Rhythm Nation

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Also see Rhythm Nation (music video) and Rhythm Nation (influence).

"Rhythm Nation"
Single by Janet Jackson
from the album Rhythm Nation 1814
B-side "Rhythm Nation" (Instrumental)
Released October 23, 1989
Format
Genre
Length 5:30
Label A&M
Writer(s)
Producer(s)
Certification Gold (RIAA)
Janet Jackson singles chronology
"Miss You Much"
(1989)
"Rhythm Nation"
(1989)
"Escapade"
(1990)

"Rhythm Nation" is a song by American recording artist Janet Jackson, released as the second single from her fourth studio album, Rhythm Nation 1814. It was written and produced by Jackson with Jimmy Jam & Terry Lewis. Its production incorporates dance-pop and industrial music, also using elements of hip-hop and funk rock. Jackson developed the song's concept in response to various tragedies in the media, deciding to pursue a socially conscious theme by using a political standpoint within upbeat dance music. The song received positive reception from critics, who commended its "military-style beats" within "a grand pop statement." It peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and one on Hot Dance Club Play. It also reached number two in Canada, Japan, and South Africa, nine in the Netherlands and France, top fifteen of Italy and Belgium, and top twenty of New Zealand, Sweden, and Ireland, among other countries.

The music video for "Rhythm Nation" was directed by Dominic Sena, serving as the final inclusion in Jackson's long-form Rhythm Nation 1814 film. It portrays rapid choreography within a "post-apocalyptic" warehouse setting, with Jackson and her dancers adorned in unisex military attire. It was filmed in black-and-white to portray the song's theme of racial harmony. Jackson's record label attempted to persuade her against filming the video, but upon her insistence it became "the most far-reaching single project the company has ever attempted."

"Rhythm Nation" received numerous accolades, including BMI Pop Awards for "Most Played Song" and "Songwriter of the Year," in addition to a Billboard Award for "Top Dance/Club Play Single" and Grammy Award nomination for Jackson as "Producer of the Year." Its music video is regarded among the most infamous in popular culture, declared "legendary" in addition to "timeless and instantly recognizable." It has also been called "the gold standard for dystopian dance pop music videos," considered to "set the template for hundreds of videos to come in the Nineties and aughts." The video received two MTV Video Music Awards for "Best Choreography" and "Best Dance Video." Jackson also won a Billboard Award for "Best Female Video Artist" in addition to the "Director's Award" and "Music Video Award for Artistic Achievement." The Rhythm Nation 1814 film won a Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video. The video's outfit was inducted into the National Museum of Women in the Arts and Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, where its hand-written lyrics are also used in the museum's class on female songwriters.

Artists such as Sleigh Bells, Jamie Lidell, and Kylie Minogue have cited the song as an influence, while artists including Lady Gaga, Peter Andre, OK Go, Usher, and Britney Spears have referenced its music video. Beyoncé, Cheryl Cole, and Rihanna have also paid homage to its outfit and choreography within live performances. It has inspired the careers of choreographers such as Wade Robson and Travis Payne. Actors including Kate Hudson, Michael K. Williams, and Elizabeth Mathis have studied its music video, with its choreography also used in the film Tron: Legacy. It has been covered by Pink, Crystal Kay, and Girls' Generation and has also been performed on Glee, The X-Factor, and Britain's Got Talent.

Background[edit]

Upon recording her fourth studio album, Jackson was inspired to cover socially conscious issues as a response to various tragedies in the media.[1] Producer Jimmy Jam stated, "Janet came up with the 'Rhythm Nation' concept. A lot of it had to do with watching TV. We're avid TV watchers, and we would watch MTV, then switch over to CNN, and there'd always be something messed-up happening. It was never good news, always bad news."[1] She was particularly saddened by the Stockton playground murders, leading her to record "Livin' in a World (They Didn't Make)." She decided to pursue additional songs with a similar concept, focusing on a political standpoint within energetic dance music.[1] The song's lyrics were written as a montage of racial unity with Jackson's passion for dance, envisioning a colorblind world sharing the same beliefs.[2] Jam explained:

"We have so little time to solve these problems. I want people to realize the urgency. I want to grab their attention. Music is my way of doing that. It's okay to have fun — I want to be certain that point is clear. I have fun. Dancing is fun. Dancing is healthy. It pleases me when the kids say my stuff is kickin', but it pleases me even more when they listen to the lyrics. The lyrics mean so much to me."

