, S.K. 1997. Classification of Mammals: Above the species level. New York: Columbia University Press, 631 pp. ISBN 978-0-231-11013-6
  • Schober, W. and Grimmberger, A. 1989. A Guide to Bats of Britain and Europe. Hamlyn Publishing Group. ISBN 0-600-56424-X
  • Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Pp. 312–529 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols., 2142 pp. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0Simmons, N.B. 2005. Order Chiroptera. Pp. 312–529 in Wilson, D.E. and Reeder, D.M. (eds.). Mammal Species of the World: a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3rd ed. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2 vols., 2142 pp. ISBN 978-0-8018-8221-0
  • Corbet, G.B. 2008. Taxonomy of the Horseshoe bats of the World (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae). http://dea.unideb.hu/dea/bitstream/2437/89636/4/ertekezes_angol.pdf
  • Zhou, Z.-M., Guillén-Servent A., Kim, B.K., Eger, J.L., Wang, Y.Y. and Jiang, X.-L. 2009. A new species from southwestern China in the Afro-Palearctic lineage of the horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus). Journal of Mammalogy 90:57–73.
  • Wu, Y., Harada, M. and Motokawa, M. 2009. Taxonomy of Rhinolophus yunanensis Dobson, 1872 (Chiroptera: Rhinolophidae) with a description of a new species from Thailand. Acta Chiropterologica 11(2):237–246.