Rhodesian general election, 1974

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Rhodesian general election, 1974
Rhodesia
1970 ←
30 July 1974
→ 1977

All 66 seats to the House of Assembly of Rhodesia
34 seats were needed for a majority
  First party Second party Third party
  Ian Smith 1950s.jpg No image.svg No image.svg
Leader Ian Smith
Party RF Independent African National Council Independents
Last election 50
Seats won 50 9 6
Seat change Increase9 Increase6
Popular vote 55,597 2,938 1,590
Percentage 77.0%
(European Seats)
2.9%
(European Seats), 28.6%
(African Seats)
53.36%
(African Seats)
Swing Increase0.2% Increase53.36%

Prime Minister before election

Ian Smith
RF

Elected Prime Minister

Ian Smith
RF

The Rhodesia general election of 30 July 1974 saw the Rhodesian Front of Ian Smith re-elected, once more winning every one of the 50 seats elected by white voters.

Background[edit]

Since the previous election in 1970, the main African nationalist groups had changed their strategy and gone into exile in Zambia (and to a lesser extent Mozambique and Botswana), launching a war to overthrow white minority rule by force. The main African groups, the Zimbabwe African National Union (ZANU), Zimbabwe African People's Union (ZAPU) and the Front for the Liberation of Zimbabwe (FROLIZI), formed the African National Council under Bishop Abel Muzorewa to act as a collective political leadership and undertake any negotiations with the Rhodesian government.

In June 1974, the African National Council rejected settlement proposals which had come out of discussions between itself and the Rhodesian government. As the Rhodesian Parliament was into its fifth year, a general election became a real prospect. Timothy Gibbs of the Rhodesia Party announced on 9 June 1974 that he expected a September election, and on 19 June, Prime Minister Ian Smith announced that there would be an election imminently (he did not name the date). He also announced round table talks with Africans, including the Council of Chiefs. These talks were rejected by the African National Council as a waste of time.

Campaign[edit]

The Rhodesia Party, a white opposition party, had been formed by ex-Rhodesian Front MP Allan Savory in 1972. They were a moderate group which advocated more moves towards including the African population in internal politics. Early in June 1974, Savory made a speech at Hartley in which he was reported as saying that if he had been a black Rhodesian, he would be a terrorist. The uproar was such that Savory was forced from the leadership (replaced by Gibbs) and resigned from the party on 16 June. Despite the turmoil, the Rhodesia Party managed to nominate candidates in 40 out of the 50 seats.

There were also several Independent candidates including six right-wingers sponsored by the Rhodesian Group. The multi-racial Centre Party, which had provided the main opposition at the previous election, nominated a single candidate (who was from an Indian background). When nominations closed on 7 July, two seats (including that of Ian Smith) were elected unopposed. A victory by the Rhodesian Front was almost inevitable, although six seats were regarded as marginal.

The most marginal seat was clearly Salisbury City, where a right-wing Rhodesian Front candidate Ted Sutton-Pryce faced Dr Ahrn Palley, an Independent ex-member of the House of Assembly who had been a lone white opponent of UDI. In the 1970 election, the Rhodesian Front had defeated a mixed-race Independent candidate by only 40 votes, with a Centre Party candidate taking 157. Allan Savory, despite his departure from the Rhodesia Party, fought in Highlands North in the Salisbury suburbs as an Independent.

The Rhodesian Front responded to the challenge from the Rhodesia Party by attacking it for holding secret negotiations with the African National Council behind the backs of the Rhodesia government with the intent of undermining them. Ian Smith identified the Rhodesia Party with the 'liberal establishment' of Rhodesia, which had been responsible for the 1962 constitution and the inadequate arrangements of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1953.

Electoral system[edit]

Rural constituencies used at this election.
Constituencies in Salisbury.
Constituencies in Bulawayo.

The electorate of Rhodesia returned 66 members of the House of Assembly, in three different classes of seat:

  • European roll seats: 50 members were returned from single-member constituencies by voters who were either of European, Asian or mixed (Coloured) descent.
  • African roll seats: 8 members were returned from single-member constituencies by voters of African descent.
  • Tribal seats: 8 seats were returned by Tribal electoral colleges made up of the Chiefs of the Tribes.

Both European and African rolls had a range of property qualifications. No change to boundaries or the qualification of voters was made compared to the 1970 election.

