Ricardo Carvalho

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For the Spanish philologist, academic and writer, see Ricardo Carvalho Calero.
Ricardo Carvalho
Carvalho in 2010-11 Real Madrid.jpg
Carvalho playing for Real Madrid in 2010
Personal information
Full name Ricardo Alberto Silveira de Carvalho
Date of birth (1978-05-18) 18 May 1978 (age 36)
Place of birth Amarante, Portugal
Height 1.83 m (6 ft 0 in)
Playing position Centre back
Club information
Current team
Monaco
Number 6
Youth career
Amarante
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
1997–2004 Porto 73 (3)
1998–1999 Leça (loan) 22 (1)
1999–2000 Vitória de Setúbal (loan) 25 (2)
2000–2001 Alverca (loan) 29 (1)
2004–2010 Chelsea 135 (7)
2010–2013 Real Madrid 50 (3)
2013– Monaco 38 (0)
National team
1994–1995 Portugal U17 1 (0)
1995 Portugal U19 3 (0)
1996–1997 Portugal U20 9 (0)
1998–1999 Portugal U21 14 (1)
2003–2011 Portugal 75 (4)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only and correct as of 10 August 2014.
† Appearances (Goals).
This name uses Portuguese naming customs. The first or maternal family name is Silveira and the second or paternal family name is Carvalho.

Ricardo Alberto Silveira de Carvalho OIH (Portuguese pronunciation: [ʁiˈkaɾdu kɐɾˈvaʎu]; born 18 May 1978) is a Portuguese footballer who plays as a centre back for AS Monaco FC.

Carvalho was born in Amarante where he played for the local team, Amarante Futebol Clube. By his great performance as a youngster, he was spotted by the Portuguese powerhouse, Porto, and in 1996 he was brought to FC Porto Junior team. Between 1997 and 2001 he had loan spells at Leça, where he made his professional debut, Vitória de Setúbal and Alverca, but it was in José Mourinho’s reign that he really started to make big strides forward. It was in the 2002–03 season that Carvalho made his name known all around Europe, winning his first domestic league title under Mourinho’s commands, the Portuguese Cup, and the UEFA Cup. His good form led to an international call-up in 2003. In the next season, Carvalho won his second league title in a row, and his first UEFA Champions League title, in which tournament he was named best defender of the tournament.[1] In July 2004, Carvalho transferred to Chelsea for a fee of just under 30 million. With the Blues, he won two Premier League titles in a row and one League Cup in his first two seasons. In 2008, he helped the club reach the UEFA Champions League final for the first time in their history, a game that they lost 6–5 on penalties against Manchester United. In the same year, he was voted by his fellow Chelsea colleagues as Chelsea's 2008 Players' Player of the Year. Two years later, in the 2009–10 season, Carvalho helped the Blues win their first Championship since 2006 and the FA Cup, by winning this last trophy Chelsea have secured the first ever Double in the club's history. In August 2010, after six years with Chelsea, he transferred to Real Madrid for a fee of £6.7 million.

In international football, Carvalho's national team career began in 11 October 2003 in a friendly match against Albania. He represented Portugal in the UEFA Euro 2004, 2006 FIFA World Cup, UEFA Euro 2008, and 2010 FIFA World Cup. He was a regular in Portugal's lineup during the UEFA Euro 2004, when his country advanced all the way to the final before losing to Greece. Later, at the 2006 FIFA World Cup, Carvalho was a mainstay in defense for the national team. He played in six matches for Portugal, which made the semifinals before being eliminated by France. In Euro 2008, he played in three of Portugal's four matches, being eliminated in the quarter-finals by Germany. Two years later, in the 2010 World Cup, he was a regular in Portugal's lineup again when Portugal reached the round of 16, conceding only one goal in all four matches.

