Rhodiola

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Rhodiola
Rhodiola heterodonta.jpg
Rhodiola heterodonta
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Core eudicots
Order: Saxifragales
Family: Crassulaceae
Genus: Rhodiola
L.
Species

Dozens. Included under Sedum at Wikispecies.

This article is about a plant genus. For the species in this genus that is widely used in herbal medicine, see Rhodiola rosea.

Rhodiola is a genus of perennial plants in the family Crassulaceae[1] that resemble Sedum and other members of the family. Like sedums, Rhodiola species are often called stonecrops. Some authors merge Rhodiola into Sedum.[2][3]

Rhodiola species grow in high-altitude and other cold regions of the Northern Hemisphere.[4] Den virtuella floran gives the number of species as 36,[5] the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group gives it as 60,[1] and the Flora of China gives it as about 90, with 55 in China and 16 endemic there.[4] The USDA Plants database lists only 3 species in the United States and Canada.[6]

Among the distinguishing characters of the genus are two series of stamens totaling twice the number of petals; free or nearly free petals (not joined in a tube); a stout rhizome from whose axils the flowering stems rise; and a basal rosette of leaves. This genus contains the only species of Crassulaceae that have unisexual flowers.[4][7]

The Holarctic species Rhodiola rosea is used in herbal medicine. A number of species are grown as ornamentals, but growing them is difficult outside their native subarctic and alpine climates.[8]

The name combines the Greek rhodon, meaning rose and referring to the rose-like smell of the roots, with the Latin diminutive suffix -iola.[9]

Chemical composition[edit]

Rhodionin is a herbacetin rhamnoside found in Rhodiola species.[10]

Species list[edit]

Species include:

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Stevens, P. F. (Version 9, June 2008 [and more or less continuously updated since].), Angiosperm Phylogeny Website., retrieved 2009-07-26  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  2. ^ Ivey, Robert DeWitt (2003), Flowering Plants of New Mexico (Fourth ed.), RD & V Ivey, p. 246, ISBN 0-9612170-3-0 
  3. ^ "Sedum integrifolium ssp. leedyi", National Collection of Imperiled Plants, Center for Plant Conservation, 2008-01-29, retrieved 2009-07-26 
  4. ^ a b c Fu, Kunjun; Ohba, Hideaki; Gilbert, Michael G., "Rhodiola", Flora of China 8, p. 251, retrieved 2009-07-26 
  5. ^ "Rhodiola L.: Rosenrötter", Den virtuella floran (in Swedish), Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, 2000-04-18 [1997], retrieved 2009-07-26 
  6. ^ USDA, NRCS (2009), "Rhodiola", The PLANTS Database, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA: National Plant Data Center, retrieved 2009-07-26 
  7. ^ Flora of China, 8, Crassulaceae, p. 202
  8. ^ Stephenson, Ray (1994), Sedum: Cultivated Stonecrops, Timber Press, pp. 289–290, ISBN 0-88192-238-2, retrieved 2009-07-26 
  9. ^ Eggli, Url; Newton, Leonard E. (2004), Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names, Springer-Verlag, p. 203, ISBN 3-540-00489-0, retrieved 2009-07-26 
  10. ^ Li, Tao; Zhang, Hao (2008), Identification and Comparative Determination of Rhodionin in Traditional Tibetan Medicinal Plants of Fourteen Rhodiola Species by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detection and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry, Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 56 (6): 807–14, doi:10.1248/cpb.56.807, PMID 18520085