January 30, 1935|
Tacoma, Washington, United States
|Died||ca. September 16, 1984
Bolinas, California, United States
|Occupation||Novelist, poet, short story writer|
|Notable work(s)||Trout Fishing in America (1967), In Watermelon Sugar (1968), Willard and His Bowling Trophies: A Perverse Mystery (1975)|
Richard Gary Brautigan (January 30, 1935 – ca. September 16, 1984) was an American novelist, poet, and short story writer. His work often employs black comedy, parody, and satire. He is best known for his 1967 novel Trout Fishing in America.
Brautigan was born in Tacoma, Washington, the only child to Bernard Frederick "Ben" Brautigan, Jr. (July 29, 1908 – May 27, 1994) a factory worker and laborer, and Lulu Mary "Mary Lou" Keho (April 7, 1911 – September 24, 2005), a waitress. In May 1934, eight months prior to his birth, Bernard and Mary Lou separated. Brautigan said that he met his biological father only twice, though after Brautigan's death, Bernard was said to be unaware that Richard was his child, saying "He's got the same last name, but why would they wait 45 to 50 years to tell me I've got a son?"
In 1938, Brautigan and his mother began living with a man named Arthur Martin Titland. The couple produced a daughter named Barbara Ann, born on May 1, 1939, in Tacoma. Brautigan claimed that he had a very traumatic experience when, at age 6, his mother left him and his two-year-old sister unattended in a motel room in Great Falls, Montana and did not return for two days.
On January 20, 1943, Mary Lou married a fry cook named Robert Geoffrey Porterfield. The couple produced a daughter named Sandra Jean, born April 1, 1945, in Tacoma. Mary Lou told Brautigan that Porterfield was his biological father, and Brautigan began using Richard Gary Porterfield as his name. Mary Lou separated from Porterfield in 1946, and married William David Folston, Sr., on June 12, 1950. The couple produced a son named William David, Jr., born on December 19, 1950, in Eugene. Folston was recalled as being a violent alcoholic, whom Richard had seen subjecting his mother to domestic abuse.
Brautigan was raised in poverty; he told his daughter stories of his mother sifting rat feces from their supply of flour to make flour-and-water pancakes. Because of Brautigan's impoverished childhood, he and his family found it difficult to obtain food, and on some occasions they did not eat for days. He lived with his family on welfare and moved about the Pacific Northwest for nine years before the family settled in Eugene, Oregon in August 1944. Many of Brautigan's childhood experiences were included in the poems and stories that he wrote from as early as the age of 12. His novel So the Wind Won't Blow It All Away is loosely based on childhood experiences including an incident where Brautigan accidentally shot the brother of a close friend in the ear, injuring him only slightly.
On September 12, 1950, Brautigan enrolled at Eugene High School, having graduated from Woodrow Wilson Junior High School. He was a writer for his high school newspaper Eugene High School News. He also played on his school's basketball team, standing 6 feet 4 inches tall (1.93 m) by the time of his graduation. On December 19, 1952, Brautigan's first published poem, The Light, appeared in the Eugene High School newspaper. Brautigan graduated with honors from Eugene High School on June 9, 1953. Following graduation, he moved in with his best friend Peter Webster, and Peter's mother Edna Webster became Brautigan's surrogate mother. According to several accounts Brautigan stayed with Webster for about a year before leaving for San Francisco for the first time in August 1954. He returned to Oregon several times, apparently for lack of money.
On December 14, 1955, Brautigan was arrested for throwing a rock through a police-station window, supposedly in order to be sent to prison and fed. He was arrested for disorderly conduct and fined $25. He was then committed to the Oregon State Hospital on December 24, 1955, after police noticed patterns of erratic behavior.