Club career[edit]

Porto (1997–2004)[edit]

Ricardo Carvalho was brought to FC Porto Junior team in the 1996–97 season. In the on coming season, Carvalho made his professional debut when he signed on loan for Leça. Between 1999 and 2001, he had loan spells at Vitória de Setubal and FC Alverca.[2][3] He returned to Porto in the 2001–02 season, being third choice behind Jorge Costa and Jorge Andrade, but he quickly won a place in the starting XI, forming a terrific partnership with Jorge Andrade in the centre of defence, which brought disappointment to captain Jorge Costa who,[4] on April 2002, joined Charlton Athletic on a five-month loan spell.[5] Carvalho made 25 appearances in the Portuguese league that season.[6] In the following season, Jorge Costa returned to Porto and Jorge Andrade moved to Deportivo de La Coruña in Spain.[7] With José Mourinho in charge, Carvalho started the campaign as the third option behind Jorge Costa and Pedro Emanuel,[8] but later, his excellent form led him to a place in the first team,[9] appearing in the most important games of the season, including the UEFA cup semi-finals matches against Lazio and the UEFA Cup final where Porto beat Celtic 3–2 in extra time. It was Carvalho's first international trophy. By his great season, he was named Portuguese League Footballer of the Year and Porto Footballer of the Year.[10]

It was in the 2003–04 season that Carvalho made his name as a world-class footballer. His solid performances helped the club win the Portuguese league title for the second year in a row, and the most prestigious club trophy in European football, the UEFA Champions League. In this tournament, Carvalho played in all of Porto's matches, including the 3–0 win against AS Monaco in the final. Subsequently, his great performances merited the UEFA Club Best Defender of the Year award, voted into the UEFA Team of the Year, and was named one of the 50 players shortlisted for the European Footballer of the Year (Ballon d'Or), finishing ninth in the voting, being the only defender in top ten.[11] He was selected for the Portuguese UEFA Euro 2004 squad, in which tournament he was also nominated for the UEFA Euro Team of the Tournament. At the end of the season, Carvalho has been tracked by a host of top European clubs, including Internazionale, FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, and Manchester United.[12] Real Madrid offered 8.2 (£7) million for Carvalho, but Porto warned the Spaniards they would not accept anything less than €23.5 (£20) million for the defender after the Spanish team made a much lower offer.[13] Days later, English club Chelsea offered €30 (£25.5) million for the centre back, and the Portuguese team accepted the offer.[14][15]

Chelsea (2004–2010)[edit]

At Stamford Bridge, Carvalho, who was considered one of the best centre-backs at Euro 2004, joined his former manager José Mourinho and former teammate Paulo Ferreira[16] on a three-year contract.[17] He signed for a fee of €30 million (£20 million at the time)[15] and performed extremely well in his first season with Chelsea, helping them win the Premier League title, their first top-flight domestic title in 50 years, and the League Cup. He scored his first goal for Chelsea in a 3–1 victory over Norwich City.[18] His partnership with captain John Terry in central defence was hailed as a major factor behind Chelsea's two Premier League titles in a row.[19]

Ricardo Carvalho on tour with Chelsea in 2007.

The start of 2005–06 season was not as smooth for him, as he was publicly lambasted by Mourinho after making comments about his selection policy. Carvalho said the Chelsea manager's decision to drop him for the first game of the season was "incomprehensible," but Mourinho responded, "Carvalho seems to have problems understanding things, maybe he should have an IQ test," and then left him out for next game, against Arsenal, and fined him a reported £85,000.[20][21] He later returned to favour, though, and was a near-regular in the side from September. On 19 October 2005, he scored his first goal of the season in a 4–0 home win against Real Betis in the UEFA Champions League group stage.[22] Carvalho continued his scoring run in Europe by netting his second goal of the season in a Chelsea's 2–0 away victory over Anderlecht on 23 November.[23] In January, in a 1–1 Premier League draw against Charlton Athletic, Carvalho received the first red card of his Chelsea career, after he received his second yellow for what the referee judged to be a tackle from behind on Charlton's striker Darren Bent.[24] Later, on 29 April 2006, he scored again a goal, his third of the season, in a 3–0 Premier League victory over Manchester United, finishing off a move he had started on the edge of his own penalty area by smashing the ball into the net, to help Chelsea clinch the title for the second consecutive year.[25]