— Jackson on the concept of "Rhythm Nation."[4]

Jackson jokingly considered it a "national anthem for the Nineties," leading her to develop Rhythm Nation 1814, titled after the year "The Star-Spangled Banner" was written.[5] She derived its lyrical theme from the diversity amongst society, which she observed to be united by music. Jackson said, "I realized that among my friends, we actually had a distinct 'nation' of our own. We weren't interested in drugs or drinking but social change. We also loved music and loved to dance... that's how Rhythm Nation 1814 was born."[6] She also likened its concept to the various groups formed among youth, asserting a common identity and bond, saying, "I thought it would be great if we could create our own nation. One that would have a positive message and that everyone would be free to join."[7] Jackson also commented, "I found it so intriguing that everyone united through whatever the link was. And I felt that with most of my friends. Most people think that my closest friends are in the [entertainment] business, and they're not. They're roller-skating rink guards, waitresses, one works for a messenger service. They have minimum-wage paying jobs. And the one thing that we all have in common is music. I know that within our little group, there is a rhythm
nation that exists."[5]

Jackson desired the song's theme to capture the attention of her teenage audience, who were potentially unaware of socially conscious themes. She commented, "I wanted to take our message directly to the kids, and the way to do that is by making music you can really dance to. That was our whole goal: How can I get through to the kids with this?"[7] She became encouraged by artists such as Marvin Gaye, Bob Dylan, and Joni Mitchell, feeling as if their demographics were already familiar with social themes.[6] Jackson said, "These were people who woke me up to the responsibility of music. They were beautiful singers and writers who felt for others. They understood suffering."[6] Upon questioning, Jackson said, "I know I can't change the world single-handedly, but for those who are on the fence, maybe I can lead them in a positive direction... If I just touched one person, just to make that difference, make them change for the better, that's an accomplishment."[5] Jackson also responded to potential ridicule, stating, "a lot of people have said, "She's not being realistic with this Rhythm Nation. It's like 'Oh, she thinks the world is going to come together through her dance music,' and that's not the case at all. I know a song or an album can't change the world. But there's nothing wrong with doing what we're doing to help spread the message."[8] Jackson added, "If personal freedom has political implications and if pleasure must be part of any meaningful solution — and it really must — there's nothing wrong with it at all."[8]

Composition[edit]

Jackson speaks of racial harmony and gender equality over industrial-based production.

Problems playing this file? See media help.

"Rhythm Nation" is an industrial dance-pop song incorporating elements of funk. It incorporates a single measure of "Thank You (Falettinme Be Mice Elf Agin)" by Sly and the Family Stone.[9] Its socially conscious lyrics preach racial harmony and leadership through dance, protesting bigotry, fascism, and geographic boundaries with "compassionate, dedicated people power."[10] [11] It uses a moderate funk tempo composed in the key of F major. Jackson's vocals range from Bb3 to G5, climaxing during the song's middle eight.[12] It opens with prelude "Pledge," in which Jackson describes "a world rid of color-lines" over apocalyptic bells and ambient noise.[11] The song's militant production is derived from funk guitars, synthesizers, and heavy bass, as Jackson delivers an unbridled vocal performance, signifying a "utopian dance-floor exhortation."[13] Its chorus is supported by male voices, with Jackson addressing her audience in a similar vein to a politician, "abandoning the narrow I for the universal we and inviting us to do the same."[11] Its final chorus closes with multiple ad-libs as Jackson encourages listeners to sing with her, spreading the song's message of multicultural solidarity in a "grand pop statement."[11][14]

Critical reception[edit]