At the Oregon State Hospital Brautigan was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia and clinical depression, and was treated with electroconvulsive therapy twelve times. While institutionalized, he began writing The God of the Martians, a manuscript of 20 very short chapters totaling 600 words. The manuscript was sent to at least two editors but was rejected by both, and remains unpublished. (A copy of the manuscript was recently discovered with the papers of the last of these editors, Harry Hooton.) On February 19, 1956, Brautigan was released from the hospital and briefly lived with his mother, stepfather, and siblings in Eugene, Oregon. He then left for San Francisco, where he would spend most of the rest of his life except for periods in Tokyo and Montana.
In San Francisco, Brautigan sought to establish himself as a writer. He was known for handing out his poetry on the streets and performing at poetry clubs. In early 1956 Brautigan typed a three-page manuscript and sent it to The Macmillan Company for publication. The manuscript consisted of two pages of fourteen poems and a page with the dedication “for Linda”. Of the poems only “stars” and “hey” were titled. In a letter dated May 10, 1956, Macmillan rejected the manuscript stating “...there is no place where it will fit in”. In 2005, the X-Ray Book Company published the manuscript as a chapbook titled Desire in a Bowl of Potatoes.
Brautigan's first poetry book publication was The Return of the Rivers (1957), a single poem, followed by two collections of poetry: The Galilee Hitch-Hiker (1958) and Lay the Marble Tea (1959). During the 1960s Brautigan became involved in the burgeoning San Francisco counterculture scene, often appearing as a performance-poet at concerts and participating in the various activities of The Diggers. He contributed several short pieces to be used as broadsides by the Communication Company. Brautigan was also a writer for Change, an underground newspaper created by Ron Loewinsohn.
In the summer of 1961, while camping in southern Idaho with his wife and daughter, Brautigan completed the novels A Confederate General From Big Sur and Trout Fishing in America. A Confederate General from Big Sur was his first published novel and met with little critical or commercial success. But when Trout Fishing in America was published in 1967, Brautigan was catapulted to international fame. Literary critics labeled him the writer most representative of the emerging countercultural youth-movement of the late 1960s, even though he was said to be contemptuous of hippies. Trout Fishing in America has sold over 4 million copies worldwide.
During the 1960s Brautigan published four collections of poetry as well as another novel, In Watermelon Sugar (1968). In the spring of 1967 he was Poet-in-Residence at the California Institute of Technology. During this year, he published All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace, a chapbook published by The Communication Company. It was printed in an edition of 1,500 copies and distributed for free. From 1968 to 1970 Brautigan had 23 short pieces published in Rolling Stone magazine. From late 1968 to February 1969, Brautigan recorded a spoken-word album for The Beatles' short-lived record-label, Zapple. The label was shut down by Allen Klein before the recording could be released, but it was eventually released in 1970 on Harvest Records as Listening to Richard Brautigan.
In the 1970s Brautigan experimented with different literary genres. He published five novels (the first of which, The Abortion: An Historical Romance 1966, had been written in the mid-1960s) and a collection of short stories, Revenge of the Lawn (1971). In 1974 The Cowell Press collected seven of his broadside poems into the book Seven Watermelon Suns. The limited edition of ten copies included embossed color etchings by Ellen Meske. "When the 1960s ended, he was the baby thrown out with the bath water," said his friend and fellow writer, Thomas McGuane. "He was a gentle, troubled, deeply odd guy." Generally dismissed by literary critics and increasingly abandoned by his readers, Brautigan's popularity waned throughout the late 1970s and 1980s. His work remained popular in Europe, however, as well as in Japan, where Brautigan visited several times. To his critics, Brautigan was willfully naive. Lawrence Ferlinghetti said of him, "As an editor I was always waiting for Richard to grow up as a writer. It seems to me he was essentially a naïf, and I don't think he cultivated that childishness, I think it came naturally. It was like he was much more in tune with the trout in America than with people."
Brautigan's writings are characterized by a remarkable and humorous imagination. The permeation of inventive metaphors lent even his prose-works the feeling of poetry. Evident also are themes of Zen Buddhism like the duality of the past and the future and the impermanence of the present. Zen Buddhism and elements of the Japanese culture can be found in his novel Sombrero Fallout: A Japanese Novel. Brautigan's last published work before his death was his novel So the Wind Won't Blow It All Away which was published in 1982, two years before his death.