In the 2006–07 season, Carvalho scored again against Manchester United an important goal in a 1–1 draw – a header from a Frank Lampard corner that also bounced off Louis Saha's head.[26] On 7 April, he scored another goal against Tottenham Hotspur, this time he fired a low 30-yard drive past the reach of Spurs goalkeeper Paul Robinson, as a result Chelsea closed the gap on Premiership leaders Manchester United to three points.[27][28] Just 21 days later, on 28 April, Carvalho injured the medial ligaments of his right leg in a Premier League match against Bolton Wanderers.[29] The injury meant Carvalho missed the second leg of the Champions League semi-final against Liverpool.[30] He also missed the FA Cup Final against Manchester United, which Chelsea won after a goal from Didier Drogba during extra time.[31] On 18 May 2007, the day of his 29th birthday, Carvalho signed a five-year contract extension with Chelsea, keeping him at the club through the 2011–12 season.[32] For his great performances during the 2006–07 season, Carvalho has been recognized by a number of organisations. Sky Sports listed him as one of seven candidates for the Premiership's "Defender of the Year".[33] He was also one of three Chelsea players nominated for the club's "Player of the Year" honour, which was won by Michael Essien.[34]

Ricardo Carvalho in a Premier League game against Fulham on 28 December 2009.

Carvalho continued his excellent form into the 2007–08 season. Following the departure of manager José Mourinho,[35] the Spanish champions, Real Madrid, have once again expressed their interest in Carvalho. A Madrid source said, "We have never been able to get Carvalho because of his connection with Mourinho. Now he has left Chelsea, we feel there's a real chance."[36] But the Portuguese did not leave the English club. On 26 December 2007, in a 4–4 home draw against Aston Villa, on 79 minutes, the home side allowed the ourselves to become outmanoeuvred on halfway leaving just the goalkeeper Petr Čech and Carvalho between Villa's striker, Gabriel Agbonlahor, and the goal, Carvalho attempted the block, went in two-footed and was red carded for the foul,[37] in the same night, he issued a public apology for his horror tackle on the forward.[38] In that season, Carvalho was one of the most consistent performers at the club and his efforts were rewarded when he scored his first goal of the season in his 150th appearance for the club, a 1–0 Premier League victory over Middlesbrough.[39][40] Later, on 26 April, Carvalho made his 100th appearance in the Premier League against Manchester United, despite Chelsea's 2–1 win, he marred his centenary mark with an error that allowed Wayne Rooney to equalise.[41] His solid performances in the UEFA Champions League helped the club reach the final, Chelsea's first Champions League final appearance in all time and Carvalho's second. The Blues lost 6–5 on penalties against Manchester United, after a 1–1 draw following extra time. Carvalho played in all 120 minutes and he was booked one time for a high challenge on Cristiano Ronaldo right before the end of first half.[42] On 8 May 2008, Carvalho was voted by his fellow Chelsea colleagues as Chelsea's "Players Player of the Year", whilst finishing in the top three for Chelsea's "Player of the Year" award voted by Chelsea fans, along with Michael Ballack and Joe Cole.[43]

Carvalho opened his account for the 2008–09 season against Manchester City in a 1–3 away victory, on 13 September 2008.[44] He was a somewhat peripheral figure for the rest of the season, as injury, the sacking of Luiz Felipe Scolari, and subsequent appointment of Guus Hiddink meant that he lost his place in the team to Brazilian teammate Alex.[45] He clocked up only 18 appearances in all competitions, two as substitute, scoring one goal.[46]

In July 2009, Carvalho told Chelsea he wanted to quit the club to join Internazionale, as he was desperate to link up with old manager José Mourinho at the San Siro. Carvalho said that his first four seasons at Stamford Bridge were wonderful, but the last one was difficult.[47] He played only 18 times last season due to a persistent knee injury.[48] Some days later, the defender appeared to be on his way out of Stamford Bridge after accusing the Blues of not supporting him during his injury problems last term. But a move to Inter to link up with Mourinho collapsed when the Italian giants failed to follow up their initial interest, and Carvalho, who returned to action during the club's pre-season tour of the United States, was keen to put his troubles behind him. Carvalho said, "It was a frustrating year for me but now I look forward because I am fit and I am ready."[49] The appointment of Carlo Ancelotti, coupled with recovery from injury, saw Carvalho regain his place in the Chelsea team.