"Rhythm Nation" received positive reviews from critics, garnering praise for its lyrical theme and industrial-style production. Rolling Stone praised its "military-style beats," adding, "she fashions a grand pop statement."[14] The publication also declared it the album's "essential moment," describing the song as "a headbanging good time."[15] Stephen Holden of The New York Times called it a "militantly utopian dance-floor exhortation."[13] Michael Saunders of The Sun Sentinel declared it "upbeat funk-pop" which showcased Jackson's "light, breathy voice."[16] Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine commended its
"industrial-style social consciousness."[10]

Sputnik Music applauded its "extraordinary" production and chorus, thought to result in "a catchy, smart single which would appease the Jackson haters and delight the fans."[17] People specified its "burnin' hunk o' funk guitar riff," praising its message which "urged us to expand our minds while wiggling our hips."[18][19] Entertainment Weekly declared it a "paean to the human spirit," likened to "a chorus line of storm troopers."[20] Vince Aletti of Rolling Stone described the song as a "densely textured, agitated track" propelled by "syncopated yelps" of unity.[11] VH1 called it "paramilitary funk," while Daniel Durchholz of Amazon noted its "high-minded references to societal ills," considered to be "seldom the favored province of dance music, but a daring attempt nonetheless."[21][22]

Theme reception[edit]

Vince Aletti considered its message "dedicated" and "compassionate," praising it concept of a "multiracial, multinational network." He added, "Jackson addresses her constituency the way a politician might, abandoning the narrow I for the universal we and inviting us to do the same."[11] Sal Cinquemani of Slant Magazine described it as a "socially charged calls to arms," promoting a "Zen-like transcendence of self." Its lyrics were regarded to call for "social justice" rather than personal freedom, focusing on "strength in numbers" and "unity through mandatory multiculturalism."[23] Richard Croft called it "a protest song with a twist," commending its description of how change can be made rather than questioning why it hasn't occurred.[24] Women, Politics, and Popular Culture author Lilly Goren considered it to reflect "politically driven feminist messages."[25] Chris Willman of Los Angeles Times proposed its theme "big on community, stressing social consciousness for a young target audience and proposing a prejudice-free" nation.[26] An additional review stated, "[Janet] wanted social justice and voiced it in one of the most fabulous, bad ass ways possible."[27]

Jon Pareles of The New York Times praised its "earnest concern," also noting its "call for unity and good intentions." Its preach of racial unity was applauded, thought to unite "Ms. Jackson's opposition to racism with an image of a mass audience."[28][29] The publication also observed Jackson to eagerly "rail against societal ills like racism and domestic abuse."[30] Additionally, it was used as an example of a socially conscious song having influence over the public, thought to effectively call for "racial harmony and cooperative struggle to create a better, stronger world."[13] Pareles added Jackson "kept the propulsive funk and added worthy, generalized social messages", while Kelefa Sanneh believed its subject matter to be "flirting with protest politics."[31][32] An anecdote likened its theme of peace to the teachings of social activist Mahatma Gandhi, saying, "“Rhythm Nation” sheds light on the problem of apathy, which is common among young people today." Jackson's conscious lyrics and desire to "not only entertain, but to educate" was praised, concluding, "["Rhythm Nation"] speaks particularly to young people and encourages them to be the leaders of tomorrow.”[33]

Chart performance[edit]

"Rhythm Nation" debuted at number forty-nine on the Billboard Hot 100. It was the week's highest new entry, breaking Madonna's consecutive streak of Hot Shot Debuts on the chart.[34] It peaked at number two on the Billboard Hot 100 and Mainstream Top 40, second only to Phil Collins' "Another Day in Paradise."[34] It reached number one on the ATV Top 40 in addition to Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Songs and Hot Dance Club Play, topping the latter chart for three weeks.[34] It reached number two in Canada, where it was the tenth most successful single of the year.[35] Internationally, it reached number two on Japan's airplay chart and South Africa, number nine in the Netherlands and France's airplay chart, fourteen in Italy, fifteen on Belgium's VRT Top 30, seventeen in New Zealand, eighteen in Sweden, and nineteen in Ireland.[36][37] It also peaked within the top twenty-five of Poland, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, and within the top thirty-five of Australia. It was certified Gold by the Recording Industry of America (RIAA).[38]

Music video[edit]

Jackson performing in the music video for "Rhythm Nation," surrounded by male and female dancers in militant unisex attire.

