Rhizobiales

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Rhizobiales
Bartonella.jpg
Bartonella
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Alpha Proteobacteria
Order: Rhizobiales
Kuykendall 2006
Families

Aurantimonadaceae
Bartonellaceae
Beijerinckiaceae
Bradyrhizobiaceae
Brucellaceae
Cohaesibacteraceae
Hyphomicrobiaceae
Methylobacteriaceae
Methylocystaceae
Phyllobacteriaceae
Rhizobiaceae
Rhodobiaceae
Xanthobacteraceae

Synonyms

Hyphomicrobiales

Rhizobiales is the name of an order of alpha proteobacteria. They are Gram-negative.

The rhizobia, which fix nitrogen and are symbiotic with plant roots, appear in several different families. The four families Bradyrhizobiaceae, Hyphomicrobiaceae, Phyllobacteriaceae, and Rhizobiaceae contain at least six genera of nitrogen-fixing, legume-nodulating, microsymbiotic bacteria. Examples are the genera Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium. Species of Methylocystaceae are methanotrophs; they use methanol (CH3OH) or methane (CH4) as their sole energy and carbon sources. Other important genera are Bartonella (pathogen) and Agrobacterium (genetic engineering).

Phylogeny[edit]

The currently accepted taxonomy is based on the List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature [1] and National Center for Biotechnology Information[2] and the phylogeny is based on whole-genome sequences [3]










Brucellaceae

Brucella Meyer and Shaw 1920



Ochrobactrum Holmes et al. 1988



Bartonellaceae

Bartonella Strong et al. 1915 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Brenner et al. 1993



Phyllobacteriaceae

Mesorhizobium Jarvis et al. 1997



Chelativorans Doronina et al. 2010





Rhizobiaceae



Rhizobium Frank 1889 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Young et al. 2001



Agrobacterium Conn 1942 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Sawada et al. 1993




Sinorhizobium Chen et al. 1988 emend. De Lajudie et al. 1994





Candidatus Liberibacter corrig. Jagoueix et al. 1994



Candidatus Hodgkinia McCutcheon et al. 2009





Hoeflea Peix et al. 2005[4]




Aurantimonadaceae

Aurantimonas Denner et al. 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011



Fulvimarina Cho and Giovannoni 2003 emend. Rathsack et al. 2011






Pelagibacterium Xu et al. 2011[5]



Pseudovibrio Shieh et al. 2004[6]






Bradyrhizobiaceae


Rhodopseudomonas Czurda and Maresch 1937




Nitrobacter Winogradsky 1892



Bradyrhizobium Jordan 1982






Oligotropha Meyer et al. 1994



Afipia Brenner et al. 1992




Xanthobacteraceae


Azorhizobium Dreyfus et al. 1988



Xanthobacter Wiegel et al. 1978




Starkeya Kelly et al. 2000





Methylobacteriaceae

Methylobacterium Methylobacterium Patt et al. 1976 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Green and Bousfield 1983



Beijerinckiaceae

Beijerinckia Derx 1950



Methylocella Dedysh et al. 2000 emend. Dunfield et al. 2003



Methylocystaceae

Methylocystis (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993 emend. Dedysh et al. 2007



Methylosinus (ex Whittenbury et al. 1970) Bowman et al. 1993







Hyphomicrobiaceae

Hyphomicrobium Stutzer and Hartleb 1899



Rhodomicrobium Duchow and Douglas 1949 (Approved Lists 1980) emend. Imhoff et al. 1984




Rhodobiaceae

Parvibaculum Schleheck et al. 2004




Sphingomonas Yabuuchi et al. 1990 emend. Yabuuchi et al. 1999 (outgroup)



References[edit]

  1. ^ J.P. Euzéby. "Proteobacteria (scroll down for Rhizobiales)". List of Prokaryotic names with Standing in Nomenclature (LPSN) [1]. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  2. ^ Sayers et al. "Rhizobiales". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) taxonomy database [2]. Retrieved 2012-05-02. 
  3. ^ Collapsed from the tree built by PATRIC. Access date: 2012-05-02.
  4. ^ Hoeflea is currently ranked in the Phyllobacteriaceae.
  5. ^ Pelagibacterium is currently ranked in the Hyphomicrobiaceae.
  6. ^ Pseudovibrio is currently ranked in the Rhodobacteraceae.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kuykendall, L. D. and Dazzo, F.B. 2005. Allorhizobium. In Brenner, Krieg, Staley and Garrity (Editors), The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria, The Proteobacteria, Part C, Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd. Ed., Vol. 2, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 345–346.
  • Kuykendall, L. D. 2005 Genus Azorhizobium. In Brenner, Krieg, Staley and Garrity (Editors), The Alpha-, Beta-, Delta- and Epsilonproteobacteria, The Proteobacteria, Part C, Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd. Ed.,Vol. 2, Springer, New York, NY, pp. 505–506.
  • Kuykendall, L.D. 2005. Genus Bradyrhizobium, family Bradyrhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 438–443.
  • Chen, W. X., E.T. Wang, and L.D. Kuykendall. 2005. Genus Mesorhizobium, Family Photobacteriaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 403–408.,
  • Kuykendall, L.D., J.M. Young, E. Martínez-Romero, A. Kerr, and H. Sawada. 2005. Genus Rhizobium, a highly divergent genus in a revised family, the Rhizobiaceae. In: Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd Edition, 2nd Volume. George Garrity, (Ed.) Springer–Verlag, New York, NY, pp. 324–340.