He made a fine start to the 2009–10 season, scoring a diving header in the 2009 FA Community Shield match against Manchester United, a game in which he also received the Man of the Match award. Chelsea got off to a terrible start conceding inside 10 minutes, but second-half goals from Carvalho and Frank Lampard looked enough to pull the team back from behind to take some more Wembley silverware, only for Wayne Rooney to clip home an equaliser in stoppage time, forcing penalties. Chelsea went on to win the match 4–1 on penalties, following a 2–2 draw at the end of normal time.[50] On 20 December 2009, Carvalho made his 200th appearance[51] in a 1–1 draw against West Ham United in the Premier League, where the defender was booked just before the half-hour mark for a challenge on Guillermo Franco, before West Ham had their best chance of the opening stages.[52] On 24 March, in a 5–0 win over Portsmouth,[53] Carvalho suffered ankle ligament damage; it seemed serious but it was not necessary a corrective surgery on this injury, leaving the team with just two first-choice central defenders in Alex and captain John Terry,[54] and scaring the Portuguese national team head coach, Carlos Queiroz, with the risk of not being able to go to 2010 FIFA World Cup.[55] Due to the injury, Carvalho missed all the following league matches, including the title match victory against Wigan Athletic.[56] It was Carvalho's third Premier League title with the Blues. Six days later, on 15 May, he miss another important match, the 2010 FA Cup Final, which they won after a single goal from Didier Drogba. By winning the title, Chelsea have secured the first ever Double in the club's history.[57] At the end of the season, on 24 July, The Sun newspaper carried reports that Carvalho had expressed his desire to leave Chelsea and link up with former manager José Mourinho, who was now in charge at Real Madrid in Spain. According this newspaper, Carvalho said: "If there was a possibility to sign with Real Madrid, I would go there right now swimming or running."[58]

Real Madrid (2010–2013)[edit]

On 10 August 2010, Real Madrid signed Carvalho for a reported fee of €7.9 (£6.7) million on a two-year contract.[59] He made his debut on 13 August 2010 in a friendly match against Bayern Munich, which Real Madrid won 4–2 on penalties after a 0–0 draw.[60] His league debut came on 29 August, in a 0–0 draw against RCD Mallorca,[61] and, in the following match, against CA Osasuna, he scored his first Liga goal; Mesut Özil raced to the penalty area and managed to thread a low cross for Cristiano Ronaldo, whose first time shot was blocked by the Osasuna's goalkeeper Ricardo, but the Portuguese managed to tip-toe the rebound for Carvalho to score the go-ahead goal, giving his team a 1–0 home victory.[62] On 19 October 2010, in a UEFA Champions League victory against Milan, Carvalho was named the Man of the match by the Spanish newspaper Marca.[63] Some weeks later, on 7 November, Carvalho proved again to be in good shape in a 2–0 derby victory against Atlético Madrid, where he scored his second goal in La Liga, being named again the man of the match.[64] Next month on day 19, in a 1–0 home victory against Sevilla FC, Carvalho received his first red card for the club; having already been booked in the first half, he was shown a second yellow following an aerial challenge with Sevilla's Álvaro Negredo in the second half.[65] On 19 February 2011, he scored his third and last season goal against Levante UD in another 2–0 league victory.[66] Carvalho made 48 appearances in all competitions that season, bringing calmness and solidness to the defence, and was a heavy reason why Real Madrid had the best defense in Champions League, only letting five goals get past their goalkeeper.

Carvalho started the 2011–12 season well and remained as first-choice centre-back along with Pepe, until a lower back injury kept him sidelined. He returned to action on 18 January in Real Madrid's 2–1 home defeat to FC Barcelona, in the Copa del Rey quarter-finals first leg at the Santiago Bernabéu.

There was huge speculation about his future with Real Madrid in the 2012-2013 season, with José Mourinho publicly stating on August 29, 2012 that "his services were no longer needed" by the club. However, he opted to stay at the club until the end of his contract.[67][68]

AS Monaco (2013–)[edit]

On 28 May 2013, AS Monaco confirmed on their website that they had secured the services of the Portuguese defender from Real Madrid. He would move to the newly promoted Ligue 1 club on a free transfer once his Real Madrid contract expires on 1 July 2013. Carvalho signed a one-year contract with AS Monaco, with the option of a second year.[68]

International career[edit]

Senior team[edit]

Left to right: Paulo Ferreira, Pepe, Ricardo Carvalho and José Bosingwa, during a 2010 FIFA World Cup qualification match against Denmark, on 10 September 2008.