Results[edit]

Together with the other seats, the state of the parties in the House of Assembly was:

State of the parties[edit]

Party Seats
Rhodesian Front 50
Independents 9
African National Council Independents 6
Centre Party 1
Total 66

Results summary[edit]

European seats[edit]

Electorate: 83,665 (80,437 in contested seats) Turnout: 89.8%

Party Seats in 1970 Candidates Elected Unopposed Popular vote
 % change
Rhodesian Front 50 50 50 2 55,597 77.0
Rhodesia Party - 40 - - 13,776 19.1
Independents - 11 - - 2,085 2.9
Rhodesian Group Independents - 6 - - 736 1.0
Centre Party - 1 - - 25 0.0
Totals 50 108 50 2 72,219 100%


African seats[edit]

Electorate: 7,043 Turnout: 42.31%

Party Seats in 1970 Candidates Elected Unopposed Popular vote
 % change
African National Council Independents - 6 6 1 1,590 53.36
Independents - 13 1 - 853 28.6
Centre Party - 4 1 - 477 16.0
APP - - - - 44 1.5
NSF - - - - 6 0.2
Totals 6 28 6 1 2,980 100%

Results by constituency[edit]

European roll seats[edit]

Constituency
Electorate and turnout
Candidate Party Votes %
ARUNDEL
2,393 (93.1%)
Archibald Oliver Garfield Wilson RF 1,505 67.5
Nicholas John McNally RP 723 32.5
AVONDALE
1,983 (90.9%)
Dr Colin Eric Barlow RF 1,397 77.5
Mrs. Myfanwy Eleanor Bridget Nolan van Huffen RP 405 22.5
BELLEVUE
2,272 (92.7%)
Wallace Evelyn Stuttaford RF 1,735 82.3
Robert Duncan Bothwell Fleming RP 372 17.7
BELVEDERE
1,862 (91.6%)
Dennis Divaris RF 1,155 67.7
Ralph Albert Newmarch RP 456 26.7
John Fraser Caladine Whiting Ind RG 69 4.0
Ratilal Damodar Devchand CP 25 1.5
BORROWDALE
2,672 (91.2%)
Dr Douglas Archibald Hamilton Ritchie RF 1,596 65.5
Peter Anthony Bridger RP 835 34.3
Mrs. Wendy Ann Truen Ind 6 0.2
BRAESIDE
1,570 (89.0%)
Richard Cartwright RF 1,269 90.8
David Murray Ind RG 128 9.2
BULAWAYO CENTRAL
1,252 (90.7%)
Edward Stanley White RF 722 63.6
Timothy Durant Gibbs RP 414 36.4
BULAWAYO DISTRICT
1,613 (88.9%)
Alexander Moseley RF 1,112 77.5
Michael Theodore Hayes Auret RP 322 22.5
BULAWAYO EAST
2,080 (91.4%)
Elias Broomberg RF 1,274 67.0
Jurick Goldwasser RP 628 33.0
BULAWAYO NORTH
1,725 (83.1%)
Wilfrid Denis Walker RF 1,339 93.4
Austen Sales Perkins Ind 94 6.6
BULAWAYO SOUTH
1,071 (87.1%)
Ian Peter Rees-Davies RF 697 74.7
Ronald Edward Clark RP 236 25.3
CHARTER
1,417 (87.6%)
Rowan Cronjé RF 1,147 92.4
Neil Diarmid Campbell Housman Herbert Wilson Ind RG 94 7.6
EASTERN
1,312 (91.7%)
John Hamilton Wright RF 952 79.1
Obe Veldman RP 251 20.9
GATOOMA
1,410 (92.3%)
Albert Gannaway Mells RF 1,098 84.3
Dr Raymond Thomas Mossop RP 203 15.7
GREENDALE
2,050 (92.6%)
Mark Henry Heathcote Partridge RF 1,332 70.2
Norman James Hendry RP 373 19.7
Ernest Roy Wright Ind RG 193 10.2
GWEBI
1,328 (89.7%)
Thomas Ian Fraser Sandeman RF 939 78.8
James Strathearn Brown RP 252 21.2
GWELO
1,257 (91.6%)
Roger Tancred Robert Hawkins RF 971 84.4
Gordon Hamilton Peters RP 180 15.6
HARTLEY
2,135 (91.9%)
Pieter Kenyon Fleming Voltelyn van der Byl RF 1,668 85.0
James McClure Sinclair RP 295 15.0
HATFIELD
1,768 (90.8%)
Frederick Roy Simmonds RF 1,231 76.7
William John Harper RP 288 17.9