The music video for "Rhythm Nation" was directed by Dominic Sena. It was the final inclusion in Jackson's long-form Rhythm Nation 1814 film, following "Miss You Much" and "The Knowledge". Its premise focuses on rapid choreography within a "post-apocalyptic" warehouse setting, with Jackson and her dancers adorned in black militant attire. It was filmed in black-and-white to portray the song's theme of racial harmony. Jackson stated, "There were so many races in that video, from Black to White and all the shades of gray in between. Black-and-white photography shows all those shades, and that's why we used it."[2] Its wardrobe also reflects the song's theme of gender equality, using matching unisex outfits.[2] Jackson commented, "The foggy, smoky street and the dark, black-and-white tone, that was all intentional. When you've done a lot of videos, it can be difficult to keep it fresh and new. You have to try something you've never done, in fear of looking like something you've already created."[39]

While developing its concept, Jackson's record label attempted to persuade her against filming the video, feeling as if it didn't have mainstream appeal. Upon her insistence, it became "the most far-reaching single project the company has ever attempted".[2] The video received multiple accolades, including MTV Video Music Awards for "Best Choreography" and "Best Dance Video." Jackson was also the recipient of the "Director's Award," "Best Female Video Artist," and the "Music Video Award for Artistic Achievement" at the Billboard Awards.[40][41] The video's long-form version won a Grammy Award for Best Long Form Music Video.[42] It was later listed among the "Greatest Music Videos of All Time" by Slant Magazine.[14] Entertainment Weekly considered it "legendary" while Rolling Stone declared it "the gold standard for dystopian dance pop music videos," thought to include "the most memorable choreography in pop video history."[43][44] MTV News commended it as "the clip that sent Jackson into the stratosphere as an envelope-pushing pop star."[45] The video's outfit is included in the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame's "Women Who Rock: Vision, Passion, Power" exhibit and the National Museum of Women in the Arts, and was previously displayed on a statue at Walt Disney World theme park.[46][47][48]

Live performances[edit]

Jackson performing "Rhythm Nation" on Number Ones, Up Close and Personal.

During its initial promotion, "Rhythm Nation" was performed on Top of the Pops and TV Plus, in addition to Germany's Countdown and Peter's Pop Show.[49][50] It was also performed for Queen Elizabeth II and the Royal Family at the Royal Variety Performance, in celebration of Elizabeth the Queen Mother's ninetieth birthday.[51] Jackson's pants split during the performance due to its intense choreography.[52] It was performed on The Ellen DeGeneres Show and America United: In Support of Our Troops concert during promotion for her tenth album, Discipline.[53][54] The song was notoriously performed with "All for You" and an excerpt of "The Knowledge" at the Super Bowl XXXVIII halftime show, in which Jackson's breast was accidentally exposed by Justin Timberlake.[55] The performance led to the inspiration for YouTube and launch of Facebook, also becoming the most watched, recorded, and replayed event in television history.[56][57] It also set a record for Jackson as the most searched term and image in internet history.[57]

"Rhythm Nation" has been performed on all of her following tours. On the Rhythm Nation Tour, Jackson's performance was described as "a wedge of hard-driving bodies moves like a robot battalion in precision drill."[58] Jackson's outfit had been "mimicked by many of her fans" throughout the tour.[59] Observing its routine, The New York Times stated, "Legs chop wide open, then close again. They shoot out abruptly to the sides, then kick into jazz spins and bouncing splits to the floor. There are sedate pelvic jerks and a swiveling turn on a toe, trotting runs and purposeful syncopated walks. But essentially these are bodies rooted into the floor, taut yet alive in the way of a boxer edgily biding his time in the ring."[60] A live rendition from the janet. World Tour was aired on MTV.

