Rice bran oil
|Rice Bran Oil|
|• Oleic acid||38%|
|• Omega-3 fatty acids||α-Linolenic: 2.2%|
|• Omega-6 fatty acids||Linoleic: 34.4%|
|Food energy per 100 g||3,700 kJ (880 kcal)|
|Smoke point||232 °C (450 °F)|
Rice bran oil (also known as rice bran extract) is the oil extracted from the germ and inner husk of rice. It is notable for its high smoke point of 232 °C (450 °F) and its mild flavor, making it suitable for high-temperature cooking methods such as stir frying and deep frying. It is popular as a cooking oil in several Asian countries, including Japan and China.
Rice bran wax, obtained from rice bran oil, is used as a substitute for carnauba wax in cosmetics, confectionery, shoe creams and polishing compounds. It is an edible oil which is used in the preparation of vegetable ghee.
|C14:0 Myristic acid||0.6%|
|C16:0 Palmitic acid||21.5%|
|C18:0 Stearic acid||2.9%|
|C18:1 Oleic acid||38.4%|
|C18:2 Linoleic acid||34.4%|
|C18:3 α-Linolenic acid||2.2%|
|character||Crude Rice bran oil||Refined oil|
|Free fatty acids||5-15%||0.15-0.2%|
A component of rice bran oil is the antioxidant γ-oryzanol, at around 2% of crude oil content. Thought to be a single compound when initially isolated, it is now known to be a mixture of steryl and other triterpenyl esters of ferulic acids. Also significant is the relatively high fractions of tocopherols and tocotrienols, together as vitamin E. Rice bran oil is also rich in other phytosterols.
Literature review shows rice bran oil and its active constituents improve blood cholesterol by reducing total plasma cholesterol and triglycerides, and increasing the proportion of HDL cholesterol. Results of an animal study indicated a 42% decrease in total cholesterol with a 62% drop in LDL cholesterol, when researchers supplemented test subjects' diets with fractionated vitamin E obtained from rice bran oil.
One small-scale study of γ-oryzanol, a mixture of chemicals found in rice bran oil, found that 90% of the women had some form of relief from hot flashes after taking a supplement of the purified concentrate for four to six weeks.
Studies have shown the antioxidant stability in rice bran oil remains almost constant even when heated at frying temperatures. The study of thermal degradation and antioxidant stability in the oil is carried out by heating the oil to the frying temperature up to 250°C for 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2hrs. That the density of rice bran oil is found to be constant throughout the time of heating indicates no molecular changes occurred due to antioxidant activity in the oil. The oxidative stability of rice bran oil was equivalent to or better than soybean, corn, canola, cottonseed, and safflower oil in a model system that simulated deep frying conditions.)
- Orthoefer, F. T. (2005). "Chapter 10: Rice Bran Oil". In Shahidi, F. Bailey's Industrial Oil and Fat Products 2 (6 ed.). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-471-38552-3. Retrieved 2012-03-01.
- SEA HandBook-2009,By The Solvent Extractors'Association of India
- A.F. Cicero, A. Gaddi (2001). "Rice bran oil and gamma-oryzanol in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinaemias and other conditions". Phytother Res 15 (4): 277–286. doi:10.1002/ptr.907. PMID 11406848. Retrieved 2006-10-09.
- Minhajuddin M, Beg ZH, Iqbal J. "Hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of tocotrienol rich fraction isolated from rice bran oil in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats." Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2005; 43(5):747-53.
- Ishihara, M; Ito, Y; Nakakita, T; Maehama, T; Hieda, S; Yamamoto, K; Ueno, N (1982). "gamma-oryzanol on climacteric disturbance". Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai zasshi 34 (2): 243–51. PMID 7061906.
- Rubalya Valantina, S.; Arockia Sahayaraj, P. Angelin Prema, A. (2010). "Antioxidant stability in palm and rice bran oil using simple parameters". Rasāyan J. Chem. 3 (1): 44-50. Retrieved 2011-06-09.