Rich Internet application
Adobe Flash 
Apache Flex, formerly Adobe Flex, is a software development kit (SDK) for the development and deployment of cross-platform rich Internet applications based on the Adobe Flash platform. Initially developed by Macromedia and then acquired by Adobe Systems, Flex was donated by Adobe to the Apache Software Foundation in 2011.
Java applets are used to create interactive visualizations and to present video, three dimensional objects and other media. Java applets are more appropriate for complex visualizations that require significant programming effort in high level language or communications between applet and originating server.
JavaFX is a software platform for creating and delivering rich Internet applications (RIAs) that can run across a wide variety of connected devices. The current release (JavaFX 2.2, August 2012) enables building applications for desktop, browser and mobile phones. TV set-top boxes, gaming consoles, Blu-ray players and other platforms are planned. Java FX runs as plug-in Java Applet or via Webstart.
Microsoft Silverlight 
In recent years, Microsoft Silverlight has emerged as a potential competitor to Flash. While not yet as prevalent on websites as Flash, Silverlight has been used to provide video streaming for many high profile events, including the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing, the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver, and the 2008 conventions for both major political parties in the United States. Silverlight is also used by Netflix for its instant video streaming service.
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The term "rich Internet application" was introduced in a white paper of March 2002 by Macromedia (now merged into Adobe), though the concept had existed for a number of years earlier under names such as:
- Remote Scripting, by Microsoft, c. 1999
- X Internet, by Forrester Research in October 2000
- Rich (Web) clients
- Rich Web application
Design, distribution, cost 
Rich Internet applications use a Rich Client deployment model (deployment of a compiled client application through a browser) rather than a thin-client-server model (where the user's view is largely controlled from the server).
Flash, Silverlight and Java are application platforms accessed by the user's web browser as plug-ins. These application platforms limit the amount of data downloaded during initialization to only what is necessary to display the page. The browser plug-in is only downloaded once, and does not need to be re-downloaded every time the page is displayed; this reduces application load time, bandwidth requirements, and server load.
Proponents of RIAs assert that the cost of RIA development and O&M is typically lower than that of HTML-based alternatives due to increased developer productivity and standardized, backwards compatible nature of the application platform runtime environments. A 2010 study conducted by International Data Corporation demonstrated an average savings of approximately $450,000 per application in the case of Flash platform development (in conjunction with use of the open source Flex SDK), a 39% reduction in cost over a three-year period.
Security can improve over that of application software (for example through use of sandboxes and automatic updates), but the extensions themselves remain subject to vulnerabilities and access is often much greater than that of native Web applications. For security purposes, most RIAs run their client portions within a special isolated area of the client desktop called a sandbox. The sandbox limits visibility and access to the file-system and to the operating system on the client to the application server on the other side of the connection. This approach allows the client system to handle local activities, calculations, reformatting and so forth, thereby lowering the amount and frequency of client-server traffic, especially versus client-server implementations built around so-called thin clients.
New trends 
In November 2011, there were a number of announcements that demonstrated a decline in demand for rich internet application architectures based on plug-ins in order to favor HTML5 alternatives. Adobe announced that Flash would no longer be produced for mobile or TV (refocusing its efforts on Adobe AIR). Pundits questioned its continued relevance even on the desktop and described it as "the beginning of the end". RIM announced that it would continue to develop Flash for the PlayBook, a decision which has been described as "RIM's worst decision to date". Rumors state that Microsoft is to abandon Silverlight after version 5 is released. The combination of these announcements had some proclaiming it "the end of the line for browser plug-ins".
See also 
- RIA War Is Brewing
- "Rich Internet Application Market Share", Data from StatOwl. http://www.statowl.com/custom_ria_market_penetration.php -- StatOwl data is from ~28m unique visitors per month.; This data is consistent with that reported from RIAStats.com, which is based on ~4m daily visitors http://riastats.com/. These statistics clearly indicate consistent evidence that Flash, Silverlight, Java, and HTML5 are available to over 50% of web users as of summer 2011. See also "Rich Internet Applications: The Next Frontier of Corporate Development" by Larry Seltzer. 2010-08-25. eWeek. http://www.eweek.com/c/a/Security/Rich-Internet-Applications-The-Next-Frontier-of-Corporate-Development-732651/
- "RIA Trends (Google Trends: adobe flex,silverlight,javaapplet,HTML5 )". Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- "RIA Trends (Google Trends: Adobe flex, ExtJS, GWT, Vaadin )". Retrieved 19 September 2012.
- Laszlo: An Open Source Framework for Rich Internet Applications
- Gartner: MarketScope for Ajax Technologies and Rich Internet Application Platforms
- Gmail Voice and Video Chat
- HTML5 Isn't Ready For Primetime, YouTube Says. Flash offers video streaming capabilities that HTML5 just can't match yet., Information Weekly, Thomas Claburn, June 29, 2010
- "Microsoft Silverlight Gets a High Profile Win: 2008 Beijing Olympics". Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- "Microsoft Wins The 2010 Olympics For Silverlight". Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- "Microsoft Working to Make Political Conventions Unconventional". Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- "Netflix Begins Roll-Out of 2nd Generation Media Player for Instant Streaming on Windows PCs and Intel Macs". Retrieved 2010-02-23.
- (see also, Rich Internet application
- Macromedia Flash MX—A next-generation rich client
- Adobe Flash in the Enterprise: The Case for More Usable Software
- Once Nearly Invisible To Search Engines, Flash Files Can Now Be Found And Indexed
- Living in the RIA World: Blurring the Line Between Web and Desktop Security, 2008
- "Adobe Flash Player Turfed for Mobile Devices". Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Adobe Scrapping Flash for TV, Too". Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "PlayBook has a Flash-filled future; RIM's worst decision to date?".
- "The beginning of the end for Adobe's Flash". Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "PlayBook has a Flash-filled future; RIM's worst decision to date?". Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Silverlight 5 - the end of the line". Retrieved 11 November 2011.
- "Flash, Silverlight and the end of the line for browser plug-ins".
- Accessible rich Internet applications (WAI-ARIA) 1.0 - W3C Candidate Recommendation 18 January 2011
- Rich Web Client Activity Statement, W3C