The Velvet Rope Tour was reported to feature "the characteristic, Russian-style military suit she wore in the video, corresponding with the song's rigid, robotic dance movements." Los Angeles Times regarded her "a human musical medley," while The Daily Telegraph considered it "show-stopping" for its display of "hyperbolic tension."[61] [62] Jackson's rendition on the All for You Tour was described as a "neon-lit number straight out of Blade Runner." Rolling Stone declared it "stunning," adding, "even near the end of the two-hour show, her voice was unwaveringly powerful, carrying the "Sing it people/Sing it children" lines like a flag on the Fourth of July."[63][64] Jackson's dancers emulated "animated toys and storybook figures" in catsuits, performing robotic moves against "structured, sassy beats."[65][66] On Number Ones, Up Close and Personal, Jackson's rendition was also praised, as she "sliced her way through tight, sharp choreography.”[67] Alexis Petridis of The Guardian called it "ferocious," adding, "if she wanted to remind people how commanding a presence she can be, she's done her job."[68]

Influence[edit]

"Rhythm Nation" has influenced performances by artists such as Cheryl Cole and Beyoncé.

"Rhythm Nation" has been cited to influence various artists within its production, lyrical theme and vocal arrangement. Its music video has also been considered among the most influential in popular culture. Rolling Stone observed it to "set the template for hundreds of videos to come in the Nineties and aughts," with Entertainment Weekly also declaring it "groundbreaking," in addition to "striking, timeless and instantly recognizable."[69][70] Mike Weaver stated Jackson's "one-of-a-kind, funk-and-groove choreography was unlike anything seen in the history of pop music. [...] every show choir and every hiphop dancer wanted to cut and paste parts and pieces of the Rhythm Nation production into their set."[71] Regarding its influence, Sherri Winston of The Sun Sentinel stated, "No one can witness the militaristic precision of Rhythm Nation, which gives the impression that a really angry pep squad has taken over the dance floor, and not see how Janet's style has been sampled, borrowed and stolen over and over ... and over."[72]

The song has inspired artists such as Sleigh Bells,[73] Jamie Lidell,[74] Kylie Minogue,[75] and record producer Yoo Young-jin.[76] Various aspects of its music video have been referenced by numerous artists, including Britney Spears,[77][78] Lady Gaga,[79] Peter Andre,[80] OK Go,[81] Nicki Minaj,[82] Usher,[83] and Jessie Ware.[84] Its outfit and choreography has been paid homage to in performances by Spears,[85] Beyoncé,[86] Cheryl Cole,[87] and Rihanna.[88] In film, actors such as Kate Hudson,[89] Michael K. Williams,[90] and Elizabeth Mathis have studied its music video, with Mathis notably using its choreography during a scene in Tron: Legacy.[91] Choreographers such as Travis Payne[92] and Wade Robson[93][94] have called it a primary influence to their careers. Aylin Zatar of Buzzfeed remarked, "She also basically pioneered the dancing in a warehouse, post-apocalyptic, industrial setting video. So, Britney (“Till The World Ends”), Rihanna (“Hard”), Lady Gaga (“Alejandro”), and even the Spice Girls (“Spice Up Your Life”) – you all have Ms. Jackson to thank."[77]

Covers[edit]

Jacob Artist, Melissa Benoist and Erinn Westbrook covered "Rhythm Nation" in a mashup with "Nasty" during the fifth season of Glee, in the episode "Puppet Master."[43][95] Pink covered "Rhythm Nation" in a medley with Queen and David Bowie's "Under Pressure" for the film Happy Feet Two. Japanese singer Crystal Kay performed a Japanese rendition of the song for the Japanese version of the film.[96] Girls' Generation performed the song on KBS Gayo Daechukje and their debut concert tour, Girls' Generation Asia Tour Into the New World.[97] Korean pop group After School covered the song on music show Kim Jung-eun's Chocolate.[98]

The Stereo Hogzz performed a live rendition and replicated its choreography during the first season of the The X Factor.[99] English dance troupe Diversity incoporated its choreography during a performance on the third season finale of Britain's Got Talent.[100] It was also performed on America's Best Dance Crew and Britain's Stars in Their Eyes.[101][102] Pink, Usher, and Mýa performed a dance tribute to "Rhythm Nation" on Jackson's MTV Icon special. Filipino singer Jaya included a live cover on the album Jaya Live at the Araneta.[103] The song's countdown is used in various releases of the video game NBA Live.