Jack Peche Ind 80 5.0
Christoph William Utley Ind 6 0.4
HIGHLANDS NORTH
1,779 (92.4%)
Fergus Craig Blackie RF 931 56.7
Clifford Allan Redin Savory Ind 394 24.0
Philip Robert James Grinham RP 230 14.0
Mrs. Diana Mary Mitchell Ind 88 5.3
HIGHLANDS SOUTH
1,886 (91.4%)
Richard Brathwaite Hope Hall RF 1,299 75.3
Marcus Patrick Doyle RP 425 24.7
HILLCREST
1,727 (93.1%)
John Arthur Newington RF 1,390 86.4
Peter Henry Corbishley RP 218 13.6
HILLSIDE
1,834 (93.3%)
Dennis Fawcett Phillips RF 1,143 66.8
Ewen Cardno Greenfield RP 569 33.2
JAMESON
1,700 (85.2%)
John Peter Broberg Nilson RF 1,264 87.2
Raymond Stallwood Ind 185 12.8
KAROI
1,241 (85.0%)
Jan Jacobus Buitendag RF 842 79.8
Peter William Richards RP 213 20.2
MABELREIGN
1,823 (89.6%)
John Cornelius Gleig RF 1,171 71.7
Dr Ian George Anderson RP 462 28.3
MARANDELLAS
1,446 (91.4%)
David Colville Smith RF 1,046 79.1
Alfred John Harrison RP 276 20.9
MARLBOROUGH
2,608 (72.3%)
William Michie Irvine RF 1,479 78.5
Nigel Graham-Smith RP 406 21.5
MATOBO
1,673 (88.0%)
Robert Henry Warren McGee RF 1,218 82.7
Marshall Philip Baron Ind 255 17.3
MAZOE
1,589 (92.5%)
George Rollo Hayman RF 1,241 84.4
Henry John Wells RP 229 15.6
MIDLANDS
1,258 (92.4%)
Henry Swan Elsworth RF 1,009 86.8
William Septimus Beckett RP 154 13.2
MILTON PARK
1,664 (91.2%)
John Alfred Landau RF 1,135 74.8
Niels Erik Oldenburg RP 382 25.2
MOUNT PLEASANT
1,882 (90.5%)
Jonas Christian Andersen RF 1,045 61.3
Mrs. Muriel Ena Rosin RP 658 38.7
MTOKO
1,718 (91.7%)
Rodney Guy Swayne Simmonds RF 1,070 67.9
Guy Kerry Webb RP 506 32.1
QUEENS PARK
1,530
Arthur Denis Crook RF unopposed
QUE QUE
1,632 (91.9%)
Jacobus Johannes Burger RF 1,201 80.1
Louis Henry Bennett RP 299 19.9
RAYLTON
1,844 (90.3%)
Patrick Francis Shields RF 1,223 73.5
James Kinley RP 442 26.5
RUSAPE
1,295 (95.2%)
Johannes Jacobus Lodewickus de Kock RF 1,040 84.3
Raymond Boxwell Holcroft RP 193 15.7
SALISBURY CENTRAL
1,250 (88.2%)
Hilary Gwyn Squires RF 855 77.5
Lance Halford Reynolds RP 216 19.6
Patrick Gerard Keane Ind 32 2.9
SALISBURY CITY
1,309 (89.3%)
Edward Aylett Sutton-Pryce RF 586 50.1
Dr Ahrn Palley Ind 583 49.9
SALISBURY NORTH
1,588 (91.1%)
Andre Sothern Holland RF 1,103 76.2
John Philip Gold Duncan RP 344 23.8
SELUKWE
1,682 (90.7%)
John Morris Lowenthal RF 1,249 81.9
Trevor Foster Booth RP 187 12.3
Dr James William Redmond Ind RG 89 5.8
SHABANI
1,266 (83.8%)
Ian Birt Harper Dillon RF 944 89.0
Geoffrey Jackson RP 117 11.0
SINOIA/UMWUKWES
1,531 (88.1%)
Esmond Meryl Micklem RF 1,057 78.4
Robert Arnold Anderson RP 292 21.6
UMTALI EAST
1,571 (91.2%)
Bernard Horace Mussett RF 1,203 83.9
John Grant RP 230 16.1
UMTALI WEST
1,437 (90.1%)
John Christie RF 933 72.0
Dr Johannes Martheus Wessels RP 362 28.0
UMZINGWANE
1,698
Ian Douglas Smith RF unopposed
VICTORIA
2,071 (89.5%)
Gordon Richard Olds RF 1,530 82.6
Peter Southerton Hingeston RP 323 17.4
WANKIE
1,432 (86.6%)
Reginald Edward Dennis Cowper RF 1,068 86.1
Michael Raymond Huckle RP 172 13.9
WATERFALLS
1,531 (87.9%)
Arthur Philip Smith RF 1,183 87.9
Norman Henry Ind RG 163 12.1