During the 2003–04 season, Carvalho earned his first cap for the Portuguese national team on 11 October 2003 in a 5–3 friendly match win over Albania.[69] He established himself as a key member of the national team starting XI during the UEFA Euro 2004 Championship after replacing captain Fernando Couto in the heart of Portugal's defence after the opening game defeat against Greece.[70] In the tournament, he was nominated for the UEFA Euro Team of the Tournament along with his compatriots Maniche, Luís Figo, and Cristiano Ronaldo.[71] Carvalho formed a strong partnership with Jorge Andrade in the Portuguese defence as his country reached the final, though they lost 1–0 to Greece in a stunning upset. Carvalho started in all of Portugal's six games in the tournament, including an epic game against England, where the defender was named Carlsberg Man of the Match,[72] and Portugal emerged victorious 6–5 on penalties. BBC Sport football expert Alan Hansen said that Carvalho was, along with Sol Campbell, the best defender at Euro 2004.[73]

Carvalho represented Portugal at the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany, finishing fourth overall. During the quarter-final game against England, referee Horacio Elizondo controversially adjudged Wayne Rooney to have trodden on Ricardo Carvalho's groin, right in front of him, and the English player was sent off for violent conduct.[74] The English media, however, speculated that teammate Cristiano Ronaldo had influenced Elizondo's decision by aggressively complaining, after which he was seen in replays winking at the Portuguese bench following Rooney's dismissal.[75] In the following semi-final game against France in Munich on 5 July 2006, Carvalho was whistled for a foul against France's Thierry Henry in the penalty area, resulting in a penalty kick. Zinedine Zidane converted the spot kick to give France a 1–0 win over Portugal.[76] Also in the same game, Carvalho was booked with his second yellow card of the knockout phase, and was forced to miss the third place game against Germany on 8 July in Stuttgart.[77] He played all other preceding matches in the cup on the starting lineup in the central defense alongside Fernando Meira, and as a result of his exhibitions, he was one of the 23 players nominated for the All Star Team of the tournament.

Carvalho was named in the Portuguese squad for the Euro 2008 Championship. He played in three of Portugal's four matches in the tournament, including the 2–0 win against Turkey and the 3–1 victory over Czech Republic in the group stage and the quarter-finals match where Portugal lost 3–2 to Germany. Two years later, Carvalho was named again in the Portuguese squad for the 2010 World Cup. He formed a partnership with Bruno Alves in the centre of defence, playing in all group stage matches without conceding a goal. This time, Portugal reached the round of 16, where they subsequently lost 1–0 against Spain via a David Villa goal.

On 31 August 2011, Carvalho retired from international football after leaving the concentration without talking to his coach and teammates before Portugal's match against Cyprus for a Euro 2012 qualifying match. Paulo Bento, the Portuguese manager, called his behaviour "a desertion."

International goals[edit]

Under–21[edit]

Senior team[edit]

Style of play[edit]

Carvalho (right) defending against Zlatan Ibrahimović (left).

Ricardo Carvalho has always been a centre-back. He is quick, good in the air, and with superb technique, comparisons have been made between him and the legendary Italian defender Franco Baresi.[78] His body is not as strong as a regular centre-back but he likes to play hard and tackle, in a UEFA Champions League's official magazine interview Carvalho said:

(...) Players who grow in England are different, they are tough, strong. My first year was difficult because I wanted the ball, wanted to play, and the pace here is unbelievable. The players are physically strong, and if they don't play well they kick. It wasn't my game. And every time I jumped with my arm my shoulder would pop out. With time it got weaker. In May 2005 I had an operation, I started to work a bit in the gym, which I'd never done before, and I improved a lot. (...) My body is not as strong as a normal centre-back in England, but I like to play hard and tackle. I love to make crazy tackles, I like to slide on the ground.[79]


Like he said, he is not as tall as most centre-backs but he won headers against them, he scored three goals against Manchester United with Rio Ferdinand (1.91 m) and Nemanja Vidić (1.89 m) in defence. In the same UEFA Champions League's official magazine interview, he said:

(...) At Porto there were taller centre-backs than me, but they were on the bench because I was quicker, I turned quicker. I said to the coach, 'I have to grow a bit.' But he said: 'No, you'll start to get slow to turn, slow to run. You're good, you are there now.' (...) A defender is one thing, football is about defending and playing. Normally, play comes from us defenders so we have to defend, not concede, close down space, be focused on the strikers and after all that try to get a move going. (...)[79]


His Real Madrid profile describes him as "known for his perfect positioning, his foresight and his ability to advance the ball out of the first third."[80]

Personal life[edit]

Ricardo Carvalho is married to a Portuguese woman named Carina, and they have a son, Rodrigo and a daughter, Raquel.

Career statistics[edit]

Club[edit]

Club League Season League Cup League Cup[A] Europe Other[B] Total
Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals Apps Goals
Leça (loan) Primeira Liga 1997–98 22 1 2 0 - - 24 1
Total 22 1 2 0 - - 24 1
Porto Primeira Liga 1998–99 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Total 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Vitória de Setúbal (loan) Primeira Liga 1999–2000 25 2 2 0 27 2
Total 25 2 2 0 27 2
Alverca (loan) Primeira Liga 2000–01 29 1 3 0 32 1
Total 29 1 3 0 32 1
Porto Primeira Liga 2001–02 25 0 2 0 10 0 37 0
2002–03 18 1 6 0 7 0 1 0 32 1
2003–04 29 2 3 0 13 1 1 0 46 3
Total 72 3 11 0 30 1 2 0 115 4
Chelsea Premier League 2004–05 25 1 1 0 3 0 10 0 39 1
2005–06 24 1 3 0 0 0 8 2 0 0 35 3
2006–07 31 3 5 1 4 0 10 0 1 0 51 4
2007–08 21 1 2 0 4 0 10 0 1 0 38 1
2008–09 12 1 2 0 0 0 4 0 18 1
2009–10 22 0 1 0 0 0 5 0 1 1 29 1
Total 135 7 14 1 11 0 47 2 3 1 210 11
Real Madrid La Liga 2010–11 33 3 6 0 9 0 48 3
2011–12 8 0 1 0 2 0 2 0 13 0
2012–13 9 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 16 0
Total 50 3 13 0 0 0 12 0 2 0 77 3
Monaco Ligue 1 2013–14 37 0 3 0 0 0 40 0
2014–15 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0
Total 38 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 41 0
Career total 358 17 45 1 11 0 89 3 7 1 510 22
Last Updated: 14 August 2014.[6][46][81]

International[edit]

National team Year Apps Goals
Portugal 2003 1 0
2004 14 0
2005 7 1
2006 13 2
2007 5 1
2008 9 0
2009 11 0
2010 12 0
2011 2 0
Total 74 4
Last Update: 30 March 2011[6][82]

Honours[edit]

Club[edit]

Porto
Chelsea
Real Madrid

Individual[edit]

Orders[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

A. ^ Includes the Football League Cup and the Portuguese League Cup. The Portuguese League Cup was founded only in 2007,[83] so Ricardo Carvalho never played in this tournament.
B. ^ Includes other competitive competitions, including the Portuguese Super Cup, FA Community Shield, Supercopa de España and the UEFA Super Cup.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ricardo Carvalho's Biography, www.geocities.com. Retrieved 7 October 2009.
  2. ^ "FC Porto cede Ricardo Carvalho ao V. Setúbal" [FC Porto provides Ricardo Carvalho to V. Setúbal] (in Portuguese). Record. 30 September 1999. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  3. ^ "Ricardo Carvalho segunda-feira em Alverca" [Ricardo Carvalho will be on Monday in Alverca] (in Portuguese). Record. 23 July 2000. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  4. ^ "Pinto da Costa: "Jorge Costa não é problema meu..."" [Pinto da Costa "Jorge Costa it's not my problem..."] (in Portuguese). Record. 26 October 2001. Retrieved 11 January 2011. 
  5. ^ "Charlton complete Costa move". BBC Sport. 18 April 2002. Retrieved 10 April 2010. 
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  35. ^ "Mourinho makes shock Chelsea exit". BBC Sport. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 19 October 2009. 
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External links[edit]