The Rhodes Scholarship, named after Cecil John Rhodes, is an international postgraduate award for selected foreign students to study at the University of Oxford. Established in 1902, it was the first large-scale programme of international scholarships.
Cecil Rhodes' goals in creating the Rhodes Scholarships were to promote civic-minded leadership amongst young people with (in the words of his 1899 Will) "moral force of character and instincts to lead", and (as he wrote in a 1901 codicil to his Will) to help "render war impossible" through promoting understanding between the great powers.
Rhodes Scholars may study any full-time postgraduate course offered by the university, whether a taught master's programme, a research degree, or a second undergraduate degree (senior status). In the first instance, the scholarship is awarded for two years. However, it may also be held for one year or three years. Applications for a third year are considered during the course of the second year.
University and college fees are paid by the Rhodes Trust. In addition, scholars receive a monthly maintenance stipend to cover accommodation and living expenses. Although all scholars become affiliated with a residential college while at Oxford, they also enjoy access to Rhodes House, an early 20th-century mansion with numerous public rooms, gardens, a library, study areas, and other facilities.
The Rhodes Scholarships are administered and awarded by the Rhodes Trust, which was established in 1902 under the terms and conditions of the will of Cecil John Rhodes, and funded by his estate under the administration of Nathan Rothschild. Scholarships have been awarded to applicants annually since 1902 on the basis of academic achievement and strength of character. Rhodes, who attended the University of Oxford (as a member of Oriel College), chose his alma mater as the site of his great experiment because he believed its residential colleges provided the ideal environment for intellectual contemplation and personal development.
There have been more than 7,000 Rhodes Scholars since the inception of the trust. More than 4,000 are still living. The Rhodes Trust provides the Rhodes Scholarships in partnership with the Second Century Founder, John McCall MacBain and other benefactors.
In 1925, the Commonwealth Fund Fellowships (later renamed the Harkness Fellowships) were established to reciprocate the Rhodes Scholarships by enabling British graduates to study in the United States. The Kennedy Scholarship programme, created in 1966 as a memorial to John F. Kennedy, adopts a comparable selection process to the Rhodes Scholarships to allow 10 British post-graduate students per year to study at either Harvard or the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).
The Sex Discrimination Act 1975 in the United Kingdom did not affect wills, but another Act of Parliament changed the Rhodes' will to extend selection criteria to include women. In 1977, the first year women were eligible, 24 women (out of 72 total scholars) were selected worldwide, with 13 women and 19 men selected from the United States. The average female share of the scholarship in the United States had been around 35 percent but has since increased. From 2003 to 2012, 46 percent of scholarship winners from the United States were women.
For at least its first 75 years, Rhodes Scholars usually studied for a second Bachelor of Arts degree. While that remains an option, more recent scholars usually study for an advanced degree.
Rhodes' legacy specified four standards by which applicants were to be judged:
- Literary and scholastic attainments;
- Energy to use one's talents to the fullest, as exemplified by fondness for and success in sports;
- Truth, courage, devotion to duty, sympathy for and protection of the weak, kindliness, unselfishness and fellowship;
- Moral force of character and instincts to lead, and to take an interest in one's fellow beings.
This legacy originally provided for scholarships for the British colonies, the United States, and Germany. These three were chosen because it was thought that " ... a good understanding between England, Germany and the United States of America will secure the peace of the world ... "
Subsequent changes to selection
Rhodes' bequest was whittled down considerably in the first decades after his death, as various scholarship trustees were forced to pay taxes upon their own deaths. A change occurred in 1929, when an Act of Parliament established a fund separate from the original proceeds of Rhodes' will and made it possible to expand the number of scholarships. Between 1993 and 1995, scholarships were extended to other countries in the European Community.
Four South African boys' schools were mentioned in Rhodes' will, each to receive an annual scholarship: the Boys High School, in Stellenbosch (today known as Paul Roos Gymnasium); the Diocesan College (Bishops) in Rondebosch; the South African College Schools (SACS) in Newlands; and St Andrew's College in Grahamstown. These have subsequently been opened also to former students of their partner schools (girls' or co-educational schools).
During the ensuing 100 years, the trustees added at one time or another approximately another 40 scholarships, though not all have continued. Some of these extended the scheme to Commonwealth countries not mentioned in the will. A more detailed allocation by region by year can be found at Rhodes Scholarship Allocations. Very brief summaries of some of the terms and conditions can be found on the trust's website. Complete details can be obtained from the nominating countries.
Currently, scholars are selected from citizens of 14 specified geographic constituencies, namely: Australia; Bermuda; Canada; Germany; Hong Kong; India; Jamaica & Commonwealth Caribbean; Kenya; New Zealand; Pakistan; Southern Africa (South Africa and neighbours Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia and Swaziland); United States; Zambia; and Zimbabwe.