Awards and accolades[edit]

"Rhythm Nation" won a Billboard Award for "Top Dance/Club Play Single of the Year," with Jackson also winning "Best Female Artist, Dance," "Best Female Video Artist," "Director's Award," and the "Music Video Award for Artistic Achievement." The song also won a BMI Pop Award for "Most Played Song," in addition to awarding her "Songwriter of the Year." Jackson received a Grammy Award nomination for "Producer of the Year, Non-Classical," with its full-length music video winning "Best Long Form Music Video." Slant Magazine included it among the "Greatest Dance Songs of All Time" and "Greatest music Videos of All Time." VH1 ranked its music video among their "Greatest Videos." The video also won two MTV Video Music Awards for "Best Choreography" and "Best Dance Video," with Jackson awarded the Video Vanguard Award for her contributions to popular culture. The song is performed at Las Vegas' Legends in Concert series. The hand-written lyrics to "Rhythm Nation" and the music video's outfit are included in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame's "Women Who Rock: Vision, Passion, Power" exhibit, with its lyrics also used in the museum's course on feminist songwriters.

Legacy[edit]

"The song exhorts social change in the face of injustice, using music – and by extension, rhythm – as a unifying tool. It’s the perfect platform to talk about song structure (verse, chorus, bridge, etc.) More important, “Rhythm Nation” provides a unique point of view from which to draw conclusions about its author and her era."

— Kathryn Metz on the song's inclusion in the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.[105]

"Rhythm Nation" is among Jackson's signature songs, commended for its lyrical theme and innovative production. Jackson commented, "When I first proposed a socially conscious concept, there were voices of doubt. But the more I thought about it, the more committed I became, I no longer had a choice. The creativity took over, "Rhythm Nation" came alive. I saw that a higher power was at work."[4] Jon Pareles declared it "one of the more innovative Top 10 hits of the 1980's," while Yahoo! Music called it "revolutionary" and "militaristic."[107][108] Michael Saunders considered it among Jackson's repertoire of "skillfully packaged pop songs that have made her one of the biggest-selling performers in popdom."[109] Jimmy Jam stated, "Janet has said a million times, "You're not going to change anybody. But if you've got somebody on the fence, and they're at that point when they're either going to go one way or another, then a little nudge in that direction ain't gonna hurt." So that's all you're trying to do. And it's cool to do that. It's cool to do that and have a hit."[3]

Slant Magazine ranked it among the best singles of the eighties, saying, "the music is militant and regimented, with beats that fire like artillery juxtaposed with the typically thin-voiced Janet's unbridled vocal performance."[23] The publication added, "Rhythm Nation" makes its statement without relying on schmaltz; it's no wonder why big brother Mike was envious of it."[23] The song was later ranked number twenty-one on their list of "100 Greatest Dance Songs," praising Jackson's "guarded political optimism into a direct attack on the 1980s' culture of indifference."[106] Richard Croft praised its "powerful" production, declaring, "the beats on this song are probably the most powerful ever to be heard in the history of mankind."[24] Another critique declared it "the best song Janet has ever done", praising its "mission statement" in addition to its "frantic beats, the message, the determined vocal performance, the lyrics and the explosive chorus," adding "There are few moments in pop music as thrilling as the transition of the dance breakdown into to the final choruses, complete with Janet going nuts over the ad-libs, as if she was in a trance brought on but just how beyond amazing this song is. And that’s not even mentioning the incredible video."[110]

Philanthropy[edit]

"Through words and deeds, Janet has set an example of generosity, of empowerment, of tolerance, while leading an array of efforts addressing some of society’s greatest challenges."