On June 8, 1957, Brautigan married Virginia Dionne Alder in Reno, Nevada. The couple had one daughter together, Ianthe Elizabeth Brautigan, born on March 25, 1960, in San Francisco. Brautigan's alcoholism and depression caused him to become increasingly abusive and Alder ended the relationship on December 24, 1962, though the divorce was not finalized until July 28, 1970. Brautigan continued to reside in San Francisco after the separation, while Alder settled in Manoa, Hawaii, and became a feminist and an anti-Vietnam War activist.
Brautigan remarried on December 1, 1977, to the Japanese-born Akiko Yoshimura whom he met in July 1976 while living in Tokyo, Japan. The couple settled in Pine Creek, Park County, Montana for two years; Brautigan and Yoshimura were divorced in 1980.
Brautigan had a relationship with a San Francisco woman named Marcia Clay from 1981 to 1982. He also pursued a brief relationship with Janice Meissner, a woman from the North Beach community of San Francisco. Other relationships were with Marcia Pacaud, who appears on the cover of The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster; Valerie Estes, who appears on the cover of Listening to Richard Brautigan; and Sherry Vetter, who appears on the cover of Revenge of the Lawn.
Brautigan was an alcoholic throughout his adult life and suffered years of despair; according to his daughter, he often mentioned suicide over a period of more than a decade before ending his life.
In 1984, at age 49, Richard Brautigan had moved to Bolinas, California, where he was living alone in a large, old house that he had bought with his earnings years earlier. He died of a self-inflicted .44 Magnum gunshot wound to the head. His decomposed body was found by Robert Yench, a friend and private investigator, on October 25, 1984. The body was found on the living room floor, in front of a large window that, though shrouded by trees, looked out over the Pacific Ocean. Due to the decomposition of the body it is speculated that Brautigan ended his life over a month earlier, on September 16, 1984, days after talking to friend Marcia Clay on the telephone (neighbors heard a loud noise that Sunday while watching an NFL game [William Hjortsberg, “Jubilee Hitchhiker”, 2012]). Brautigan was survived by his parents, both ex-wives, and his daughter Ianthe. He has one grandchild named Elizabeth, who was born about two years after his death.
According to Michael Caines, writing in the Times Literary Supplement, the story that Brautigan left a suicide note that simply read: "Messy, isn't it?" is apocryphal. Ianthe Brautigan has confirmed that her father did not leave such a message. Brautigan once wrote, "All of us have a place in history. Mine is clouds."
The Library for Unpublished Works envisioned by Brautigan in his novel The Abortion was housed at The Brautigan Library in Burlington, Vermont, until 1995 when it was moved to the nearby Fletcher Free Library where it remained until 2005. Although there were plans to move it to the Presidio branch of the San Francisco Public Library, these never materialized. However, an agreement was made between Brautigan's daughter Ianthe Brautigan and the Vancouver, Washington, Clark County Historical Museum to move The Brautigan Library to the museum in 2010.
Saltpeter, a London-based production company, launched an international creative society, the Brautigan Book Club (BBC), which uses Brautigan and his work as a creative jumping off point. Saltpeter is developing the world premiere of "the Brautigan opera" developed from Tonseisha – The Man Who Abandoned the World, a play by Los Angeles screenwriter Erik Patterson.
In music, the industrial rock band Machines of Loving Grace took its name from one of Brautigan's best-known poems. Neko Case based her song "Margaret vs. Pauline" on the female characters of In Watermelon Sugar. The band b-flower is named after Richard Brautigan, being a shortened version of "Brautigan Flower". They also reference his work in songs such as "The Eternal 59th Second" (titled after a line in "Trout Fishing in America"). The Lovely Eggs praise Brautigan in their song "Have You Ever Heard A Digital Accordion?"
In March 1994, a teenager named Peter Eastman, Jr. from Carpinteria, California legally changed his name to Trout Fishing in America, and now teaches English at Waseda University in Japan. At around the same time, National Public Radio reported on a young couple who had named their baby Trout Fishing in America.