African seats[edit]

African roll constituencies.
Constituency
Electorate and turnout
Candidate Party Votes %
HARARE
1,118 (63.7%)
Godfrey Guwa Chidyausiku Ind ANC 424 59.6
Isaac Hanzi Samuriwo Ind 145 20.4
Edward Gabriel Watungwa CP 71 10.0
Lovemore Christopher Mbanga Ind 32 4.5
Ian George Garikayi Charambarara Ind 24 3.4
Hativakwane Lewis Mundawarara Ind 10 1.4
Mark Taurai Muchabaiwa NSF 6 0.8
INSUKAMINI
481 (64.7%)
John Zachary Maposa Ind ANC 188 60.5
Phillip Elijah Chigogo Ind 71 22.8
Judah John Ntini Ind 30 9.6
Lewis Alban Ndhlovu CP 15 4.8
Joseph Bunu Ngulube APP 7 2.3
KUNYASI
1,543
Thomas Tavagwisa Zawairi Ind ANC unopposed
MABVAZUKA
946 (57.8%)
Elijah Smile Gende Magavan Nyandoro Ind ANC 253 46.3
Davidson Murambiwa Jahwi Ind 123 22.5
Moses Mvenge Ind 63 11.5
Lazarus Masenda CP 52 9.5
Ambrose Charles Majongwe APP 31 5.7
Solomon Gomba Zisengwe Ind 25 4.6
MATOJENI
905 (51.2%)
Lot Enock Dewa Ind ANC 452 97.6
Samson Chibi APP 11 2.4
MPOPOMA
394 (52.5%)
Lwazi Joel Mahlangu Ind 149 72.0
Theophilus Mali Zondo Ind 58 28.0
NEMAKONDE
867 (37.9%)
Ronald T.D. Sadomba Ind ANC 273 83.0
Stephen Amos Dzuka Chirenda Ind 51 15.5
Mulena Mwana Sherena Mundawarara APP 5 1.5
NTSHONALANGA
789 (52.1%)
Micah Mahamba Bhebe CP 339 82.5
Ephraim Jiho Mhlanga Ind 72 17.5

Tribal seats[edit]

  • HIGHVELD: Bartholomew Augustine Mabika
  • KARIBA: Peter Mhletshwa Nkomo
  • LOWVELD: Alford Dzingirai Chademana
  • MANICA: Naboth Absolom Gandazara
  • PAGATI: Fani Mlingo
  • PIONEER: Josia Bvajurayi Hove
  • TULU: Zephaniah Bafana Dube
  • ZAMBEZI: Takawira Aaron Mungate

Changes during the Assembly[edit]

Pioneer[edit]

Josia Hove died on 14 June 1976. At the byelection on 5 August 1976, Adam Hove was elected to replace him; Benjamin Panga Mbuisa and Twyman Mafohla Sibanda were unsuccessful candidates.

Party changes[edit]

The Land Tenure Amendment Bill of 1977 was highly controversial among Rhodesian Front MPs who objected to the opening of some areas previously designated for Europeans to African ownership. In a vote on 4 March 1977, twelve Rhodesian Front MPs voted against the Bill on a three line whip. They were Reginald Cowper, Dennis Fawcett Phillips, Richard Hope Hall, Robert McGee, John Newington, Peter Nilson, Gordon Olds, Ian Sandeman, Rodney Simmonds and Ted Sutton-Pryce. The Rhodesian press quickly nicknamed them The Dirty Dozen. In July 1977 these MPs formed the right-wing Rhodesian Action Party; this action precipitated the 1977 election as it deprived the government of the needed two-thirds majority to amend the constitution.