Many Rhodes Scholars have gone on to have prominent careers in business, politics, sport and academia. Several Scholars subsequently became heads of government or heads of state, including Bob Hawke, Wasim Sajjad, Bill Clinton, Dominic Mintoff, John Turner and Tony Abbott.
In recognition of the centenary of the foundation of the Rhodes Trust in 2003, four former Rhodes Scholarship recipients were awarded honorary degrees by the University of Oxford. Note that these people already held regular higher degrees.
- John Brademas (Indiana and Brasenose 1950), President of New York University, US Congressman (Indiana), 1959–1981
- Bob Hawke (Western Australia and University 1953), Prime Minister of Australia, 1983–1991
- Rex Nettleford (Jamaica and Oriel 1957), Vice-Chancellor of the University of the West Indies, author, dance director
- David R. Woods (Rhodes and University 1963), Vice-Chancellor of Rhodes University
During the Centenary celebrations, the foundation of The Mandela Rhodes Foundation was also marked.
110th Rhodes Anniversary
During the 110th Rhodes Anniversary celebrations in September 2013, John McCall MacBain, Marcy McCall MacBain and the McCall MacBain Foundation donated £75million towards the fundraising efforts of the Rhodes Trust. The 110th Rhodes Anniversary saw over 900 Rhodes Scholars and their guests come back to Rhodes House and Oxford.
- Rhodes Trust (2009) The Rhodes Scholarships, www.rhodeshouse.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 26 December 2009.
- The American Rhodes Scholarships: A Review of the First Forty Years, Review author[s]: Harvie Branscomb, The American Historical Review © 1947 American Historical Association
- See, e.g., 'To "render war impossible": the Rhodes Scholarships, educational relations between countries, and peace' in Donald Markwell, "Instincts to Lead: On Leadership, Peace, and Education (2013).
- Periodically the Rhodes Trustees include or exclude the MBA from the courses offered.
- "FAQs about the Scholarships". Rhodes Trust. 2009. Retrieved 6 December 2010. "In 2009, the stipend was UKPounds 958/month"
- Gerson, Elliot F. (21 November 2009). "From the Office of the American Secretary" (Press release). Retrieved 6 December 2010. "Amongst other things, the press release states that the value of the Rhodes Scholarship varies depending on the academic field and the degree (B.A., master's, doctoral) chosen. For American Rhodes Scholars, Gerson estimates that the total value of the scholarship averages approximately US$50,000 per year, or up to as much as US$175,000 for scholars who remain in Oxford for four years."
- Cecil Rhodes & William Thomas Stead (1902). The last will and testament of Cecil John Rhodes: with elucidatory notes to which are added some chapters describing the political and religious ideas of the testator. "Review of Reviews" Office.
- "Brief history of the Rhodes Trust".
- History of the Harkness Fellowships, nla.gov.au
- Cannadine, David (6 January 2006). "JFK's legacy - a point of view". BBC News. Retrieved 30 December 2009.
- William Waldegrave, Baron Waldegrave of North Hill, the current chairman of the Rhodes Scholarship programme, attended Harvard University as a Kennedy Scholar "?".[dead link]
- Second-class citizens: How women became Rhodes Scholars, 29 January 2010, therhodesproject.wordpress.com
- "Lists of Rhodes Scholars".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in Australia". Retrieved 6 December 2010.
- "Australian Rhodes Scholarships".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in Bermuda".
- "The Canadian Association of Rhodes Scholars".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in Germany".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in India".
- "Indian Rhodes Scholarships".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships for Jamaica & the Commonwealth Caribbean".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in New Zealand".
- "New Zealand Vice-Chancellors' Committee page on Rhodes Scholarships".
- "New Zealand Rhodes Scholars, listed for 1903 to 1964".
- "The Rhodes Scholarships in South Africa".
- "The Mandela Rhodes Foundation in South Africa".
- "The Rhodes Trust, USA".
- "Association of American Rhodes Scholars".
- "United States Naval Academy Rhodes Scholars".
- "Rhodes Scholarship FAQ".
- "Information about the Scholarships".
- "Country Websites and Information".
- "Rhodes Scholarship constituencies".
- "Countries from which Rhodes Scholars are selected".
- Finnegan, Leah (18 July 2011). "11 Famous Rhodes Scholars". Huffington Post. Retrieved 27 September 2013.
- "McCall MacBain donation".
- Godfrey Elton Elton, The First Fifty Years of The Rhodes Trust and Scholarships, 1903-1953. London: Blackwell, 1955.
- R.I. Rotberg, The Founder: Cecil Rhodes and the Pursuit of Power. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
- Philip Ziegler, Cecil Rhodes, the Rhodes Trust and Rhodes Scholarships. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2008.
Books by former Wardens of Rhodes House, Oxford:
- Anthony Kenny, The History of the Rhodes Trust. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press, 2001.
- Donald Markwell, "Instincts to Lead": On Leadership, Peace, and Education, 2013.