Brautigan's daughter, Ianthe Elizabeth Brautigan, describes her memories of her father in her book You Can't Catch Death (2000).
Novels and novellas
- A Confederate General From Big Sur (1964, ISBN 0-224-61923-3)
- Trout Fishing in America (1967 ISBN 0-395-50076-1) Omnibus edition
- In Watermelon Sugar (1968 ISBN 0-440-34026-8)
- The Abortion: An Historical Romance 1966 (1971 ISBN 0-671-20872-1)
- The Hawkline Monster: A Gothic Western (1974 ISBN 0-671-21809-3)
- Willard and His Bowling Trophies: A Perverse Mystery (1975 ISBN 0-671-22065-9)
- Sombrero Fallout: A Japanese Novel (1976 ISBN 0-671-22331-3)
- Dreaming of Babylon: A Private Eye Novel 1942 (1977 ISBN 0-440-02146-4)
- The Tokyo-Montana Express (1980 ISBN 0-440-08770-8)
- So The Wind Won't Blow It All Away (1982 ISBN 0-395-70674-2)
- An Unfortunate Woman: A Journey (1982, but first published in 1994 ISBN 0-312-27710-5)
- The Return of the Rivers (1958)
- The Galilee Hitch-Hiker (1958)
- Lay the Marble Tea (1959)
- The Octopus Frontier (1960)
- All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace (1967)
- Please Plant This Book (1968)
- The Pill Versus the Springhill Mine Disaster (1969)
- Rommel Drives on Deep into Egypt (1970)
- Loading Mercury with a Pitchfork (1971 ISBN 0-671-22263-5. ISBN 0-671-22271-6 pbk)
- June 30, June 30 (1978 ISBN 0-440-04295-X)
- The Edna Webster Collection of Undiscovered Writings (1999 ISBN 0-395-97469-0)
Short story collection
- The God of the Martians (written 1955-56)
- Listening to Richard Brautigan, 1970 (which was intended to be released on The Beatles' Zapple label, but came out on EMI Harvest instead) - consists of Richard reading several poems and stories, friends reading "Love Poem" and sounds recorded in his apartment in San Francisco.
- Richard Brautigan reads the poem 'Love's Not The Way To Treat A Friend' on the 1969 album 'Paradise Bar And Grill' by San Francisco band Mad River.
- "Brautigan." UPI News. October 27, 1984.
- Brautigan, Ianthe: You Can't Catch Death: A Daughter's Memoir. St. Martin's Press, 2000. ISBN 1-84195-025-4.
- Barber, John F. "Biography". Brautigan Bibliography and Archive. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Enzinna, Wes, "Man Underwater", Harper's Magazine. December 2012: 76–80.
- "Richard Brautigan: Novels—Introduction". Brautigan.net. 1956-08-27. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Barber, John F. (2007). Richard Brautigan: Essays on the Writings and Life. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co. pp. 25, 99, 225, 253. ISBN 978-0-7864-2525-9.
- "Richard Brautigan: Speciality Publications of His Writings". Brautigan.net. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "Richard Brautigan: The Return of the Rivers". Brautigan.net. 1957-09-11. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Barber, John F. "Memoirs". Brautigan Bibliography and Archive. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- [dead link]
- Barber, John F. "Recordings". Brautigan Bibliography and Archive. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- "Richard Brautigan". 21guitars.com. 1935-01-30. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- Barber, John F. "Biography: 1970s". Brautigan Bibliography and Archive. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- Manso, Peter; McClure, Michael. "Brautigan's Wake." Vanity Fair, May 1985: 62-68, 112-116.
- "Freedom?": Richard Brautigan’s first wife, Virginia Aste, speaks in a new interview
- "Suicide - The Ultimate Choice". Scot & Silicone.
- Caines, Michael. My Richard Brautigan Mistake. In his Times Literary Supplement blog, September 25, 2012.