Kam Williams on Jackson's philanthrophy.[111]

Jackson founded the "Rhythm Nation Scholarship," assisting students in meeting their academic goals. The monetary award is given to students who have demonstrated high academic achievement or have been actively involved within their school or community. [112] She received the Chairman's Award at the NAACP Awards for her work regarding illiteracy, drug abuse, violence, and high school dropout prevention. In response to a critic who said her socially conscious lyrics could accomplish "nothing," Jackson invited two high school graduates to the stage, who both had previously credited the song and its music video as the motivation for staying in school.[113] Various portions of the "Rhythm Nation" outfit were donated to charity, including the Music Against AIDS auction.[114] A tribute band known as "Rhythm Nation" performs at various fundraisers, including benefits for children with cancer at the Ronald McDonald House in New York City.[115][116][117]

Official versions and remixes[edit]

Track listings[edit]

Charts[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bronson, Fred (2003). Rhythm Nation. Billboard Book of Number One Hits. p. 744. 
  2. ^ a b c d Janet Jackson. Ebony (Johnson, Robert E.). February 1990. 
  3. ^ a b Jam & Lewis: Hot House & Serious Soul With The Magicians Of Minneapolis. Keyboard (Widders-Ellis, Andy). May 1990. p. 27. 
  4. ^ a b Janet's Nation. Essence (Ritz, David). March 1990.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help);
  5. ^ a b c Jackson's Heights. Pond, Steve (Us Magazine). March 5, 1990. 
  6. ^ a b c Ain't I A Woman?. Bowie, Regina Q. (Upscale). December/January 1996. p. 24.  Check date values in: |date= (help);
  7. ^ a b "Janet Jackson Finally Learns to Say 'I'". Los Angeles Times. Hilburn, Robert. 15-04-90. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  8. ^ a b Janet Jackson. Rolling Stone (Curtis, Anthony E.). February 22, 1990.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help);
  9. ^ Ripani, Richard J. (2006), The New Blue Music: Changes in Rhythm & Blues, 1950–1999, Univ. Press of Mississippi, pp. 131–132, 152–153, ISBN 1-57806-862-2 
  10. ^ a b "Janet Jackson: Damita Jo - Music Review - Slant Magazine". Slant Magazine. Cinquemani, Sal. 23-03-04. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  11. ^ a b c d e f "Rhythm Nation 1814 - Album Reviews - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Aletti, Vince. 19-10-89. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  12. ^ "Janet Jackson "Rhythm Nation" Sheet Music - Download & Print". MusicNotes.com. Retrieved July 1, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b c "POP VIEW; Do Songs About The World's Ills Do Any Good?". New York Times. Holde, Stephen. 07-01-90. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  14. ^ a b c d "500 Greatest Albums of All Time: Janet Jackson, 'Rhythm Nation 1814' - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. 31-05-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  15. ^ "Women Who Rock: The 50 Greatest Albums of All Time: Janet Jackson, 'Rhythm Nation' - Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. 22-06-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  16. ^ "Janet's Reckoning". The Sun Sentinel. Saunders, Michael. 07-10-97. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  17. ^ "Janet Jackson - Rhythm Nation 1814 (album review)". Sputnik Music. Powell, Zachary. 16-02-08. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  18. ^ "Picks and Pans Review: Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814". People Magazine. 20-11-89. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  19. ^ "Picks and Pans Review: Infinity Within". People Magazine. 12-07-92. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  20. ^ "Movie Reviews and News - EW.com". Entertainment Weekly. 19-01-96. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  21. ^ "VH1 Divas Live: VH1.com". 2001. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  22. ^ "Amazon.com: Rhythm Nation 1814: Music". Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  23. ^ a b c "The 100 Best Singles of the 1980s - Feature - Slant Magazine". Slant Magazine. 20-08-12. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  24. ^ a b "20. Janet Jackson – ‘Rhythm Nation’ (1989)". Wordpress. Croft, Richard. 01-06-10. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  25. ^ You've Come A Long Way, Baby: Women, Politics, and Popular Culture. Goren, Lilly. 22-05-09. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  26. ^ "POP MUSIC REVIEW : Janet Jackson's Dance of Community". LA Times. Willman, Chris. 23-04-90. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
  27. ^ "Are You A Part of the Rhythm Nation". Afro-punk.com. 07-03-13. Retrieved 04-01-14.  Check date values in: |date=, |accessdate= (help)
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External links[edit]