- "Richard Brautigan 1935-1984". Retrieved 2008-06-29.
- "Haruki Murakami". Randomhouse.com. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- [dead link]
- O'Kelly, Kevin (September 27, 2004). "Unusual library may get new chapter". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2007-03-19.
- [dead link]
- Saker, Anne (October 11, 2007). "Searching upstream: A writer goes fishing for the man who calls himself Trout Fishing in America". The Oregonian. Retrieved 2007-12-18.
- "All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace". BBC Two. 2011-06-06. Retrieved 2012-08-01.
- "All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace". BBC Two website. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- There is some disagreement as how to classify The Tokyo-Montana Express. John Barber at brautigan.net classifies it as a collection of stories. The Brautigan Pages classifies it as a novel.
- Chénetier Marc – ‘Richard Brautigan’, Methuen & Co, London, New York, 1983. ISBN 0-416-32960-8 (pbk)
- Chénetier, Marc. ‘Richard Brautigan, écriveur: notes d’un ouvre-bôites critique’ Caliban (Toulouse) 1 (1975), pp 16–31
- _________ ‘Harmoniques sur l’irrespect litteraire: Boris Vian et Richard Brautigan’ Stanford French Review, 1, 2 (Fall 1977) pp. 243 – 59.
- Clayton, John. ‘Richard Brautigan: The Politics of Woodstock’ New American Review, 11 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1971) pp. 56 – 68.
- Critique: Studies in Modern Fiction, 16, 1 (Minneapolis, Minn., 1974) Richard Brautigan special issue.
- Hjortsberg, William (2012). Jubilee Hitchhiker: The Life and Times of Richard Brautigan. Counterpoint. ISBN 978-1-58243-790-3.
- Loewinsohn, Ron. ‘After the (Mimeographed) Revolution’. Tri-Quarterly (Spring 1970), pp. 221 – 36.
- Malley, Terence. Richard Brautigan. Writers for the Seventies. New York: Warner Paperback Library, 1972
- Meltzer, David (ed.). In The San Francisco Poets, pp. 1–7, 293-7. New York: Ballintine, 1971
- Pétillon, Pierre-Yves, In La Grand-Route, pp. 160 – 8, 236. Paris: Seuil, 1970
- Putz, Manfed. In The Story of Identity, pp. 105 – 29. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1979
- Schmitz, Neil. ‘Richard Brautigan and the Modern Pastoral’ Modern Fiction Studies (Spring 1973) pp. 109 – 25.
- Stevick, Philip. ‘Scherhezade Runs out of Plots, Goes on Talking, The King, Puzzled, Listens’. Tri-Quarterly (Winter 1973), pp. 332 – 62.
- Swigart, Rob. ‘Review of Still Life with Woodpecker by Tom Robbins and The Tokyo – Montana Express by Richard Brautigan’. American Book Review, 3, 3 (March – April 1981). P. 14.
- Tanner, Tony. In City of Words, pp. 393, 406-15. New York: Harper & Row, 1971.
||This article's use of external links may not follow Wikipedia's policies or guidelines. (August 2012)|
- Quotations related to Richard Brautigan at Wikiquote
- Richard Brautigan by Jay Boyer in the Western Writers Series Digital Editions at Boise State University]
- "Richard Brautigan (1935 - 1984)" from the Poetry Foundation
- Brief critique on the life and legacy of Richard Brautigan
- "Brautigan Bibliography and Archive: A bio-bibliographical archive for Richard Brautigan, his life, and writings."
- "Finding Aid to the Richard Brautigan Papers, 1942-2003, (bulk 1958-1984)" (Collection number BANC MSS 87/173 c) University of California, Berkeley. Bancroft Library
- Works by or about Richard Brautigan in libraries (WorldCat catalog)
- Poems and quotes at the now defunct Kerouac Alley website at the Wayback Machine (archived August 2, 2008)
- An interview with the memoirist Ianthe Brautigan on the creative process as well as memories of her father -- about-creativity.com March 31, 2008
- Images of Brautigan First Editions